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national, i.401; comprehensive views, 299–388 (see Special Subjects);
i. 396; preparation of Cosmos, i. 393, value of plebiscites in, ii. 301;
408; lectures in Berlin, i. 321; con- study of, i. 367, ii. 327; its mod.
versations with Lieber, i. 393, 394; ern origin, i. 367; increased at-
on penology, i. 395, 410; on the mer. tention to, ii. 242; Declaration
its of Linnæus, i. 400; on Arago, i. of Congress of Paris of 1856, ii.
403; Napoleon's dislike of, i. 397; 314; privateering, ii. 314, 316,
Von Ense on, i. 397.

321; neutral goods, ii. 314, 316;
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, on the char- blockades, ii. 314; supposed diffi-

acteristics of articulate sounds, i. culties of neutrality laws, ii. 316;
398, 457.

contraband of war, ii. 316, 318,
Hume, on the study of political science, 321; Washington treaty of 1871,
i. 375.

ii. 317; rules of neutrality, ii.

317; protection of alien property
Ideas, division of, in different lan- in time of war, ii. 317, 321; par.
guages, i. 502-511.

don of criminals on condition of
Immigration, ii. 82; right of, as stated leaving the country, ii. 320; pro-

in American Declaration of Inde- posed embodiment of certain prin-
pendence, ii. 80; of “pauper labor," ciples in treaties, ii. 321; Lieber's
ii. 405, 407.

service to, ii. 7-14; sale of arms by
Individualism, errors of, i. 363; individ- the United States government during
ualism and socialism, i. 363, 364, ii.

the Franco-Prussian war, ii. 310-
426; effect of communism on, ii. 322; Institut de Droit International,
426; individual property a primary ii. 14; the Latin race in, ii. 306–310;
constituent of civilization, i. 218; international arbitration, ii. 322–329;
individual property a practical char- Alabama Claims, ii. 311, 322, 328;
acteristic of man, i. 209.

international copyright, ii. 329–367;
Indulgences, i. 117.

'treatment of foreigners in early times,
Industrial class, use of term, ii. 498;

gradual elevation of, in recent times, Internationalism and nationalism, ii.
ii. 516, 517; best education for, ii. 221-243.
513-523.

Iroquois, confederacy of, ii. 156.
Inhabitant, subject, citizen, different Italy, united, i. 372; cultivation of soil
meanings of terms, ii. 79.

in, i. 110; titles among Italians, i.
Inquisition, the effects of, on Spanish 127; influence of Italian language
character, i, 267.

on the Teutonic tribes, i. 122, 141;
Instinct, definition of, i. 212.

Italian versions of the Bible, i, 127.
Institut de Droit International, forma-
tion of, ii. 14.

Jackson, Andrew, i. 418.
Institutional liberty, i. 27, 343, 383. Jackson, T. J. [Stonewall], ii, 167.
Institutions, origin of, i. 205; import- Jacobi,

ance of their study, i. 343; safe- Jahn, his establishment of gymnasia, i.
guards of states, ii. 387; cultural, 17.

Journal in Greece, Lieber's, i. 19.
Instructions for the government of Journalists, powers and duties of, i.

armies in the field, i. 33, 268, ii. 261, 262; publication of private let-
12, 245-274.

ters, i. 262.
Insurrections defined, ii. 272.

Judges, i. 260; infrequency of bribery
Interdependence, law of, ii. 240, 393, of, in modern times, i. 267; inde-
394, 398, 399, 429.

pendence of judiciary, ii. 193-198;
International arbitration, ii. 322–329; origin and growth of the system of

monarchs as arbiters, ii. 325; uni- electing judges, ii. 194, 195; should
versities as international arbiters, ii. be non-elective, and serve during
326.

good behavior, ii. 196-198; relation
International copyright, should be em- of judge and jury, ii. 465.

bodied in a treaty, ii. 319, 321, 329- | Juries, unanimity of, ii. 461-468; objec-
367. See Copyright.

tions to jury trials, ii. 463; waiver
International law, contributions to, ii. of jury trial, ii. 463; history and

ii. 354.

IOI.

i. 303.

