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prevail in Europe, and that civilization was given under the influence of a panic ; will spread throughout the world. With - the colonists were under the impression Austria we have recently entered into a that a race three times their number tras Treaty of Commerce-a treaty which bene- preparing to destroy them en masse, and fits this country by extending its commer- with the remembrance of the previous cial relations, and by opening a new field outbreak of 1831, and with the example to mercantile adventure, and which, above of Hayti before their eyes, they might not all, marks the first success achieved by the unnaturally be induced to exaggerato principles of free trade against the strong. their danger-if they did exaggerate ithold of the protective system.
and in the fulness of their gratitude to My Lords, the questions relating to our justify any measures which had been the colonial policy have already been so ably means of effectually averting it. In the treated by the noble_Marquess who has other case, men have ventured, upon the just sat down that I need detain your most imperfect evidence, to pass sentence Lordships but a very short time with them. on events which occurred 5,000 miles The colonies are generally prosperous, and from these shores under a set of conditions the more tranquil condition of New Zea- of which they have never had the slightest land has warranted the withdrawal of a experience. From their own position of large proportion of Her Majesty's troops. security they have rashly condemned the But there is one deplorable exception to measures of those who were acting under this general rule, which affects not less the belief that their lives and properties the welfare of an important colony than were in hourly danger. Under these cirthe reputation for justice and integrity of cumstances, my Lords, and allowing that the mother country itself. My Lords, the primâ facie Governor Eyre's measures facts of the Jamaica outbreak are still in- seem to be unnecessarily severe, there was volved in obscurity. How far there was but one course for Her Majesty's Governan organized rebellion among the black ment to pursue ; and this course they have population of the island-how far that re- adopted. A judicious and carefully selected bellion was the result of the previous un Commission, with Sir Henry Storks at its fair administration and tyrannical conduct head—a man of acknowledged adminisof the white race—and, lastly, how far the trative power, and of a character aboro emergency justified the apparently ex. all unfairness or partiality, has been treme severity of the execution-are ques- sent out to investigate the circumstances tions which, I would humbly suggest, we of the case. To enable this Commission are as yet not in a position to answer. Two fully and impartially to perform its duties, diametrically opposite opinions seem to Governor Eyre has been temporarily su. prevail on the opposite shores of the At perseded — a step which has been the Iantic. In Jamaica itself there is appa- subject of adverse criticism, but which rently a universal conviction that a widely- was, under the circumstances, absolutely ramified conspiracy had been organized by necessary, and which in no way prejudges the black population for the purpose of an- the case or throws any stigma on the nihilating the white, and that the events Governor's conduct. When this inquiry at Morant Bay were but a premature out is completed, and the whole circumstances break of a general rebellion ; and, further, are laid before you, it will remain with the feeling seems generally to prevail that your Lordships to condemn or approre the Governor was not merely justified in the measures of the Jamaica Executive, his conduct, but that, for the energy with as the case may be:-while it is still which he suppressed the outbreak, he de- pending, it cannot but be unfair to exserved the gratitude of the whole island. press a decided opinion either way. In this country, on the other hand, large There remain three subjects of the most classes of men have most_unfairly pre- vital importance connected with the homo judged the whole question. Upon the most policy of this country, in consideration of insufficient evidence they have condemned which I venture to make a still further Governor Eyre—they have condemned him claim on your Lordships' indulgence. In without a hearing-the very crime which Ireland, my Lords, revolutionary schemes they impute to him in his dealings with have again been brought to light-schemes the negroes; and in some cases deny that which though they may be wanting in there was any organized conspiracy at every essential element of success hare all. Both these opinions are equally yet been productive of considerable annoyunsatisfactory. In one case the opinion ance, and may temporarily retard the
The Earl of Morley
rapid development of the resources and as it was, was not absolutely perfect; and, the industry of the island. Fenianism moreover, since those days the condition is a vibration of the vast movements of the middle and lower classes of society which have recently agitated the Trans- has undergone a very considerable change. atlantic States. Five years or more has Education and culture have in that period it been in coming to maturity, and now made rapid strides, and have extended their its promoters have doubtless been en- influence to numbers who before scarcely couraged to persist in their designs by the felt their effects at all. And so, my Lords, delusive hope that the termination of the experience has shown, and all parties agree war in America would be the signal for a in admitting, that there are inequalities rupture with this country-a hope which and defects of one kind or another in our I trust and believe is doomed to lasting present system of representation. The disappointment. However annoying the correction of these defects has constantly schemes of the revolutionary brotherhood been the subject of debate; during the may be, there are, at all events, many cir- last fourteen years no less than four dif. cumstances which, if we compare the ferent measures for Reform have been inpresent with previous outbreaks of 1798 troduced; they have successively been reor 1848, cannot fail to quiet any alarm we jected or withdrawn, and have left the may feel on their account. In the first question at issue in as vague and uncerplace, the Fenians are countenanced by no tain a condition as they found