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cruelty to animals, ii. 480; when i. 347; a necessary subject of edu-
immorality is punishable, ii. 479, cation, i. 179–204, 329–368; uses of,
480; right to commit to houses of

i. 348, 349; new school of, founded
refuge, ii. 480; object of punish- by Adam Smith, i. 349; defini-
ment, ii. 481; danger to society true tion and elements of value, ii. 448–
standard of punishment, ii. 482; re- 450; prices, ii. 447; wealth not
lations of offence and punishment, ii. increased by forcing manufactures,
483; punishment of women, ii. 491; ii. 449; definition of production, ii.
disproportionate punishments, i. 270, 455; causes of increase of wealth
271, ii. 483, 487, 490; Tocque- in modern times, ii. 456; the factors
ville and Beaumont's penitentiary of wealth, ii. 456; importance of
system, i. 23, ii. 470; Lieber offered

distinguishing between terms in, ii.
professorship of, i. 31, 395; penal 449. See Free Trade, etc.
exile, ii. 320; characteristics of Political Ethics, Lieber's Manual of, i.
sound punishment, ii. 485-494. See 23–26.
Pardon and Criminal Law.

Political science: ancient and modern
People and nation distinguished, ii. teacher of politics, i. 369-387 ; his-
228.

tory and political science necessary
Pericles, i. 389.

subjects of education, i. 179-204,
Personal Reminiscences of the Battle 329-368; nationalism and inter-
of Waterloo, i, 149-175.

nationalism, ii. 221-243; historical
Pertz, G. H., i. 126.

and philosophical schools in, ii. 7-9;
Phillips, in the Courvoisier case, i. 254. value of study of, i. 293, 352, 356–
Philology, study of, i. 288; study of 358, 375-377; effect of writings upon,

foreign languages, i. 499-534. See on leaders of American Revolution,
Languages.

i. 377; alleged connection with polit-
Philosophy, study of, i, 295; philoso- ical fanaticism, i. 379; political char-

phy of politics, i. 352, 355 ; philoso- acteristics of modern epoch, ii. 239;
phy of history, i. 340; philosophical study of, opposed by despots, i. 379;
republics, i. 359, 361.

study of, among the Romans, i. 353;
Phonetic language, studied in the case Milton on study of, i. 354; main

of Laura Bridgman, i. 443-497 ; topics of political philosophy, i. 356-
signs among the Egyptians, i. 223; 367; what a complete course of im-

verbal elements of, classified, i. 465. plies, i. 355; Lieber's service to, ii.
Pinckney, C. C., on the Union, ii. 102. 7-14; disrepute of politicians, i. 385;
Pisa, i. 109.

danger of political formulas, i. 384.
Pitt, William, his study of history, i. Polysynthetic words and languages, i.

517.
Piu; VII., i. 96, 97, 136.

Polytechnic schools, ii. 514, 518, 523.
Plebiscites, value of, in international Pope's translation of Homer, i. 86.

law, ii. 301-306; Roman, ii. 302; Popes, influence of the early, i. 139.
French, ii. 302; in annexations, ii. Power, Niebuhr on the results of the
304; not American, ii. 306.

abuse of, i. 90.
Political economy, definitions of, i. 101, Presidency, term and powers of, ii. 172.

346; as a science, i. 200-204, 347, Press, liberty of, i. 127.
357; theories of foundation of prop- Preston, William C., letter to, on inter-
erty, i. 362, 363; communism, i. national copyright, ii. 329–367; i.
361-365; theories of society, i. 282.
366; balance of trade, ii. 418-424 ; Prisoners of

war,

ii.