21.

an

effects of unanimity rule, ii. 464, Laud, his hatred of lawyers, i. 128.
465; general European rule as to, Laughter, among different races, i. 273.
ii. 464, 465; relation of judge and Law, study of, i. 291; authority of
jury, ii. 465; rules proposed, ii. 466. among the Romans, i. 98; when

changes are desirable, ii. 141; rapid
Klopstock, i. 107, 130.

modification of severe laws in mod-
Knowledge, distinguished from instruc- ern times, i. 291; municipal law

tion, i. 284; diffusion of, i. 289, ceases in war, ii. 255; codes of laws
291, 299; transmission of, begins should not be embodied in constitil-
with oral tradition, i. 305; relation tions, ii. 183, 184; proper character
of civil liberty to, i. 299, 300, 325.

of laws, ii. 184. See Constitutional,
Koepnick, Lieber's imprisonment at, i. Military, Penal, and International

Law.

Lawyers, duties of an advocate, i. 249,
Labor, mode of, a standard of civiliza. 251 ; abuses of the privileges of, i.
tion, i. 314; communism a carica-

249, 254, 255; institution of, indis-
ture of its dignity, i. 289; relations pensable to civil liberty, i. 258; ex-
of knowledge and, i. 289; effect of amination of witnesses, i. 250 ; proper
free trade on the home laborer, ii. defence of a prisoner, i. 255; cus-
403; genius and, i. 392; “pauper tom as to retainers, i. 256; duty of
labor," ii. 406, 407.

prosecuting officers, i. 258; Lord
Laboulaye, i. 33, ii, 13.

Brougham on the duties of, i. 251;
Lamarque, i. 416.

Curran as advocate, i. 252;
Land, divisibility of, i. 128.

Thomas Arnold on dangers of the
Landwehr, the, ii. 286.

profession, i. 253; Phillips in the
Language, origin of, i. 208, 218, 222, Courvoisier case, i. 254; Erskine on

444, 485; in what it consists, i. 443; retainers, i. 256; Tronchet's defence
a practical characteristic of man, i. of Louis XVI., i. 257; defence of
209; analysis of, i. 502 ; divisions soldiers in Boston massacre, i. 257;
of ideas in different languages, i. desence of Polignac by Martignac, i.
505-50; origin of all utterance 257; Laud and Strafford's hatred of,
emotional, i. 446; subject to the i. 258, 259; Coke and Bacon, i, 259.
laws of symphenomena, i. 451; Lazzaroni, i. 109.
divisions of, i. 520; analytic words, Lectures, history and varieties of, i.
i. 522; agglutination, i. 469, 516; 318, 321; abuses of the system of, i.
polysynthetic words, i. 517; holo- 322.
phrastic words, i. 518; archolophras- Legal and Political Hermeneutics,
tic words, i. 519; alliteration, i. 478; Lieber's, i. 23, 24, 26.
reduplication, i. 491; study of for- Leighton, Alexander, severe sentence
eign languages, i. 499-534 ; pho-

of, i. 270.
netic signs, i. 444; use of ocular Leo the Great, i. 140.
signs, i. 444; verbal elements of Letters, private, publication of, i. 262.
phonetic language classified, i. 465; Letters to a Gentleman in Germany,
onomatopy, i. 465; distinction be-

Lieber's, i. 23
tween articulate and inarticulate Leyden, foundation of University of, i.
sounds, i. 456. See paper on Vocal 179.
Sounds of Laura Bridgman, i. 443– Liberator, the great requisites of a, i.
497.

106.
Latin language, study of, i. 529; an Liberty, ancient, mediæval, and mod.

“ original language,” i. 528; pro- ern compared, i. 238, 382, ii. 372;
nunciation of, i. 123; comparative Anglican and Gallican contrasted,
value of Latin and Greek in edu- ii. 369-388; and freedom, ii. 371;
cation, i. 530; Niebuhr's knowl- meaning in civil society of, ii. 371;
edge of, i. 85.

does not depend on legislative branch
Latin race, idea of the, and its real only, i. 82; different systems of, i.

value in international law, ii. 306- 187; institutional, i. 383; relation
310; no race can be now so called, of individualism and socialism in, i.

366; elements of, ii. 372; choice
VOL. II.-35

ii. 309.

i. 400.

ji. 93.

between it and despotism in modern
states, i. 383; does not consist of
rights alone, i. 40; meaning and con-
tests of civil liberty, ii. 372, 373, 376;
Napoleon's idea of, i. 423; of the
press, i. 127; "liberty, equality, and

fraternity,” ii. 380.
Libraries, origin and foundation of, i.

