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to health off

twelve of this act shall apply to purchase any article of food or any drug exposed to sale or on sale by retail on any premises or in any shop or store, and Refusal to sell shall tender the price for the quantity which cer. he shall require for the purpose of analysis, not being more than shall be reasonably requisite, and the person exposing the same for sale shall refuse to sell Penalty.

the same to such officer, such person shall

be guilty of a misdemeanor, and fined for each offense not exceeding fifty dollars.

SEC. 14. That the term "food," as used in this act, shall include every article used for food or drink by man other than drugs or water. The term "drug," as used in this act, shall used in this include all medicines for internal or external

Definitions of
the words
"food" and
99 as



SEC. 15. That nothing in this act shall be construed as modifying or repealing the provisions of chapter eight hundred and forty of the acts of the first session of the Forty-ninth Congress, entitled "an act defining butter; also imposing a tax upon and regulating the manufacture, sale, importation, and exportation of oleomargarine," approved August sixth, eighteen hundred and eighty



garine act

(Act Aug.

1886, not Aug.


of Internal

declare certain

SEC. 16. That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may from time to time declare certain commissioner articles or preparations to be exempt from Revenue may the provisions of this act; and it shall be the articles exempt. duty of the Commissioners of the District to prepare and publish from time to time a list of the articles, mixtures, or compounds declared to be exempt from the provisions of this act, in accordance with this section.

The following are extracts from the Internal Revenue Regulations, Series 7, No. 15, Revised, providing for the analysis of foods and drugs, in the District of Columbia:

In determining whether the sample examined indicates that an offense has been committed, the analyst and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue will be governed by certain standards. An offense shall be deemed to be committed, within the meaning of this act, as to the manufacture or sale of an article,

In the case of


(1) If, when sold under or by a name recognized in the United States pharmacopoeia, it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down therein; (2) if, when sold under or by a name not recognized in the United States pharmacopoeia, but which is found in some other pharmacopoeia or other standard work on materia medica, it differs materially from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down in such work; (3) if its strength or purity falls below the professed standard under which it is sold.

In case of


when it does not conform to the following standard :

Butter and Cheese. Butter and cheese shall be made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, and with or without common salt. For butters, the percentage of water shall not be more than 12, and salt not more than 5, and fat not less than 83. The minimum specific gravity, "actual density,' shall be 0.910 at 40° C. (104° F.) for the filtered fat, and the results obtained by Reichert's method shall not be less than 12.0 c. c. for 2.5 grams of fat.


Lard. Lard shall be made exclusively from the rendered fat of the hog. It shall not contain any cotton-seed oil, beef stearin, or other foreign fats, and the percentage of moisture shall not exceed 0.5. Its specific gravity, "actual density," at 40° C. (104° F.), shall not exceed 0.904.

Malt Liquors. Malt liquors shall consist of the fermented alcoholic infusion of malted barley or malt substitutes with water, flavored with hops or other wholesome bitters. They shall not contain antiseptics, alkaline bicarbonates, salt, except that derived from the water used in brewing; or unwholesome bitters.

Milk. Whole (pure) milk: the minimum specific gravity, "actual density," shall be 1.030 at 60° F., and the milk shall contain not less than 13.0 parts in 100 of solids, as follows:


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Solids, not fat
Water, not more than

The removal of cream, the addition of water, foreign fats, or coloring-matter, will be considered adulterations.

Cocoa and Chocolate. Cocoa is prepared from the roasted seed of the tree theobroma cacao, either partly ground," cocoanibs," or in powder. It shall contain not less than 45 per cent of cocoa butter or fat; nitrogen, not less than 2 per cent; ash, not less than 3 per cent; theobromine, not less than 1.5 per cent; and starch, not more than 15 per cent.

Chocolate, being a mixture consisting of cocoa paste and sugar, flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, cloves, etc., and mixed with flour or starch, must be sold as such and properly labeled.

Coffee. Coffee shall be composed entirely of the seed of the Caffea Arabica, and not adulterated with chicory, caramel, other grains, as corn, wheat, rye; roots and seeds, as dandelion, mangel-wurzel, turnips, beans, peas, etc. Gummy matter, not less than 21 per cent; fat, not less than 14.5 per cent; caffeine, not less than 0.6 per cent; ash, not less than 4 per cent, of which 75 per cent at least shall be soluble.