it. Surely, religious party whatever—the parson and my Lords, it is high time that measures the priest unite in denouncing them. In were taken to arrive at some definite the second place, it is remarkable that no conclusion on this all-important point ? persons of education, of property, of wealth, Surely, it is at once below the digor of respectability are to be found in their nity of the Legislature, and contrary to ranks. All men possessed of these advan- | the wishes of the nation, that a question tages are prepared to resist any outbreak which so nearly affects the interests of all which may occur. Lastly, the honesty its classes should any longer remain withand courage with which the Irish juries out solution. Such a solution, however, have performed their duty gives us at once is not to be found in abstract principles or the best proof of the loyalty that prevails in political theories, but in the dictates of among the respectable classes in Ireland, practical sense, in wide experience, and in and the surest grounds for confidence that accurate knowledge of the particular cirthe authority of the law will remain un- cumstances of the case, guided by statistiimpaired. I need scarcely say how much cal information; and this information Her is due to the judicious and energetic con- Majesty's Government are at the present duct of the Dublin Executive. They time carefully collecting in as precise and allowed the conspiracy to assume assail- accurate a form as the means which they able dimensions before they interfered; have in their power will enable them to but, at the same time, did not postpone that do. And this will form a solid basis for interference until it ceased to be amenable the measure, whatever be its nature, to the power of the law, and could only be which will be brought before your Lordsuppressed by the power of the sword. ships' House. Guarding against the danger This unhappy conspiracy has been through- of subverting the existing order of things, out treated as a matter which should ex- and creating confusion in the political and cite neither our alarm nor our contempt; mercantile interests of the Kingdom, I and, thus treated, there can, I trust, be no trust that, when the time comes, your reason to doubt that before long it will Lordships will give your sanction and apsuccumb before the triple authority of law, proval to some well-considered measure of property, and religion.
Reform which may tend to correct or to My Lords, the second of these questions modify any existing anomalies, and to add which is alluded to in Her Majesty's Speech, vigour and stability to the institutions of and which is of such great importance that the country. I venture to approach it only with con- There is still one question of the most siderable diffidence, is the great constitu- serious importance on which I will venture tional question of Reform. Scarcely any a few remarks, and then I will cease to one would, I think, venture to maintain trespass any further on your Lordships' that the present system of the representa- patience. Our nation is at the present tion of the people in Parliament is fault- moment suffering from the effects of a less. The Bill passed in 1832, beneficial national calamity. The cattle plague
which visited this country in the middle co-operation and by uniform and stringent of the last century has again re-appeared action obviate the necessity for the interamong our herds, and the fearful rapidity ference of the central power. It has been with which it is spreading may reasonably maintained that the emergency has already excite the greatest alarm among all classes demanded this interference on the part of of society. The rapidity of its progress, the central power. But it must be remem. and deadliness of its effects, are but too bered that circumstances differ in different clearly indicated by the simple facts of the localities, and that any uniform measure
In June there was but one spot in applied to the whole country would fall fected by the disease ; there are now more very differently on different places. The than 13,000. The number of new cases farmers and landowners of Cheshire and which occurred during the past week, Yorkshire would welcome any measures amounting to 11,000, exceed by 1,000 of however a stringent and universal a those that were reported for the whole character ; but the twenty-three counties month of November. And, again, the in this island which are as yet free from Returns of last week show an increase of the disease, and the large towns which are 1,400 on the week immediately preceding still well supplied with meat, would not it. Already 120,000 animals, if the Re. receive them with such unqualified apturns can be trusted, have been attacked, proval, nor would they in any way coand of these 90,000 have either died or operate in enforcing them; and, further, been killed. These figures disclose a most it has always been a principle in this alarming state of things. Medical science country to leave the management of has hitherto been completely bafled in its local affairs to local authorities, who are investigations. In all probability it was in supposed to be better acquainted with troduced into this country by some Dutch the peculiar circumstances of their case, cattle imported to the Metropolitan Market. and at the same time to have a greater And since it has been introduced, the interest in it, and consequently the central subtle and the deadly effects of the poison Government has not at its disposal all that it generates are but too well known to your organization which exists in so many ConLordships. There is scarcely any agency tinental States, to enable it to carry out of which it does not avail itself in its rapid stringently and effectually the measures it extension—the clothes of the herdsmen, deems expedient. These are serious, if sheep, dogs, birds, and even the wind not impassable, difficulties which hitherto itselt, will carry the seeds of the distem- any uniform measure would have had to per for at least 200 yards; and, further, encounter. And I cannot but think that, the eccentric course which it often follows, of the two alternatives of employing cenleaving some spots, for no apparent reason, tral or local powers, Her Majesty's Gocompletely free, and attacking the adjoin- vernment chose the right, and, perhaps, the ing farms with the utmost violence, show only practicable one. It will remain with its affinity to human epidemics and frus- your Lordships to determine whether any