179, 305, 317.
Lieber, Francis, birth, parentage, child-

hood, i. 16; early training, i. 16, ii.
7; volunteers for Waterloo cam-
paign, i. 16, 151; at the battle of
Ligny, i. 154; first shot in battle, i.
156; wounded at Namur, i. 161;
dream when wounded, i. 163; in
hospital, i. 168–171; at the Berlin
gymnasium, i. 17; arrest and im-
prisonment on political charges, i.
17; at Jena and Halle, i. 17, 18;
takes part in the Greek revolu-
tion, i. 18, 19, 21, 54, 57, 58, 66; at
Rome, i. 19, 55, 59, 60, et seq:; ac-
quaintance and first relations with
Niebuhr, i. 46, 52, 55-62, et seq.; re-
turn to Prussia, i. 21; second impris-
onment, i. 21, 66; arrival in Eng-
land, i, 21; comes to United States,
i. 22; becomes an American citizen,
i. 22; first residence in Boston, New
York, and Philadelphia, i. 23; pro-
fessor in South Carolina College, i.
23; visit to Berlin in 1844, i. 31;
interviews with Frederick William
IV., i. 31 ; offered chair of penology
at Berlin, i. 31, 395, ii. 473; pro-
fessor at Columbia College, i. 31;
death, i. 31, 43; writings of : En-
cyclopædia Americana, i. 22, 23;
Political Ethics, i. 23, 24; Herme-
neutics, i. 23, 26; Civil Liberty and
Self-Government, i. 24, 27; analysis
of three last works, i. 24. See com-
plete list of his writings, ii. 533-
536; and frequent citations and re-
marks indexed separately ; estimates
of his works: by Thayer, M. R., i.
13-44; Bluntschli, J. C., ii. 7-14;
power of memory, i. 29; personal
appearance, i. 43; methods of teach-
ing, i. 34, 35; familiarity with histor-
ical subjects, i. 38; religious views,
i. 39; constitutional views, i. 39,
etc.; love of fine art, i. 41; hab.
its of reading and studying, i. 41,
94; fondness for poetry, i. 92;
admiration for England, i. 37; atti-
tude in the American civil war, i.

32, 33; a thorough American, i. 35,
ii. 7; debt of America to, i. 34;
correspondence, i. 33, 41, 42, 43, 67,
70, 417, 436.
Light and sound, affinity of impres-

sions made by, i. 476.
Ligny, battle of, i. 154.
Linnæus, Humboldt on,
Literary property. See Copyright.
Locke, i. 247
London, foundation of University of,

i. 68.
Louis XIV., effect of his court on

modern culture, i. 318.
Louisiana, purchase of, ii. 304; rela-

tions to the general government of,
Loyal Publication Society, Lieber's

connection with, i. 32. See List of

Lieber's Writings, ii. 533-536.
Lutherans, the, i. 132.
Machiavelli, i. 92, 127.
Machinery, use of, as a concomitant of

civilization, i. 315.
Mackintosh, Sir James, lectures of, i.

321; on the value of a tenacious
memory, i. 76.
Madison, on local sovereignty, ii. 157.
Man, cannot find his proper destiny

without the state, i. 217; as coerced
into production and appropriation, i.
218; laws upon which his well-
being is founded, i. 345; his practical
characteristics enumerated, i. 209,
ii. 310, 392; as a religious being, ii.

529.
Marius and Sylla, i. 138.
Marlborough, treatment of prisoners of

war, i. 268.
Martial law, ii, 247–249. See Mili.

tary Law.

Martyrs, the, Niebuhr on, i. 112.
Maximilian, Emperor, i, 132.
Mechanics' institutes, i. 323.
Mecklenburg Declaration of Indepen-

dence, ii. 64.
Mediæval and modern liberty con-

trasted, i. 238.
Memory, the most indispensable of all

instruments, i. 29; Niebuhr's and
Gibbon's remarkable memory, i.
74, 75; power of a tenacious mem-
ory, i. 75; Mackintosh on memory,
i. 76; Rousseau's weak memory, i.

76.
Menu, laws of, i. 183, 207.
Metaphysics, Niebuhr on, i. 101.

-

Mexican literature, loss of, i. 104.

i. 382; national polity normal type
Michael Angelo, i. 92.

of, ii, 222; recuperative energy of, i.
Military law, contributions to, ii. 245- 370.