Honey. Honey shall consist of the saccharine substance collected by the bee (Apis Mellifica) from the nectaries of flowers, and deposited by them in the cells of the comb. It shall not contain any added starch-sugar (glucose), canesugar, or inverted sugar.

Wheaten Flour and Bread. Flour shall be composed entirely of ground wheat, free from bran, perfectly white or hav

ing a faint tinge of yellow. Must not show red, gray, or black specks, nor possess a disagreeable odor. Must contain no foreign meals, as rye, corn, barley, peas, beans, rice, linseed, buckwheat, and potato-starch; no alum to disguise the presence of damaged flour in mixtures, or to improve the appearance of an inferior grade, etc. Ash, not more than 0.6 per cent; albuminoids, not less than 10.5 per cent; moisture, not more than 12 per cent.

Bread: Moisture, not more than 31 per cent; ash, not more than 1.5 per cent; albuminoids, not less than 6.25 per cent. The addition of alum, sulphate of copper, sulphate of zinc, and foreign meals will be considered adulteration.

Wine. Wine is the liquid product which results from the alcoholic fermentation of the juice of fresh grapes, with such additions only as are essential to the stability or keeping of the liquid. The addition of water, distilled spirits, glycerine, sugar, coloring-matter, and antiseptics shall be considered adulterations.

Tea. Tea shall be composed entirely of the leaf of the teaplant, not adulterated with spurious leaves or with exhausted leaves, nor contain so great an admixture of chemicals or other deleterious substances as to make it unfit for use. Leaves to which the term "exhausted" is applied means and includes any tea which has been deprived of its proper quality, strength, or virtue by steeping, infusion, decoction, or other means. See act of Congress See act of Congress " to prevent the importation of adulterated and spurious teas," approved March 2, 1883. Total ash shall not be less than 4.5 per cent, nor more than 7 per cent, 50 per cent of which shall be soluble in water. Ash insoluble in water, not more than 3 per cent; extract, not less than 30 per cent; insoluble leaf, not more than 60 per cent.

Vinegar. If cider vinegar, it shall be the legitimate product of pure apple-juice, known as apple cider or vinegar, made exclusively of apple cider or vinegar, and into which no foreign substances, ingredients, drugs, or acids have been introduced, and shall contain not less than 1.5 per cent of total solids. All vinegar shall have an acidity equivalent to

the presence of not less than 5 per cent by weight of absolute acetic acid.

Mustard. Mustard shall be made exclusively from the seeds of Sinapis nigra and Sinapis alba. It shall not contain any wheaten flour or other foreign meals, turmeric or other coloring-matter. Moisture, not more than 6 per cent; ash, not more than 5 per cent; fixed oils, not less than 33 per cent.

Olive Oil. Olive-oil shall be made exclusively from the olive-berry, Olea Europea. It shall not contain any cottonseed, sesame, or other foreign vegetable oil. Its specific gravity at 15.5° C. (60° F.), “actual density," shall not be more than 0.917, nor less than 0.914.

Oysters. The addition of water to opened oysters sold by measure is considered an adulteration.

Pepper. Black pepper shall be the dried unripe berry of Piper nigrum, white pepper being the same fruit deprived of its outer skin by maceration in water and friction. It shall not contain foreign meals, capsicum, or other dilutents or substitutes. Cayenne shall consist of the ground berry and pods of Capsicum annuum. It shall not contain foreign meals or artificial coloring-matters.

The following substances are known to be injurious to health when present in foods: Salts of antimony, arsenic, barium, except the sulphate; bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, the chloride and sulphate, though most iron salts are harmless; lead, magnesium, nickel, zinc, and some of the potassium and sodium salts; oxalic acid, picric acid, cocculus indicus (Indian berry, Levant nut), picrotoxine, gamboge, aniline, aloes, eosin, fuchsine, and its immediate derivatives; coloring-matters containing nitrous vapors, as naphthol yellow, victoria yellow; coloring-matters prepared with diazo compounds.

The following substances are known to produce more or less toxic effects, and whose presence in food is therefore harmful, and whose use is forbidden, under severe penalties, in most foreign countries having laws on the subject: Salicylic acid and its salts, boracic acid and borax, glycerine, alum, beta-naphthol.

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