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The members from Free States (all Demo-Smith--1. Messrs. Clark and H. Williams, of

the Wilmot Proviso on the table, and who now
Tuled for the principle as above, were as follow: of Indiana; Ficklin and McClernand, of Illinois,

NASL-Asa W. H. Clapp, James S. Wiley who voted with the South at the former session
Can. - Thomas Richey-1. INDIANA.-Charles York, who then voted with the South, had been
T. Catbrart, Thomas J. Henley, John L. Robin-

, William W. Wick-4. ILLINOIS. Robert I the North.

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tainment to which they had been in- gress of republican liberty among the naROOT'S INSTRUCTION-GOTT'S RESOLUTION.

193 received a respectable support in voting for Gag-Rules, and against every Free State, Rhode Island and the establishment by law of Freedom New Jersey excepted. New York, in the Territories. Some of them Massachusetts, and Vermont, each were permanently alienated, though gave a larger popular vote to him the far greater number were but temthan to Gen. Cass; Wisconsin gave porarily estranged, from the councils him nearly as many as Gen. Taylor. of their Southern chiefs. But the The entire popular vote (South Caro- change was made evident, soon after lina not casting any) stood— Taylor the assembling of the XXXth Con. and Fillmore, 1,360,752; Cass. and gress for its second session, when, Butler

, 1,219,962; Van Buren and (December 13, 1848), on motion of Adams, 291,342. Gen. Taylor had Hon. Joseph M. Root, of Ohio, the a majority of the Electoral and a House plurality of the Popular vote, both

Resolved, That the Committee on Terriin the Free and in the Slave States tories be instructed to report to this House, respectively.

with as little delay as practicable, a bill or bills providing a territorial government for

each of the Territories of New Mexico and The struggle for the organization California, and excluding Slavery thereof the territories was resumed in

from." Congress the ensuing Winter; and,

This passed by Yeas 108, includthough there had been very few ing every Whig, and all but eight of changes of members, there had been the Democrats from Free States ; a very considerable change of feeling Nays 80-all from the Slave States on the part of a great many Demo but the eight aforesaid.

A further evidence of the altered pantly felt that, by the vote cast for feeling of the House was afforded, Gen. Taylor in the South, the ser- when, a few days thereafter, the folrices and sacrifices of their party had lowing was, during the morning been ungratefully requited. That hour

, moved by Mr. Daniel Gott, of eight of the fifteen Slave States

New York: candidate for President,

leaving Vis this metropolis of the Republic in human ginia , Alabama, and Mississippi to justice

, and the fundamental principles of very

our political system, is notoriously a rewas not the enter- dom, and a serious hindrance to the pro

proach to our country throughout Christen

tions of the earth: Therefore, Etey at home, and their seats, by District of Columbia be instructed to report

Resolved, That the Committee on the Brodhead and Mann, of Pennsylvania; Pettit,

crats from Free States. They indig

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should cast their votes for the Whig

be carried against him by the

leanest majorities,

rited when they risked their ascend

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-2. NEW YORK. — Frederick W. Lord—1.

-now failed to vote. Mr. D. S. Jackson, of New

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succeeded by Mr. H. Greeley, who voted with

13

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a bill, as soon as practicable, prohibiting the States, in the affirmative; while all Slave-Trade in said District."

the members present from the Slave The Previous Question having States but Messrs. Adams and Buckbeen required and ordered, this reso ner voted in the negative: 60 that the lution was adopted by Yeas 98 to House divided very nearly on Mason Nays 88. Hereupon there was a call and Dixon's line. But Mr. Buckner for the Southern members to leave paid for his speech and vote on this the Hall, and various demonstrations occasion with his seat. He had sucof the sort, which resulted in a meet- ceeded in 1847, over his Democratic ing of members from the Slave opponent, by 386 majority; he was States; which resulted in an address thrown out in 1849 by 1140 majority. to their constituents, drafted and Mr. Adams did not stand for re-elecreported by Mr. Calhoun ; which re tion. And the bill thus passed was sulted in nothing. The House Com- not even considered in the Senatemittee on the District, being Pro- a motion by Mr. Douglas (February Slavery, of course took good care not 28), that it be taken up for reference, to report as instructed above.

having been promptly voted down by The Territorial bill for California, 28 Nays to 25 Yeas. foreshadowed and commended by For the Pro-Slavery majority in Mr. Root's resolve, was reported by that Senate had already resolved on Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana, on the their course, and it did not lie at all 20th, and that for New Mexico fol- in this direction. They believed that lowed on the 3d of January, 1849. their opportunity was at hand; that An effort (January 15), by Mr. Ju- the more especial friends of the inlius Rockwell, of Massachusetts, to coming Administration were anxious make the former a special order, fail to have the Slavery question settled ed, lacking a two-thirds vote, but re