trate the investigations of science. As to further means are to be taken to check the remedies, we are no less at a loss. Each rapid extension of the plague, and what one may ascribe the recovery of the few the nature of these means should bom cattle out of his herd to the cures which whether any uniform or partially uniform he himself employed. But in reality all plan could be devised which could at once the remedies and drugs which have hitherto be carried into execution by the local aubeen applied have proved equally ineffec- thorities, and regulate their measures. tual, and the hopes which were derived There is, however, one source of consolafrom the supposed affinity of the disease tion in this calamity-namely, that it has with small.pox seem doomed to like dis- pleased Providence, in His mercy, to send it appointment. Under these circumstances, upon this country at a time when perhaps several Orders in Council have been issued, of all periods of its history it will be empowering the local authorities to use best able to bear it. It has visited us in a such means as were deemed necessary to year of abundant harvest, and at a time check the progress of the murrain, either when commerce is more active and pro. by slaughtering infected animals or by ductive than ever it was before, and when stopping all cattie traffic within their dis- the revenue, notwithstanding reductions in trict; and an Act is at the present moment taxation, shows a balance of between two prepared to give further powers to these and three millions — at a time, in fact, local courts, who will, I trust, by mutual when this country has reached a height of
The Earl of Morley
I may be
prosperity almost unparalleled in the his- one after the other were in themselves tory of the world.
vague, unsatisfactory, and often contraMy Lords, my task is now accomplished. dictory of each other they agree in nothing I have to the best of my power, however but in showing the evident determination imperfectly that may be, touched upon the of the Government to shift all responsi. main topics of Her Majesty's Speech. All bility, as far as possible, from their own that remains for me now to do is to thank shoulders. Sometimes it has been placed you most sincerely for the patient and in- upon the magistrates in petty sessions, and dulgent hearing you have given to my re- sometimes upon the magistrates in quarter marks, and to conclude with a hope that the sessions; but always it is to be remarked Address which I now have the honour of that the Government will not take the reseconding may meet with your Lordships' sponsibility upon themselves. unanimous approval. (See Page 33.] told-indeed, we have been told by the
THE DUKE OF RUTLAND: My Lords, noble Lord who seconded the Address—that I have never before risen to address your the difficulties of the case were almost inLordships on a similar occasion, but I trust superable ; that although the disease had I may now be allowed to address a few appeared in England about a century ago, observations to your Lordships on one topic yet the experience then acquired as to its referred to in the Royal Speech, in which action had so died out that it must really be I, in common with Her Majesty's subjects looked on as something new, and that all at large, take the deepest interest-I allude that the Government could do was to iusti. to the cattle plague. To that one topic Itute an inquiry into the matter, and that will confine my observations. Before doing they had done all that was in their power. so, I beg to express my hearty concurrence I, however, venture to question the correctin all that has fallen from the Mover and ness of that view. In the first place, a Seconder of the Address in those portions Committee had, in 1854, been appointed of their speeches in which they dwelt upon by the House of Commons to take into the pleasure which it must give your Lord consideration a Bill which was then pendships to find that Her Majesty has again ing in that House—the Cattle Diseases opened Parliament in person, and the re- Prevention Bill, and by that Committee a gret with which you must have heard of great deal of evidence was taken, Profesthe death of the late Prime Minister, and sor Simonds, among others, being one of of his Majesty the King of the Belgians. the witnesses who was examined. Now, The cattle plague has, as the noble Earl he found that Professor Simonds on that who seconded the Address has observed, occasion stated that the rinderpest was a been raging in this country for more than disease perfectly well known, and that he six months; it has gone on increasing from himself had seen it prevailing in Russia month to month, and we had as yet found and Bavaria. He, moreover, described no means of repressing its virulence. As the steps which were taken in those counyet there has been found no specific remedy tries as having proved perfectly satisfacfor the disease, and men of all shades of tory in preventing the spread of the political opinion who have given their at- plague. With such evidence before the tention to the subject seem to have arrived Government, how is it possible, I will ask, at the conclusion that a system of preven- to contend that the rinderpest is a thing tion not of cure is that which alone it is with which we were altogether unacpracticable to adopt. That being so, I quainted? But I will go a step further, should like to ask what the Government and remind the House that in September has done in the matter? The answer is last a Royal Commission was appointed that they have done next to nothing. They for the purpose of investigating the disease, have done almost worse than nothing. They and that a majority of that Commission have, it is true, issued a number of Orders reported at the end of October, in the in Council ; but I believe that if the money strongest possible manner, in favour of expended on their issue had been laid out stopping all communication in the way of in taking effective measures to stop the the transit of cattle throughout the coundisease and indemnifying the unfortu- try. What has the Government done in nate sufferers from it, the cattle plague consequence? Instead of adopting the would be a thing of the past, and your stringent measures recommended by the Lordships would not that evening be en- Commission they have thrown the respongaged in discussing the subject. As it was, sibility on the local authorities, and have the Orders in Council which were sent out refrained from doing anything themselves.