257, 261, 266,
wealth increased by production only, 268; status of rebel prisoners of war,
ii. 420; money and wealth distin- i. 294–297.
guished, ii. 422; immigration, ii. 82 Privateering, ii. 282, 314, 316, 321.
-84; prescribing of prices by gov- Property, right of, precedes the state, ii.
ernment, ii. 411; not a theory, ii. 333; idea of the word, ii. 333; title
408; enriching of one people does to unappropriated, ii. 333; landed
not imply impoverishing of another, property, why called real, ii. 334;
i. 349; relations of capital and not the creature of government, ii.
labor, i. 350; modern teachings of, 333, 334; laws relating to, spring

338.

from general usage, ii. 336; title impoverishing effect of the wars of
from individual production, ii. 332, the empire, ii. 416, 422; Roman ple-
336; implies the right of disposing, biscitum, ii. 302; study of politics
ii. 336; when entitled to protec- in, i. 354; Romans essentially farm-
tion, ii. 351; theories of foundation ers, i. 100; authority of law among,
of, i. 362, 363.

i. 98; Roman dictators, i. 415; small
Protection : fallacies of American pro- houses in antiquity, i. 108.

tectionists, ii. 389-459. See Free Rumor, a species of tradition, i. 306.

Trade.
Protestants, in Turkey, i. 132 ; Protest Sanskrit, structure of, i. 528; study of,
551

i. 320.

antisin among the southern races, ii. i. 519, 529.
307; effect of persecution on its Schleiermacher, i. 101.
growth, ii. 307, i. 249, ii. 35.

Scientific men, conferring of titles on,
Prussia, fall of, i. 116; rise of, against
Napoleon, i. 332.

Scipio, remains of, i, 131.
Public debts, ii. 398.

Sclavonic languages, i. 87, 102.
Public war defined, ii. 251.

Secession, Lieber's views on, i. 32; as
Punishment. See Penology.

treason, ii. 153; address on, ii. 125-

136; evils of disunion, ii. 127; and
Races, doctrine of, ii. 308; Latin, ii. State sovereignty, ii. 129; not con-
306.

templated by the Constitution, ii. 131;
Rebellion, defined, ii. 272; rules of right of, did not exist in ancient con-

military law during, ii. 273; civil federacies, ii. 132 ; centralizing ten-
and military status of armed rebels dency of secessionists, ii. 119.
distinguished, ii. 273; status of rebel Self-education, necessity of, i. 281-
prisoners of war, ii. 294–297; causes 295.
of American, ii. 150.

Self-government in English colonies in
Reformation, Protestant, character and America, ii. 52; extinguished in
effects of the, i, 249, ii. 35.

Spain, ii. 29.
Religion: man as a religious being, i. Sensation, in amputated limbs, i. 447.

209, 217, ii. 529; religious instruc- Separatism, i. 333.
tion in educational institutions, ii. Seward, William H., letter to, on inter-
505-509, 525-532; influence of in national arbitration, ii. 322-329.

ancient and modern Rome, i. 104. Shaftesbury, character of, i. 266; his
Reminiscences, of Niebuhr, i. 21, 45- Constitution for South Carolina, ii.
148; of Waterloo, i. 149-175.

339.
Repartimientos, ii. 31-33.

Shakspeare, in Germany, i. 131; use
Representative government, history and of word gentleman in, i. 235.

theory of, i. 341; the great work of Sismondi, on ancient and modern lib-
the English people, ii. 11; the highest

erty, i. 382.
polity, ii. 225.

Slavery, beginning of the slave-trade,
Retainer, custom of, i, 256.

ii. 23; and the Catholic Church, ii.
Retaliation in war, when justifiable, ii. 23; history and legislation of Afri-
252.

can slavery, ii. 25, 169; cause of the
Revolutions, different species of distin- rebellion, ii. 150; effect of its aboli-
guished, ii. 47.

tion on representation in Congress,
Right and duty, in civil liberty, co-ordi- ii. 172, 179; the United States laws
nate, i. 264, 356, ij. 9.

regarding, ii. 175, 179; proposed
Road-making a standard of civilization, amendment abolishing slavery, ii.

i. 311; among different nations, i. 172, 178; exists by municipal law
312.

only, ii. 255; treatment of slaves
Robertson, William, his historical during war, ii. 255; negro soldiers,
works, ii. 22, 31.

ii. 258; Calhoun on slavery and com-
Rome, historiographers of, i. 83; influ- munism, ii. 427; Plato and Cicero on,

ence of religion in ancient and mod- i. 271; servitude in Asia, i. 132.
ern, i. 104; sculpture in, i. 135; ig- Smith, Adam, on balance of trade, ii.
norance in, i. 144; athenæum at, i.