--that is, the opposition to Slavery ceived the vote of nearly every mem- Extension defeated or withdrawn, ber from the Free States-114 to 71. that being the way such questions The bill was finally taken out of Com- were usually settled — in order to mittee of the Whole on the 26th of make matters smooth and pleasant February, and engrossed for a third for the powers soon to be; and they reading next day; when Mr. R. K. knew that the irritation of the NorthMeade, of Virginia, moved that it do ern Democrats against the South for lie on the table, which was decisive-giving a majority of its votes for Gen. ly negatived; and then the bill pass- Taylor as against Gen. Cass had been ed the House by 126 Yeas to 87 Nays. gradually dying out under the presMr. Aylett Buckner (Whig of Ken- sure of social influences and of party tucky), who had made a forcible and necessities. They believed that, if a thorough-going speech in favor of ex- proper issue were made, the Northcluding Slavery from the Territories, ern repugnance to the organization voted with his Whig colleague, Green of the Territories in profound silence Adams, and all the Whigs and all but as to Slavery, might be overcome. four of the Democrats from the Free They had, therefore, determined to

9 Messrs. Samuel A. Bridges of Pennsylvania, William Sawyer, of Ohio. Messrs. Chas. Brown, and William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller, and Chas. J. Ingersoll, and other such, did not vote.

FAILURE TO ORGANIZE THE TERRITORIES.

195

fasten to the Civil and Diplomatic | Illinois, now moved that the House Appropriation bill, a “rider,” organ- recede from its non-concurrence in izing the new Territories with no the Senate's amendment, which prerestriction on or impediment to the vailed-Yeas 111; Nays 106; whereintroduction of Slavery, calculating upon Mr. Richard W. Thompson that a sufficient number of the North- (Whig), of Indiana, moved that the ern friends of the Administration | House do concur with the Senate would permit this to pass rather than with an amendment, which was, in see the Government crippled and the fact, a substitute for the Senate's proPresident constrained to call an extra ject, and of which the gist was a prosession of Congress—always a portent vision that “until the 4th of July, of evil to the party in power. Ac- 1850, unless Congress shall sooner cordingly, the great Appropriation provide for the government of said bill having passed the House, and Territories, the existing laws thereof been reported to and several days shall be retained and observed”-in debated in the Senate, Mr. Walker, other words, that the laws of Mexiof Wisconsin, moved to add a section co, whereby Slavery was abolished extending the laws of the United throughout her entire area, should States over “the territory west of continue in force in said Territories the Rio del Norte, acquired from of New Mexico and California. The Mexico by the treaty of February Senate's amendment, as amended, was 22, 1848,” and authorizing the Presi- then agreed to: Yeas 110; Nays 103. dent to "prescribe and establish all And thus the bill, late at night of what proper and needful regulations for was necessarily the last day of the the enforcement" of the Constitution session, was returned to the Senate. and laws in said Territory; as also The majority of that body were "to appoint and commission such fairly caught in their own snare. officers as may be necessary to ad- They had vociferously protested that minister such laws,” etc., etc. This Congress should not adjourn without passed the Senate by 29 Yeas 10 to 27 providing for the government and Nays; but the bill being thus re- quiet of the new territories; and turned to the House, the Senate's had threatened to defeat the General amendment was there (March 2) re-Appropriation bill and leave the Govjected: Yeas 100 (thirteen of them ernment penniless if this were not from Free States) to Nays 114 (all acceded to by the House. And here from Free States). The bill was then was the bill proposing to do just what returned in its original shape to the they had insisted must be done, and Senate. The Senate insisted on its could not with safety be postponed. amendment, and asked a conference, It was only objectionable in that it prowhich was granted, but nothing came vided (as was done in the case of Louof it. The Committee reported to isiana and Florida) that the social coneither House its inability to agree, ditions which had existed prior to our and was discharged.

acquisition should remain unchanged Mr. McClernand (Democrat), of until Congress, or the People more

10 Including only Messrs. Dickinson of New | Fitzgerald of Michigan, and Hannegan of IndiYork, A. C. Dodge of Iowa, Douglas of Illinois, ana (all Democrats), from Free States.

immediately interested, should see fit silent respecting Slavery; but, while to change them. But this was exactly under discussion in Committee of what the majority determined should the Whole, the following amendnot be, and were working to prevent. ment was added: Yet they did not care to make up an “And neither Slavery nor involuntary issue with the House majority on this servitude shall ever exist in said Territory, point, and go to the country on the except for crime, whereof the party shall

have been duly convicted.” defeat of the chief Appropriation

In the House, on coming out of bill, and consequent embarrassment

Committee, the Yeas and Nays were of the Government, for no other reason than that the House had refused demanded on this amendment, which

was sustained : Yeas 108; Nays 44 to unite in opening the Territories to only three or four Northern DemoSlavery. And so, after spending most of the night in heated discussion crats and five or six Southern Whigs much of it mere talking against time of the residue were Southern Demo

being found

among the Nays, where-the Senate, toward morning, struck out of the Appropriation bill its ma- passed the House, but went to the

crats. The bill, as thus amended, terially amended amendment, and passed the

bill as it originally came Senate so near the close of the sesfrom the House-at all events, with

sion that, though referred to and

reported by the Committee on Terno provision for the organization or ritories, no further action was had government of New Mexico and

thereon. California. And thus ended the Administration of Mr. Polk, along gress for its second session, Mr.

