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4. History of the Life, Writings, and Doctrines of Luther. From the last French Edition. By WILLIAM B. TURNBUll, Esq. London: Dolman. Baltimore: Murphy & Co. 1854. 2 vols. 8vo.

We have here the second and last volume of Audin's brilliant work on Luther, the first of his series of works on the Reformation. We gave our opinion of this and the other works of the series in our Review for last January, and have nothing to add to what we then said. History is a record of the past, and the history of Protestantism may now be written. M. Audin has made a good beginning, and opened the way for others, who will complete what he has left unfinished.

5. A History of England, from the Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of William and Mary, in 1688. By JOHN LINGARD, D.D. A New Edition, as enlarged by Dr. Lingard shortly before his Death. In Thirteen Volumes. Boston: Phillips, Sampson, & Co. 1855. 16mo. Vols. VIII.-XIII.

THESE Volumes complete Phillips, Sampson, and Company's edition of Dr. Lingard's History of England. We have so frequently expressed our opinion of this work as decidedly the best History of England extant, that we have no occasion to do anything more than to congratulate the Boston publishers on the completion of their edition of it. Anybody who henceforth shall cite Hume as an authority will be inexcusable,-as much so as any one would be who should regard Robertson's History of Charles the Fifth as any thing more than a clever romance.

6. History of the Life and Institute of St. Ignatius de Loyola, Founder of the Society of Jesus. By Father DANIEL BARTOLI, of the Society of Jesus. Translated by the author of "Life in Mexico." New York: E. Dunigan and Brother. 1855. 2 vols. 12mo.

We thank the publishers for this translation of the work of Father Bartoli. There are few writers of the Italian language who have equalled the learned Jesuit in classical purity and beauty of style; and this History of the Life of St. Ignatius is one of the few biographies of the saints we have met with which contain anything more than a barren relation of events, with anecdotes and miracles confusedly thrown together, without either discrimination in their

choice, or order in their arrangement.. A book may be edifying without being necessarily dull, heavy, and offensive to good taste. Such books may promote the spiritual advancement of their readers, by affording opportunities for the exercise of patience; but we do not think they incite us to the love of a saintly life. This biography of the founder of the Society of Jesus is free from this fault. It charms and interests, whilst it edifies and instructs, the reader. It is also the best defence of the Order against the calumnies of its enemies, who hesitate at no falsehood, however glaring, when their object is to malign the Jesuits. St. Ignatius prayed that they might always be persecuted by the world, as a mark that they were loved by God. Truly his prayer has been heard, and these holy fathers, whose only object has been to promote the greater glory of God by devoting themselves to the salvation of their neighbors, have received in return for their charity only hatred and persecution. We do not pretend to assert that the Jesuits have no faults; for they are but men, and humanum est errare; but we do not believe a single one of the many charges brought against them. We think this work of Father Bartoli's their best defence, and we earnestly recommend it to our readers.

It is well and faithfully translated, and published in a neat and convenient form. We have often remarked the excellent style in which the publications of Dunigan and Brother are issued, but there is one thing which we dislike and to which we wish to call the attention of the publishers. It is to the catalogue of their books bound with the first volume. We would suggest to them, that it would answer the purpose just as well if they would send a catalogue with the book, but still keep it separate from it.

7. Florine, Princess of Burgundy. A Tale of the First Crusaders. By WILLIAM B. MACCABE. Baltimore: Murphy & Co. 1855. 12mo. pp. 424.

8. Growth in Holiness: or the Progress of the Spiritual Life. By F. W. FABER, D.D. Philadelphia: H. & C. McGrath. 1855. 12mo. pp. 490.

9. The Young Man Advised: or Illustrations and Confirmations of some of the Chief Historical Facts of the Bible. By E. 0. HAVEN, D.D. New York: Carleton and Phillips. 1855. 12mo. pp. 329.



OCTOBER, 1855.

ART. I.-The Temporal Power of the Pope; containing the Speech of the Hon. Joseph R. Chandler, delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States, January 11, 1855. With Nine Letters, stating the prevailing Roman Catholic Theory in the Language of Papal Writers, by JOHN M'CLINTOCK, D.D. New York: Carleton and Phillips. 16mo. pp. 154.

THIS publication by an able and learned Protestant divine is one which we cannot, with our sense of duty as a Catholic reviewer, pass over in silence. The authority of the Pope in relation to temporal princes and governments is the great question of the day, and we cannot blink it out of sight, if we would. We must meet it fairly and fearlessly, let us offend whom we may. In open questions among Catholics, each party must be free, and silence must be imposed on both or on neither. But at present our controversy is with non-Catholics rather than with a school in our own Church.