299 (see Special Subjects); martial Montaigne, i. 240.
law, ii. 247; military jurisdiction, ii. Monte Caro, i. 113.
249; military necessity, ii. 250; pub- | Montesquieu, i. 386, ii. 84.
lic war defined, ii, 251 ; non-combat- More, Sir Thomas, on political assas-
ants, ii. 251; retaliation, ii. 251; sination, i. 268.
object and conduct of modern war, Musket, introduction of the, i. 134.
ii. 253, 260; public and private
property of the enemy, ii. 253, 255; Namur, battle of, i. 161.
protection of religion, the arts and Naples, lazzaroni, i. 109; Joseph Bo-
sciences, ii. 254; subjects of the naparte's government of, i. 109.
enemy not to be forced to bear arms, Napoleon I. See Essay on Washing-
ii. 253; protection of persons, and ton and, i. 413-441; characteristics
especially women, ii. 255; civil offi- of, i. 106-108, 112, 418-421, 425;
cers of the enemy, ii. 255; when mu- theories in political economy, i. 424,
nicipal law ceases, ii. 255; treatment 431; Napoleonic system, i. 435,437 ;

i
of slaves, ii. 255; punishment of governmental ideal of, i. 429, 431;
crimes against inhabitants of hostile as a statesman, i. 432; as a soldier,
countries, ii. 256; soldiers must not i. 421, 424-428; rise of Prussia
engage in commerce, ii. 256; desert- against, i. 332; impoverishing effect
ers, ii. 257; prisoners of war, ii. 257, of his wars, ii. 416; love of cen-
261, 266, 268, 294, 296; levies en tralism, i. 423, 430; police system
masse, ii. 258, 285; hostages, ii. 258; of, i. 436; his claim to be a lover
negro soldiers, ii. 258; “ no quarter," of liberty, i. 416; was he a dictator?
ii. 259; booty on the field of battle, i. 415, 418; his disregard of free
ii. 260; partisans, ii. 262, 279, 282; institutions, i. 428; handwriting of,
armed enemies not belonging to the i. 92; will his fame stand the test of
hostile army, ii. 262; scouts, ii. 263; time? i. 413; works on, i. 436.
armed prowlers, ii. 263, 290; war- Napoleon III., ii. 302; “ Cæsarism"
rebels, ii. 263, 265, 284; safe-con- of, ii. 307, 310.
duct, ii. 263; spies, ii. 264, 265, 283, Napoleonists, i. 415.
288; war-traitors, ii. 264, 265; guides, Nation, modern sense of word, ii. 227;
ii. 264; captured messengers, ii. 265; difference between nation and people,
exchanges of prisoners, ii. 266; flags ii. 228; empires not nations in an-
of truce, ii. 267; flags of protection, tiquity, ii. 230; nationalism and in-
ii. 267; parole, ii. 268, 292, 294;

ternationalism, i. 33, ii. 221-243;
armistice, ii. 270; capitulation, ii. processes of nationalization, ii. 225;
271; assassination, ii. 272; insur- national polity and centralism, ii.
rection, ii. 272; rebellion, ii, 272; 225; type of modern state, ii. 96,
civil war, ii. 272; treason, ii. 274; 161, 222; Americans form a, ii.
guerrilla parties, ii. 275-292; free- 231;

national features-of Declara-
booters, ii. 281; brigands, ii. 281; tion of Independence and the Ar-
free-corps, ii. 282, 283; privateers, ii. ticles of Confederation,. ii. 160, of
282; status of rebel prisoners of war, the United States Constitution, ii.
ii. 294–297 ; sale of arms by the 15-85; national wealth, in what it
United States during the Franco- consists, ii. 397 ; effect of free trade
Prussian war, ii. 310-322; alien on national independence, ii. 399.
property in time of war, ii. 319, 321. Natural sciences, study of the, i. 286.
Milton, on the study of politics, i. 354. Netherlands, sovereignty of the United
Mind and body, connection of, i. 448. Provinces, ii. 154; effect of free
Mittermaier, i. 28, ii. 370.

trade on, ii. 400.
Modern epoch, characteristics of, ii. Neutrality, ii. 315; neutral goods, ii.
222, 239.

314, 316; supposed difficulties of
Modern states, choice between liberty neutrality laws, ii. 316; Washing-

and absolutism in, i. 383 ; equality ton treaty of 1871, ii. 317; laws of
of, i. 370; long life and progress of,

United Siates, ii. 312.