On the assembling of this conwith the XXXth Congress.

Douglas again reported to the House THE action of the XXIXth and

a bill to provide a Territorial GovXXXth Congresses respectively with

ernment for Oregon, which was read regard to the Territory of Oregon, the Whole; where it was debated

twice, and sent to the Committee of though proceeding simultaneously with the incidents already recorded

through the 11th, 12th, and 14th of

January, and ordered to be taken in this chapter, and involving essen

out of Committee on the 15th. On tially identical principles, requires dis

that day, Gen. Armistead Burt, of tinct presentation, that the two diverse and somewhat conflicting threads

South Carolina, moved (having alof narrative may not be blended in ready done so in Committee of the hopeless entanglement. That action, inhibiting Slavery, as above given :

Whole) this addition to the clause briefly summed up, was as follows: At the first session of the XXIXth ritory lies north of thirty-six degrees thirty

“Inasmuch as the whole of the said TerCongress, Mr. Stephen A. Douglas minutes north latitude, known as the line reported to the House (August 6, of the Missouri Compromise.” 1846) a bill organizing the Territory The object of this amendment was of Oregon, whereof the northern to obtain from the House a recogniboundary had just been fixed at lati- tion of the parallel 36° 30' as a dividtude 49° by treaty with Great Bri- ing line between Slave and Free tain. The bill, as reported, was territory across the entire continent,

ATTEMPT TO EXTEND THE LINE OF 36° 30'.

197

or so far as our possessions might ex with the majority, which was othertend. · The House voted down Gen. wise entirely composed of members Burt's proposition : Yeas 82; Nays from Free States; eight " Democrats 114every member from the Slave from Free States voted in the minorStates, with four" Democrats from ity, otherwise composed of all the Free States, voting in the affirma- members from Slave States present, tive; while every Whig from the Mr. Houston, of Delaware, excepted. Free States, with every Democrat The bill then passed the House by a from those States but the four afore-sectional” vote-Yeas 128; Nays said, voted in the negative. The 71. bill thereupon passed the House by In the Senate, Mr. Douglas 18 134 Yeas to 35 Nays—all from Slave promptly (August 5th) reported this States; but, on reaching the Senate, bill with amendments, and a proposiit was referred, reported, sent back tion from Mr. Foote, of Mississippi, again, and finally, on the last day of that it “ do lie on the table," was de the session, laid on the table—Yeas feated by 15 (ultra Southern) Yeas to 26; Nays 18—there to sleep the 36 Nays. Among the amendments sleep of death.

reported by Mr. Douglas was a reproIn the next (XXXth) Congress, duction in substance of Gen. Burt's, Mr. Caleb B. Smith (Whig), of In- defzated the year before in the diana (since Secretary of the Inte House, which now received but two rior, under President Lincoln), was votes—those of Messrs. Bright and chairman of the Committee on Terri- Douglas. Mr. Douglas thereupon tories; and a bill creating a Territo- moved to amend the bill, by insertrial Government for Oregon, and ing as follows: prohibiting Slavery therein, was re

“That the line of thirty-six degrees and ported by him on the 9th of Febru- thirty minutes of north latitude, known as

This bill was made a the Missouri Compromise line, as defined in special order five weeks thereafter, the eighth section of an act entitled, 'An

Act to authorize the people of the Missouri but was so pertinaciously resisted by Territory to form a Constitution and State the Slavery Extensionists that it Government, and for the adınission of such could not be got out of Committee till State into the Union, on an equal footing

with the original States, and to prohibit August 1; when an amendment made Slavery in certain Territories, approved in Committee, striking out that clause March 6, 1820,' be, and the same is hereby,

declared to extend to the Pacific Ocean; of the original bill whereby the provi- and the said eighth section, together with sions of the Ordinance of '87 were the compromise therein effected, is hereby extended to this Territory—in other revived, and declared to be in full force, and

binding, for the future organization of the words, Slavery was prohibited there Territories of the United States, in the in—was negatived; Yeas 88; Nays same sense, and with the same understand

ing, with which it was generally adopted." 114. On this division, Mr. John W. Houston (Whig), of Delaware, voted This was carried by 33 Yeas—in

11 PENNSYLVANIA.-Charles J. Ingersoll-1. NOIS.—Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, ILLINOIS. Stephen A. Douglas, Robert Smith William A. Richardson--3. INDIANA.-John L. -2. Iowa.-S. C. Hastings—l. In all, 4. Robinson, William W. Wick-2.

13 Recently transferred from the House; now 19 NEW YORK.—Ausburn Birdsall—1. OH10.- chairman of the Senate's Committee on Terri, William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller—2. ILLI tories.

ary, 1848.

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