Yet they showed by their own conduct much of your time. Feeling, however, as that they were aware that the means í I do, that the conduct of Her Majesty's which they declined to adopt were, in Government before and since the alarming reality, the most efficacious remedy for spread of this cattle plague is open to the disease ; because there are two very grave censure, I am unwilling, on this ocremarkable instances in which they did casion, to remain altogether silent. In the act, and acted with great rigour on that paragraphs in the Speech delivered by Her view, and with great success. One was Majesty which allude to the cattle plague, in the case of Ireland. There was, hap- I confess that I think the wording of the pily, no rinderpest there, and the Govern- last part of the first paragraph is somement very properly stopped the importa- what extraordinary. The passage to which tion of cattle into that country. It is I refer is that in which Her Majesty perfectly true that they did not do so sayswithout hesitation. When the Home Se
“I trust that by the precautions suggested by cretary first received a deputation on the experience and by the Divine blessing on the subject, he said there were insuperable means which are now being, employed its further difficulties in the way of stopping the extension may be arrested.” importation of cattle into Ireland; but I venture to think that it would have been some persuasive eloquence used by the a preferable mode of expressing the sentiIrish Members had the effect of altering ment if that part of the Speech in which the determination of the Government, and Her Majesty is made to hope that “the the insuperable difficulty was swept away. Divine blessing on the means which are But to go from the West to the North, I now being employed may arrest the furfind another remarkable case of action by ther extension of the cattle plague” had the Government, and it is incidentally al. preceded, instead of coming after, the menluded to in the Royal Speech - I allude to tion of “the
precautions suggested by ex. the case of Argyllshire. There was no perience." The next paragraph proceeds rinderpest there ; and there the Govern- to state thatment again took very vigorous steps. So “ The Orders that have been made by the Lords that he was, he thought, justified in saying of the Privy Council by virtue of the powers that they could not plead ignorance on the vested in them by law, with a view to prevent the subject as an excuse for the course which spreading of this disease, will be laid before you." they had pursued in this country, or for Now, I would venture to call the attensaying they had done all that it was possible ville) to this paragraph, and to ask whe
tion of the noble Earl opposite (Earl Granfor them to do. I have ventured to make ther it is perfectly certain that the Governthese observations to your Lordships because I hope that, even now, at that late ment have acted in strict accordance with hour, we may be able to induce Her Mas the law? There is an old maxim delejesty's Government to rouse from their gatus delegari non potest. I believe that lethargy and do what I conceive to be the action of the Privy Council has been their duty-namely, to stop all movement taken under the 11 & 12 Vict. c. 107, s. 4. of cattle in England, and also all importa- By that section the Privy Council are emtion of cattle into England from abroad. powered to make such orders and regulaThe other day I attended a large meeting
tions as to them may seem necessary for in my own county on that subject, and I the purpose of prohibiting the removal of noticed that the passage in an able speech,
cattle, and so on; and, in another partmade by a gentleman present, which was
" To make any other order and regulation for most applauded, was that in which the the purpose of giving effect to the Act ; to revoke
or annul any order when so made, and that such speaker said, “We must put our shoulders orders should have the like effect' as if they had to the wheel, and get rid of the rinder- been inserted in the Act.” pest; or, if we cannot do that, we must Now, under this Act, the Privy Council get rid of the Ministry.”
had power to make such Orders as they THE DUKE OF RICHMOND : I ask your pleased; but I doubt whether they had Lordships' indulgence for a short time power to delegate to another body those while I allude to a paragraph in the Speech powers which the Act of Parliament confrom the Throne on a subject in which I ferred upon them. I think that in dealing take the deepest interest. I am happy to with these provisions of the law the Gofind that, owing to the very able manner vernment have been unfortunate. I agree in which the noble Duke has addressed with my noble Friend, the Government you, it is unnecessary for me to occupy were in one of two difficulties. Either
The Duke of Rutland