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New England States and the South, | Nineteenth century, characteristics of,
Niebuhr on, i. 70.

i. 289, 294, 299.
New York State Constitution, reflec- Non-combatants, under military law,

tions on the changes necessary in, ii.
181-219; too specific in its terms, ii.

North American Indian languages, i.
219; pardoning power, ii. 185; board 515.
of pardon proposed, ii. 189; power
of suspending sentence, ii. 193; Onomatopy, i. 465.
election and term of judges, ii. 198; Opitz, i. 137:
courts of arbitration, ii. 198; power Oracles, ancient, i. 145.
to increase number of courts, ii. 200; Oregon “jargon,” or trade language,
appointment of State officers by the i. 466.
governor, ii. 201 ; suffrage, ii. 202; Origin and development of the first
State citizenship, ii. 204; woman

constituents of civilization, i. 205-
suffrage, ii. 204 ; number of repre- 223.
sentatives, ii, 210; state sovereignty Orthography, value of a correct, i. 124.
and double allegiance, ii. 213; city
governments, ii. 214; compulsory Paley's Natural Theology, i. 346.
school attendance, ii. 217; educa-

Paolo, Fra, i. 103.
tional test for voters, ii. 217; una- Parchment, use of, i. 92.
nimity of juries, ii. 461-468. Pardon, anticipating pardons, i. 131;
Nicknames of famous men, i. 307, 421. power of, ii. 185-191; arbitrary, ii.
Niebuhr, B. G., biographical sketch of, 185; abuses and dangers of, ii. 186;

i. 47-81; introduction to reminis. board of pardon, ii. 189; rehabilita-
cences of, i. 54-81; reminiscences tion, ii. 189; suspension of sentence,
of, i. 20, 81-148; his birth, parent- ii. 191; of criminal on condition of
age, and education, i. 47, 48, 97; leaving the country, ii. 320.
intercourse with Voss, i. 49; student Paris, Declaration of Congress of, in
at Kiel and Edinburgh, i. 49; trav- 1856, ii. 314; polytechnic school, ii.
els in England, i. 49; enters the 514, 518; literary power of, over
Prussian army, i. 50; administrative France, i. 126; submission of prov-
posts held, i. 50; lecturer on history inces to, ii. 382.
at Berlin, i. 50; publication of his Parole, effect of, in military law, ii.
Roman History, i. 50, 52, 93; min- 268, 292, 294, 296.
ister to Rome, i. 51; Institutions of Parties, action by indispensable, i. 189,
Gaius, i. 51; letters on Lieber's im- 325; effect of party spirit, i. 136.
prisonment, i. 21; at Bonn, i. 52; Partisan, ii. 282. See Guerrilla, and
refuses a title, i. ; miscellaneous Military Law.
writings, i. 50-53; relations and cor- Patriotism, the needed, i. 357.
respondence with Lieber, i. 15, 19, Pauper labor,” ii. 403-407.
22, 67, 70, etc.; directions to a for- Peel, Sir Robert, i. 278.
eign correspondent in America, i. 71; Penn, William, his plan for the union
his personal appearance and habits, of the American colonies, ii. 55,
i. 74; his power of memory, i. 74, 235.
94; his literary style, i. 77, 78; in- Pennsylvania German, i. 89.
tercourse with scholars, i. 101; his Penology: Essay on Penal Law, ii.
knowledge of languages, i. 85, 87, 469-494 ; Lieber's interest in and
126; characteristics of, i. 78, 79; his papers on, ii. 470; mode of punish-
political principles, i. 80; his love of ment a standard of civilization, i.
science, i. 8o, etc.; death of, i. 20, 313; solitary confinement at labor
53; Niebuhr and Gibbon, i. 84; his advocated, ii. 471; strafkünde, ii.
parental wish, i. 93; service of his 473; punishment detined, ii. 473;
political experience to him, as a histo. state punishment, ii. 474; basis of
rian, i. 344; his own estimate of his civil punishment, ii. 474, 476; do.
Roman History, i. 143. (The inore mestic punishment, ii. 474; retalia.
important statements in the Reminis. tion in punishing, ii. 476, 483; neces-
cences of Niebuhr are separately in- sity as a ground of the punitory
dexed under appropriate heads.) right, ii. 478, 479; punishment for

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