Imágenes de páginas

in any part of the world. It might be / exists because of the displacement of one by the stated broadly that when labour for wages other. Coolie labour opens a wide field of exertion

to the negro." ceased to be a necessity of existence to the labouring class the existence of the em- Hon. Members would not think this picture ployer of labour became precarious and was overdrawn, when they heard that it eventually impossible, and this had gra- was from the pen of Dr. Underhill. In dually come to pass in Jamaica, except in Jamaica the same short-sighted views were those fertile plains where there were no entertained as in the other colonies ; but, waste lands, and where the people, whose owing to the Constitution, which gave so strong local attachments prevent their mov- much power to those who advocated them in ing, gave their labour more regularly to the Lower House, they triumphed to such the estates. As whole districts were aban

an extent that either Immigration Bills doned the small freeholders lost the ad- were thrown out altogether, or departed so vantage of occasional employment. They widely from the model ordinance, that they had at length killed the goose which laid were disallowed at home ; and, therefore, the golden eggs. The same cause depriv- while the other colonies were augmenting ed them of a market for their provisions, their population, and increasing their prowhich, as Sir H. Barkly wrote in 1854, they ducts year by year, large tracts in Jamaica lost by the cessation of immigration and were relapsing into wilderness. Since 1843 the return of the immigrants. The loss of no less than 313,538 immigrants had been inducement to work produced habits of introduced into Mauritius, while in Jaidleness. The idle lived, as elsewhere, by maica, which was nearly ten times larger, robbing the industrious, and a general feel there had come only 18,569. Let it be ing of dissatisfaction prevailed, which was remembered, moreover, that the same Asincreased by the drought of the last two sembly which objected to immigration for years. Up to a certain point the case of the fancied good of the negro, or on the Jamaica was the same with that of the ground of economy, levied the high Customs other sugar colonies with superfluity of land duties of which the negroes so much comand deficiency of population. But Mau- plained, maintained many costly and useritius, British Guiana, and Trinidad were less offices, and wasted enormous sums in Crown colonies, and as soon as the Colonial their disputes with the Governors or with Office, after years of ruinous obstruction and the other branch of the Legislature. That delay, discovered that the only way to en- ancient body had now terminated its existable free labour to compete with slavery ence by its own act, and he believed it was was to provide a sufficiency, and that this really å "happy despatch." The present could only be done by immigration under Bill prevented the chance of its coming contract, enactments were passed to that again

to life, and it now rested with the end. The system was violently opposed, Colonial Office to be doubly careful in the not only by parties at home, but by those choice of fit Governors to wield the vastly classes in the colonies who did not directly increased power which would now be vested benefit by it. Their opposition was over- in them. ruled, and now they acknowledged their MR. REMINGTON MILLS said, that error, and confessed that they had profited there were only 36,000 members of the even to a greater degree than the planters Church of England in Jamaica. The rethemselves. Let him read to the House venues of the island were tased to the an account of the results in Trinidad

amount of £28,000 for the benefit of 100 This system is approved by every class of ministers of the Church, so that not a persons.

i conversed with Government officials, twelfth part of the population absorbed more planters, missionaries, storekeepers, and coolies than one-tenth part of the whole revenue themselves. I did not hear a single complaint. Men of the most opposite opinions agreed in this, of the island. The Church was not conthat immigration is a success. Contrary to anti- tent with this tenth portion of the revenue cipation, it has improved the condition of the of the island, but received out of the Connegroes. The command of coolie labour has in- solidated Fund, under an old Act of Parcreased the growth of the sugar cane,

With this

liament, a further sum of £7,000 a there has necessarily arisen a demand for hedges and ditches, drainage, carpenters, coopers, engine- year, which was distributed among cermen, &c. The demand for ground provisions to tain bishops, archdeacons, &c. There were supply the wants of the coolie labourers has in two bishops attached to the Church in creased. The garden produce finds a better mar- Jamaica. One of them had not been seen ket. All these occupations are taken up by the negro. The coolie is therefore no competitor with in his diocese for many years, and spent the negro in the labour market, and no ill feeling his time chiefly in Europe. The other

Mr. Stephen Cave

bishop received £2,000 a year. There the pain, the dissatisfaction and the disgrace were also three archdeacons in the receipt which arose from the want of a provision of of £3,000. If the Church of England this kind. They should not grant such a wanted bishops and archdeacons, they sum as this for creditors. It was an ample ought to be maintained out of her own re. amount to secure the country against such venues. It was time the House received obloquy and disgrace, and as there should from the Colonial Secretary an assurance be no temptation to traders to give credit that as these offices became vacant they to one in the position of His Royal Highwould not be filled up until Parliament had ness, the allowance should be for his abso. an opportunity of expressing its opinion. lute enjoyment. The Blenheim estate was When the Act of Parliament to which he inalienable, and so was the estate purchased referred was passed, the West India in for the Duke of Wellington. For public terest was dominant in that House, but the services they made grants with regard to principle now recognized was to leave the annuities and property which they took maintenance of public worship to the co- care the individual who first received them lopies.