422, 435; services and influence of,
304; road-making of, i. 139, 312;

i. 349.

Socialism and individualism, i. 363, | Style : different styles of writing among
364.

ancients and moderns, i. 526.
Sociology, i. 366; meaning of term Suffrage: educational test for voters, ii.

society, i. 336; moral side of civil 218; negro suffrage in New York,
society, ii. 9.

ii. 203; extension of suffrage to
Soto, on the African slave-trade, ii. 24. women, ii. 204; a political not a
Sound and light, affinity of impressions national right, ii. 202, 205.
made by, i. 476.

Sylla and Marius, i. 138.
South Carolina, Shaftesbury's Constitu- Syllabic alphabets, instances of their
tion of 1669, ii. 39.

invention, i. 458.
South Carolina College, Lieber's ap- Symphenomena, meaning and char-

pointment to professorship in, i. 23, acter of, i. 446, 449-455, 464.
31; inaugural address at, i. 179-
204; address to graduating class at, Tariffs. See Free Trade.
i. 287–295; abolition of the profes- Taxation, mode of, a standard of civil-
sorship of theological branches in, ization, i. 314.
deprecated, ii. 525-532.

Temmermanns, Anne, a deaf mute, case
Sovereignty, meaning of, ii. 107; of

of, i. 494.
American colonies, ii. 108; under Teutonic order, the, i. 136.
Articles of Consederation, ii. 107, Teutonic tribes, their influence upon
155; in the United States, ii. 154, the Italian language, i. 122, 141,
155; in United Provinces, ii. 154 ; Thayer, M. Russell, Discourse on Life,
State, ii. 213; double allegiance, ii. Character, and Writings of Francis
213; Madison on local, ii. 157; Lieber, i. 14-44.
Hamilton on residuary, ii. 157; Thorwaldsen, i. 108, III.

Washington on State, ii. 159. Thought and word, connection be-
Spain, division between discoveries of tween, i. 458.

Portugal and, ii. 27; extinguishment Tocqueville (A. de), study of political
of the idea of self-government in, ii. science, i. 375; on the French char-
29; Spanish colonies in America, ii. acter, i. 384; Old Régime and Revo-
20, 26, 28, 30-34; Spanish guerril- lution, i. 384; and Beaumont's Pen-
leros, ii. 278, 289; Spanish character, itentiary System, i. 23, ii. 470.
i. 134, 139; effect of the Inquisition | Tradition, power of, i. 305, 306, 308.
on, i. 267, 312.

Translations of foreign works, difficul-
Sparta, i. 98.

ties of, i. 511.
Stamp Act of 1765, ii. 46.

Treason defined, i. 273, 274; against
State, the, meaning of the term, i. 369; the United States, ii. 114, 138.

objects and duties of, i. 358, ii. 481; Tronchet's defence of Louis XVI., i.
existence of, necessary to man and 257
society, i. 217, 356, ii. 475, 476;
individualism and socialism in, i. Unanimity of juries, ii. 461-468.
363, ii. 478; ancient and modern Union, early uses of word in the
contrasted, i. 370, ii. 18, 223; American laws, etc., ii. 110, 112;
national polity, normal type of the founded by United States Consti-
modern, ii. 19, 161, 222; as pro- tution, ii. III. See Secession.

tected by institutions, ii. 387. United Netherlands, effect of disjunc-
Statesmanship, in what it consists, i. tion among, i. 333.