Dr. M'Clintock proves in his Nine Letters to Mr. Chandler that it is idle to attempt to ward off the objections of non-Catholics to the Papal power on the ground assumed by that gentleman in his well-known speech, apparently the ground taken by the learned and excellent M. Gosselin; for it is a ground widely rejected by Catholics themselves. It cannot be asserted as Catholic doctrine, and no nonCatholic, for no Catholic, can be required to accept it as such. At best it is an opinion in the Church, not of the



Church; and if Catholics may hold it, they may also reject it. When Mr. Chandler urges it as Catholic doctrine, he assumes authority which does not belong to him, de'cides a question which the Church has not decided; and it is sufficient for the non-Catholic to tell him, that no Catholic is bound to hold it, and they who follow Rome rather than Paris, as Paris was in the last century, do not hold it, but reject it as incipient Protestantism, tending in fact to political atheism. Whether we are Ultramontanists or not, till Ultramontanism so called is condemned, we must in our arguments with non-Catholics, if they insist on it, defend our Church as if it were true.

Every Catholic controversialist knows that the question of infallibility is much embarrassed by the Gallican doctrine that the Papal definitions are reformable till accepted by the Church; but in our arguments with non-Catholics we are not at liberty to relieve ourselves by denying that doctrine, since it is tolerated and they who hold it may receive absolution. We must defend the infallibility of the Church even on the supposition of its truth, for if it were absolutely incompatible with that infallibility it would not be tolerated. So with regard to the so-called temporal power of the Pope. That power has been asserted on very high authority, defended by doctors of the greatest respectability and weight, and acted on time and again by the greatest and holiest Pontiffs that have ever sat in the chair of Peter. You may say, no Catholic is obliged to assert it, but at the same time you must concede that every Catholic may assert it, and therefore, in relation to those without, you must defend the Church, if they insist on your doing so, as if every Catholic were obliged to maintain it. In regard to non-Catholics, we must defend the Church in what she allows, or gives a tacit consent to, as well as in what she commands. We cannot, in dealing with them any more than when dealing with Catholics, treat our Church as if she were a human institution, changing her spirit or modifying her doctrines with the times, or as a fallible institution, tacitly countenancing in her children errors which strike at her very existence, or which, if practically carried out, would change her essential character or unduly enlarge her powers. With the greatest respect for the good intentions of Mr. Chandler, we doubt, therefore, the wisdom and propriety of the ground he takes in

his speech. He re-opens in it an internal controversy among Catholics, for only a portion of the Catholic body, and they not those in best repute at Rome, will accept that ground; and it counts for nothing with non-Catholics, for they look upon it, not as a ground sanctioned by the Church, but simply as the opinion of those whose devotion to the Papacy is not very deep or ardent, and upon the whole as evasive and unsatisfactory. They do not believe Mr. Chandler's statement to be frank and straightforward, and it creates in their minds a doubt of Catholic sincerity and candour. Every intelligent Protestant knows how the Gallican doctrine has always been regarded at Rome, and when we put it forth as the ground of our defence, he suspects we do it not so much because we hold it as because we shrink from incurring the odium of the opposite opinion. He may be wrong in this, but as a matter of fact it is not unfrequently his conclusion.

Prudence is a cardinal virtue, and there is a wise and allowable policy that should never be neglected. But whoever has read the history of the Church knows that she does not stand in human policy, and that her worst enemies have always been those of her children who relied the most on human prudence. The general impression of non-Catholics is that Catholics are deficient in frankness, candor, and plain, straightforward dealing. They regard our apologists as special pleaders, evading the real points at issue by their logical subtlety and refinements. In a word, they believe us, in the Protestant sense of the term, Jesuitical. It is their prejudice against us on this account that creates a greater obstacle to their conversion than any prejudice they have against the most high-toned Catholic doctrines ever put forth. They think that we do not deal frankly, honestly, with them; that when we speak for them we trim, smooth down the asperities of our doctrines, round off their sharp angles, and present them something quite different from what we really hold. Unquestionably in this they do us foul wrong, but such is undeniably the fact. They lack confidence in us and in our statements. This is the state of mind which we have to deal with, and we submit, if the best method of dealing with it is to do our best to inake our doctrines appear as near like their own crude opinions as possible. Policy, true prudence, it strikes us, is to deal frankly with the non-Catholic portion

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