should not dispose of. He would not menMR. CARDWELL said, he entirely tion names in the past, but, hypothetically, agreed with his hon. Friend, that the might not a person who was to receive an general views of Parliament and the income like this be so incumbered that country with respect to these ecclesiastical without it he might be in want? Supposing endowments had very much changed since creditors had the power of coming upon the passing of the Act, imposing the property of this kind, an inducement would change upon the Consolidated Fund, to be given to credit, and such an inducement, which he had referred. He trusted, how- in the case of grants for public services, ever, that his hon. Friend would be satis- had led to families being very much infied with the answer he had given on a cumbered. Since the accession of Her former occasion to the hon. Member for Majesty the prudence, econoniy, and good Sheffield (Mr. Hadfield), that it would be management which had marked the Royal premature for the Government, in the pre- Household had given great satisfaction to sent state of affairs, to make any declara- the country and great strength to the tion with regard to any detailed changes Throne. But if one, possessed of these which it was their intention to propose. means, should be seduced by creditors they The Legislature were now engaged in lay- knew not what might happen. Money ing the first stone of the new building. might be lost by gambling for instance. When that foundation was laid the Govern. Therefore, for the satisfaction of the people ment would endeavour to build upon it the who bestowed this magnificent sum edifice of future prosperity for the colony. His Royal Highness, which he begged to Motion agreed to.

say he did not begrudge, he hoped to reBill read the third time and passed.

ceive an assurance that it would be reserved for his own personal enjoyment.


[BILL 43.] SECOND READING. Friend may be understood as having re(Mr. Dodson, Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer, ference to two perfectly distinct objects, Sir George Grey.)

both of which are of great importance in Order for Second Reading read.

themselves, and both of which may legitiTHE CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHE

mately be held in view by Members of QUER moved the second reading of this Bill. there will not be a renewal of the demand

Parliament. The first is the security that Motion made, and Question proposed, made in respect of Prince Alfred, in con“That the Bill be now read a second sequence of the waste and disappearance time.”

of this provision. This is one object-that MR. HADFIELD said, he did not wish Parliament should know that it will not be to oppose the grant of £15,000 a year ; called upon to do over again that which it but, looking to the experience which the is now called upon to do. Unfortunately, country had in former years, he thought in former times—very different times, the grant should be made inalienable. which I hope I may say will never return Creditors should not have the means or the there were many examples which jusmotive for extravagance and debt. Those tified Parliament in exercising a wise who recollected past times would remember jealousy on this subject.


With respect to

the other object contemplated by my hon. Prince Alfred, with regard to whom in Friend the welfare of the Prince himself, every respect we have reason to entertain which, as my hon. Friend says, would be the most favourable anticipations. He is seriously compromised if we supposed it one whose illustrious birth has been accompossible that this annuity could be impro- panied by an education, careful and judicious, vidently used, I would make this remark. as becomes his high station and its responI am bound to say that the more absolute sibilities; who has matured many manly this grant is to the Crown—and this is a and valuable qualities in the pursuit of a grant to the Crown, and not to Prince profession which is dear to the people of Alfred—the more does the House dis- this country, and who is endowed by nature charge itself of responsibility and make it with gifts and talents which make him in difficult for any renewal of the demand on every way worthy to be the son of his disParliament. If we were to attempt any tinguished father. It is not, therefore, limitations on the Crown as to the mode of from anything connected with the character dealing with the annuity, we should be of Prince Alfred—and I am quite sure I more likely to lay ourselves open to a re- am now speaking for my hon. Friend as dewal of these demands. I speak in the well as myself—that this short discussion abstract. Practically, as it is not pro- has taken place, but upon the grounds of bable the contingency will occur, we need general prudence which it is the duty of not apprehend any likelihood of the kind. the Government and of Members of Parliaof the precise legal incidents attached ment invariably to keep in view. to this annuity it is not for me to speak Motion agreed to. with great confidence. My hon. Friend will observe that the Bill leaves it to

Bill read a second time, and committed

for To-morrow. Her Majesty to determine the manner and the conditions of the grant of the

House adjourned at a quarter annuity. I apprehend that this being

before Three o'clock. a grant to the Crown, and intended for a permanent provision for the Prince, Her Majesty will proceed in the regular course to execute a deed, and on the terms of that deed will depend the precise legal inci- HOUSE OF LORDS, dents of this annuity. I think I may venture to assure my hon. Friend that this Thursday, March 1, 1866. annuity will not be in the position of property which can be conveyed away. Beyond MINUTES.)-Several Lords took the Oath. that I do not know that it is possible to go,