432; statesmen as historians, i. 344. United States, causes for the formation
States' rights, doctrine of, the cause of of a nation, ii. 159, 231; lack of a
the rebellion, ii. 150.

distinctive name for, ii. 61, 106;
Statistik, and history, relation of, i. New England States and the South,
337.

i. 70; recent annexations of territory
Stein, Baron vom, i. 82.

to, ii. 303; purchase of Louisiana,
Strafford, his hatred of lawyers, i. 258, ii. 304; neutrality laws, ii. 312;
259.

sovereignty in, ii. 154, 155; tenden-
Study of the foreign languages, espe- cies against centralization, ii. 164;

cially the classic tongues (a letter to allegiance to, ii. 166, 177; laws re-
Hon. Albert Gallatin), i. 499-534.

.

garding slave-trade, ii. 175; Wash-

ington treaty of 1871, ii. 317; United Montaigne on,

i. 240; Dante's lack
States and England, i. 139. See of regard for, i. 241.

America and American Revolution. Vienna, polytechnic school at, ii. 514,
United States Constitution, rise and 518.

national features of, ii. 15-85, 237, Vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman, com-
i. 31; does it form a league, pact, or pared with the elements of phonetic
government? ii. 87–123; theories language, i. 443-497.
of reserved rights, ii. 95, 117; as a

Von Ense, on Humboldt, i. 397.
contract, ii. 91; genesis of, ii. 96; Voss's translation of Homer, i. 86, 87.
as forming a union, ii. 1; treason
defined, ii. 113; national character, War, object and conduct of, in mod-
ii. 114; secession not contemplated ern times, ii. 253, 260; economic
by its framers, ii. 131; proposed effects of, ii. 416, 417. See Military
amendments to, ii. 137-179; con. Law.
cerning slavery and nationality, ii. Washington and Napoleon, i. 413-441;
154; term and powers of the Pres- characteristics of, i. 265, 413, et
ident, ii. 172; defining allegiance, seq.; farewell address, ii. 115; on
ii. 177; defining treason, ii. 178; State sovereignty, ii. 158; and Wil-
war against the United States, ii. liam of Nassau, i. 419.
178; trials for treason, ii. 178; ap- Waterloo, personal reminiscences of the
portionment of representatives, ii. campaign of, i. 149-175.
179; slave trade, ii. 179; citizenship Webster, Daniel, on free trade, ii. 395,
defined, ii. 179; keeps the true mean 403, 407; on balance of trade, ii.
between general and specific provis- 422.
ions, ii. 183; compared with that of Wein und Wonne Lieder, Lieber's, i.

Confederate States, ii. 239.
Universal monarchy, idea of, an anach- Wellington, on flogging in the army, i.
ronism, i. 370.

263.
Universities in international arbitra-- Whately, Archbishop, i. 347,

tion, ii. 327; need of a national Whigs and Radicals in England, Nie.
university, i. 330, 334; University buhr on, i. 68.
of-Berlin, i. 331, Leyden, i. 179, William of Orange, i. 333, 419,
London, i. 68.

Wilson's Account of the Pelew Islands,
Utopists, i. 360; generally communists,
i. 361.

Witnesses, examination of, i. 250.

Wolf, on Homer, i. 99.
Value, definitions of, ii. 445, 446; Woman, punishment of, ii. 491; suf-

variableness of, ii. 448; money not frage, ii. 204.
real measure of, ii. 448; can only | Woodbury, Levi, on balance of trade,
be predicated of exchangeable things,
ii. 448; things unappropriated, ii. Words, difficulties of inquiries into the
449; not inherent, ii. 449; elements origin of, i. 485.
requisite to, ii. 450.

Working class, or working men,

defini.
Vatican, treasures of, i. 102.

21.

i, 230.

ii. 419,

tion of, ii. 403, 498; aristocracies of
Vaudoncourt, i. 129.

working classes, ii. 404.
Venice, feudalism in, i. 144.

Writing, picture, hieroglyphic, and
Veracity, i. 262; comparative lack of phonetic, i. 308; handwriting, i. 90,

regard for, in antiquity, i. 240, 241; 91, 421.

THE END.

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