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XXIII. The Press and People of the North
deprecate Civil War... .....351
suppressed. XXIV. Attempts at 'Conciliation' in Cong. 367
Buchanan and Black condemn *coercion'-
the Peace Conference at Wash-
concurs--Failure to compromise-Why. XXVI. The Union versus the Confederacy. .407
Organization of the Confederacy-Jefferson Da-
XXVII. The Pause before the Shock......428
The two Cabinets---Attempts to Negotiate by
the promotion of National Unity. XXVIII. Siege and Reduction of Ft. Sumter 440
Hesitation-Futile Negotiations-Attempt to
PAGI XXXII. West Virginia clings to the Union 516
Convention called-State organization effected
ghany Suminit---Huntersville. XXXIII. The War in Old Virginia........528
Ft. Monroe-Great Bethel-Alexandria occu-
F. P. Blair --Consequences of our failure. XXXIV. First session of the 37th Congress 553
Organization of the House-Mr. Lincola's first
The President's acts approved-- Adjournment.
State preparations to aid the Rebellion-Flight
mand-Battle of Belmont. XXXVI. War on the Seaboard and Ocean.597
The Privateer Savannah- The Petrel-Fort
dell. XXXVII. Kentucky adheres to the Union. 608
Hawes finally declared Governor.
Scott a failure-Gen. McClellan called to
Hutchinsons expelled-Whittier's Lyric.
corrected. ANALYTICAL INDEX..
XXIX. The Nation called to arms-and responds.
..449 Virginia sends Envoys to Washington-The President's response to them---He calls for 75,000 Militia--Comments of the Press-Response of the Border State Governors, Baltimore in a ferment-- Attack on the 6th MassachuBetts---Do. on Pennsylvanians- The Rebels uppermost--Railronds and telegraphs broken opMayor Brown and the Young Christians visit Washington to demand that no more Northern troops enter Baltimore--Their success-General Butler lands at nna and recovers Maryland--Her traitorous Legislature.
XXX. Secession resumes its march......473
Shameful surrender of the Norfolk Navy Yard-
a Union force at St. Louis-Kentucky. XXXI. The Opposing Forces in conflict...497
Davis's first MessageRelative strength of the
PRESIDENT AND CABINET. 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President 2. Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President . 3. William H. SEWARD, Secretary of State 4. Salmon P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury 5. Edwin M. STANTON, Secretary of War. 6. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy 7. John P. USHER, Secretary of the Interior 8. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General 9. EDWARD Bates, Attorney-General 10. Simon Cameron, ex-Secretary of War . 11. CALEB B. SMITH, ex-Secretary of the Interior.
CONFEDERATE CHIEFTAINS. 24. JEFFERSON Davis
336 | 29. John B. FLOYD .. 25. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS
30. R. BARNWELL RHETT. 26. Judah P. BENJAMIN
31. JAMES M. Mason 27. Robert Toombs.
32. John SLIDELL 28. William L. YANCEY: .
33. Isham G. HARRIS 34. HENRY A. WISE
UNION GENERALS. 35. Lieut. Gen. WINFIELD Scott . 448 41. Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos BUELL , 448 36. Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool
JOSEPH HOOKER 37. HENRY W. HALLECK 43.
AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE 38. Geo. B. McCLELLAN
BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 39. IRWIN McDoWELL.
DAVID HUNTER. 40. JOHN C. FREMONT
46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON
ALBERT SYD. JOHNSTON
UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.
SAM'l F. Du Pont . 68. Captain JAMES H. WARD
THE AMERICAN CONFLICT,
THE United States of America, ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the ward, to the bases and more fertile battle-fields of the Revolution, was valleys of the eastern slope of the tardily and reluctantly conceded by Alleghanies; and there were three Great Britain on the 30th of Novem- or four settlements quite beyond that ber, 1782, contained at that time a formidable but not impassable barrier, population of a little less than Three mainly in that portion of Virginia Millions, of whom half a million which is now the State of Kentucky. were slaves. This population was But, in the absence of steam, of camainly settled upon and around the nals, and even of tolerable highways, bays, harbors, and inlets, which ir- and with the mouth of the Missisregularly indent the western shore of sippi held and sealed by a jealous the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance and not very friendly foreign power, of about a thousand miles, from the the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, Altamaha. The extent of the settle- were scarcely habitable for civilized ments inland from the coast may have communities. No staple that their averaged a hundred miles, although pioneer population would be likely, there were many points at which the for many years, to produce, could be primitive forest still looked off upon sold on the sea-board for the cost the broad expanse of the ocean. of its transportation, even from the Nominally, and as distinguished site whereon Cincinnati has since from those of other civilized nations, been founded and built, much less the territories of the Confederation from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. stretched westward to the Mississippi, The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and northward, as now, to the Great and even of Asia, could be transLakes, giving a total area of a little ferred to the newest and most inland more than eight hundred thousand settlement for a small fraction of the square miles. At several inviting price at which they would there be localities, the “clearings" were push-1 eagerly bought; but when the few
coins which the settlers had takened, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi- gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress ; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village to new and still newer locations, and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and war. The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman- | (in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries -gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures. products, save only Tobacco and In
The difficulties which surrounded digo, were not wanted by the Old the infancy and impeded the growth World, and found but a very restrictof the thirteen original or Atlantic ed and inconsiderable market even States, were less formidable, but kin in the West Indies, whose trade was dred, and not less real. Our fathers closely monopolized by the nations emerged from their arduous, protract- to which they respectively belonged.