Select COMMITTEES-On Standing Orders, The

Earl of Belmore added in the room of the late because we are all perfectly well aware

Earl of Donoughmore; on Cattle Plague (27), that indirect understandings may be entered The Marquess of Bath added. into between those who borrow and those who lend, and attempts to fetter or pre- THE CATTLE PLAGUE-SLAUGHTER vent such understandings commonly have

OF CATTLE. no other effect except that of raising the


PETITION. OBSERVATIONS. rate of interest on the money lent. quite agree in the prudence of my hon. THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH said, he Friend's view, with respect to placing this had to present a Petition signed by cattle annuity in a position of absolute certainty, salesmen of Edinburgh, and by several 80 that it may not be taken away from the other persons interested in the importation person for whose benefit it is intended. I of cattle, praying for the Amendment of confess, however, I think he may rest at the Cattle Plague Bill. The petitioners ease upon this subject. Having made these referring to the Cattle Diseases Act passed observations, which apply to such a contin- the other day, which stated that no anigency as he has mentioned, it is but just, mals imported by sea to any port of Great fair, and respectful to the Royal Family Britain should be removed from that place that I should say on my own part, and I am alive except by sea, said that in a clause sure I may say so on the part of my hon. in the Bill now before their Lordships' Friend, that these remarks are made on House there was power reserved that anithe one side and on the other on grounds mals imported into London, Leith, Bristol, purely abstract and general, and that they and Liverpool might be removed to certain have no reference whatever to the case of slaughterhouses under licence of the local

The Chancellor of the Exchequer

authority. In reference to the port of LORD BERNERS rose to call attention Granton, however, there was no provision, to a communication which he had received and the petitioners prayed Granton, to that afternoon on the subject of the cattle which nearly all the trade of Edinburgh plague. The writer said he regretted to in foreign cattle came, might be included learn that cows were still imported into in that clause. He wished also to draw London from Holland and smuggled into their Lordships' attention to the enormous sheds, and that in many instances they loss which had been inflicted upon a num- came either from infected districts or ber of persons in consequence of the opera- passed through infected provinces. tion of the Act which had been passed with trusted that an immediate inquiry into the such extraordinary baste—with almost as subject would be instituted. When it was much haste as the Habeas Corpus Suspen. taken into consideration that already no sion Act. The result had been that in the fewer than a million and a half of cattle northern part of the island the provisions had been sacrificed, every one must allow of the Act were not known before it had that the strictest measures ought to be come into operation. In consequence of taken in order to prevent animals from this, numbers of animals which had been being brought into the country in the sent by sea and also by railway had been manner he had referred to. intercepted at different points of their jour- THE EARL OF LICHFIELD said, he ney. In one instance seventy animals were understood that the Select Committee landed at Granton from Orkney, and un- which had been appointed to consider the infected districts; and yet they could not Cattle Plague Bill would meet to-morrow, be taken to Edinburgh for slaughter, be- and he therefore wished to know whether cause, having come by sea, the railways the Government intended to insert any were forbidden to carry them, and they provision in that Bill for the proper treatcould not be driven along the highway. ment of cattle conveyed by railroad and in Some of them were conveyed by steam steamboats. In the despatch of Her Matugs from Grantou to Leith, whilst others jesty's Consul General at Odessa, dated remained at Granton unhoused, with the the 8th of January, there was this pasgreatest difficulty to feed them and with no sageproper means of slaughter. Their Lord

“ It is to be observed that the disease rages ships would recollect that the mere slaugh- more violently in the south of Russia than in tho ter of animals was not sufficient, because north ; that it generally breaks out in autumn, the carcasses must be dressed before they and not during the great frosts. Therefore it could be legally removed from the place of seems clear that cold is not only far from being

the first cause of it, but has not even any influslaughter. He had received a letter com

ence over it. It is well remembered that before plaining that thirteen loaded cattle trucks the year 1846 (when free trade in corn began had also been stopped on the railway at with England), and when Odessa exported much Carstairs, a station which was in the mid-less grain to foreign countries than now, this disdle of a moor, where there were no means

ease was very rare, but it appeared always after either of housing or feeding the cattle. If these wars occasioned a great deal of cartage for

every campaign in the wars with Turkey. Now, the owners had received timely notice of the commissariat of the army. The waggons used what was about to be enacted, they might by the commissariat were drawn by bullocks, who have sent the cattle away and so avoided were thus forced to make long journeys during the heavy loss to which they had been sub- where no pasture or wholesome water could be

the great heats of summer across arid steppes jected, and no less than 5,000 cattle had found, the plague soon seized them, and they rotbeen stopped at different places ; and all ted and died in great numbers.” this had happened in consequence of the Again, the Consul General observedwant of proper notice of the Act coming

“ This seems to be really the sole cause of this into operation. The loss consequent upon terrible disease, and the waggons returning to this state of things was a heavy fine to their several homes spread it throughout the impose upon the unfortunate owners of the country.cattle because of the excessive haste with The manner in which cattle were treated which the measure had been forced through in steamboats and railway trucks was of Parliament. In conclusion, he moved that itself sufficient to account for the outbreak the petition which he had presented should of disease among the animals. Certainly, be referred to the Select Committee to it must be well known that when those which the Cattle Plague Bill had been animals arrived at their destination they referred.

were in a conditon which rendered it im. Motion agreed to.

possible that they could resist any contagion or disease. He had received from a the Report of the Board of Trade, which gentleman a letter containing this state- was laid on the table some days ago ment

and circulated among your Lordships, “ A truck containing nine horses was forwarded that there are no less than thirty-six from Manchester to Stoke yesterday, the horses different Railway Bills affecting the me. intended for the knacker's yard at Hanley. On

tropolis at present before Parliament. I arriving at Stoke four of the animals were dead from suffocation, and the remainder in such a

understand that these schemes involve state that Mr. Campbell, the magistrate, ordered capital to the amount of very nearly them to be killed on the spot. The trucks con- £20,000,000, and I find that these lines taining nine horses measured 12ft. 3in. by 9ft." run in all directions and at various levels, Animals in the charge of dealers and some above ground, some under ground, others frequently had to travel very long some only partially covered, and some rundistances in steamers and railway trucks ; ning on the level of the street. I may and he feared that in very many instances remind the House of the course adopted the poor beasts were without water or food in 1863 with respect to this class of Bills. during the entire journey. He hoped that when an almost equally large number of in the Bill now before their Lordships' railway schemes were launched, and a House the Government would insert a clause panic was created at the consequences for the proper treatment of the animals which those schemes, if allowed to take on railways and on steamboats. The their

pre- course, would involve, your Lordsent system was disgraceful.

ships will remember that a Committee EARL GRANVILLE hoped his noble was appointed to consider the whole quesFriend would excuse him, but as three or tion, and they agreed to various recomfour Questions were now asked each even- mendations. The undoubted purport of ing without notice, it was time to revert to these recommendations was to impress on the regular practice of requiring a notice. Parliament the necessity of exercising the

The EARL OF LICHFIELD observed, greatest care and discretion in dealing with that he had not concluded with a Ques- railways in the metropolis -and above all, tion, but with a suggestion.

so to deal with them that there should be LORD FEVERSHAM asked the Presi- a uniformity in the system adopted. But, dent of the Council when it was likely the in order to make the matter more clear, Select Committee on the Cattle Plague the Committee made a special recommendaBill would report, and when the third tion to the effect that all the Bills for railreading would be taken ?

ways in the metropolis before they went to EARL GRANVILLE said, that though the second reading should be subjected to the noble Lord had given him ample notice a preliminary inquiry, and that after the of his Question, he was quite unable to second reading all such Bills having any answer it.

connection with each other should be sub

mitted to one and the same Committee. RAILWAYS IN THE METROPOLIS.

But in the following year, 1864, Par

liament went beyond the recommendation QUESTION.

of the Committee of 1863. A Joint THE EARL OF CARNARVON : My Committee, consisting of five Members Lords, I rise, in pursuance of notice, To of this and five Members of the other inquire of Her Majesty's Government their House, were appointed, and they drew intentions with regard to the various Bills up a very valuable Report. They disaffecting Railway Communication in the allowed some Bills ; they allowed others to Metropolitan District now before Parlia- follow the ordinary course of legislation ; ment. And I do 60 the more readily and as to the rest, they laid down certain in consequence of an opinion intimated principles which were not to be departed in another place a few nights ago, which from, but which, I imagine, would be deopinion, I would hope, is not a fixed one parted from if the present proposed Bills on the part of the Government. The were allowed to pass as they now stand. intimation to which I allude, my Lords, I am very much surprised to see that a was to the effect that in respect of the similar course has not been adopted in the Railway Bills for the metropolitan districts present Session. But, on the contrary, promoted in the present Session, there is the Board of Trade wind up a statement no necessity for departing from the ordinary on the subject of the Metropolitan Bills by course of legislation. I hope that that saying it is not necessary that the course conclusion is not final. It appears from taken last Session should be followed now,

The Earl of Lichfield

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