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sense here too. Unfortunately, too, neither bank

nor shoal possesses in Shakespeare the meaning

which this interpretation gives them. Bank means
NOTES :- Shakspeariana, 1-Honorary Degrees, 3-Curlliana a "river-bank" or "sea-shore," never a “ bank
-Railway Tickets, 4-Steele and the Charterhouse-Abbott

encircled by water.” Except the present passage
Family-Three Sovereigns in one Year-Order against Games,

Dr. Murray quotes no example earlier than 1696
5-Miss Foote-Louvima-Verification of Quotations, 6.

of bank used in the latter sense. Shoal, used only
QUERIES :-Chaffer-Challis-Chaise longue-Chad Pennies

once by Shakespeare-"the depths and shoals of
-Egotism--Macready, 7-Letting the Lightning out-E. J. I
Conroy - Bishops Jackson and Lloyd - The Sorbonne - honour” (“Henry VIII.,' III. ii. 437)—has its
Henry IV. and Mary de Bohun-Confucius-Hugo Lloyd- usual meaning of “shallow water," not" land left
Title of Book of Hymns-Certifago, 8-Rockall-Servants bare by the receding of shallow water.” In the
to Kings - Death of Charles I.-Westmorland Dialect-

latter sense Shakespeare uses shelf, which, in fact,
Authors Wanted, 9.

with some plausibility, Warburton suggested here
REPLIES :-Mark Lemon, 9 - Tête-à-Tête Portraits - Row- for "schoole." I simply propose to read “this
landson-Moon-lore, 10-Sprig of Shillelah'-Booted Mis- |

bank and shore of time." Compare 'Richard III.,'
sion-Up-Helly-A, 11 - Church Bells – Catsup-Reference
Wanted, 12- Caradoc-Book by General Outram-Royal

IV. iv. 525 :
Offering-Cathedrals - Berthold's Political Handkerchiet"

Send out a boat
-Lapp Folk-Tales, 13-Snead-St. Malan-Scarron-Ver Unto the shore, to ask those on the banks,
non-Norfolk Song. 14-Title of Novel-John Hamilton-

I have noted seven other instances in Shakespeare
Barum Missal-Shakspeare-Hide-Motion of the Sun, 15-
Rebecca-Hussar Pelisse, 16-Portraits — Sons of Edward

in which the two words occur synonymously in
III.-Roman Wall, 17-Standing up at the Lord's Prayer close connexion. Life is then regarded as the shore
Mr. Justice Rokeby-Lindsey House-Wills of Suicides from which the blind leap is made into eternity's
Authors Wanted, 18.

ocean, The oft-repeated phrase of Latin poets, in
NOTES ON BOOKS :-Dictionary of National Biography, luminis oras, occurs at once as a parallel, to which
Vol. XV.-Lang's Perrault's Popular Tales'-Clouston's

we may add Shakespeare's own "shores of mor-
The Book of Noodles '-' The Encyclopædic Dictionary,'
Vol. VII. Part I.

tality" ( Pericles,' V. i. 195).
Notices to Correspondents, &c.

My last note on this subject shall be strictly
conservative. In V. ii. 14,-

For certain

He cannot buckle his distemper'd cause

Within the belt of rule,

the word cause has been quite undeservedly, I
THE TEXT OF 'MACBETH.' (Concluded from 7th think, suspected, and by Sidney Walker, Collier,
S. v. 323.)—Since communicating my former notes Dyce, and singer rejected in favour of course. Thé
on this subject to 'N. & Q' it has occurred to me question of Rosencrantz, in “Hamlet,' III. ii. 350,
to examine the text of a passage which I had pre | Good my lord, what is your cause of dis-
viously supposed to have been emended in so satis-temper ?” as well as 'John,' III. iv. 12, “Such
factory a manner as not to admit of further ques- temperate order in so fierce a cause," should surely
tion. In Macbeth's soliloquy in I. vii. Theobald's give the rash emendator pause. In what sense,
correction of "bank and shoal of time" for“Banke then, are we to take cause ? Surely not, as the
and Schoole of time" finds place in almost every Clarendon Press editors do, as the disorganized
edition. The defence of the Folio reading by those party of Macbeth; the context is fatal to such a
who interpret it as a sort of ev dià dvoiv, meaning view. Caithness says, “Some people call his con-
“on this school-bench of life," cannot be regarded duct madness, others valiant fury"; at a loss which
seriously. On the other band, there is much to be hypothesis to adopt, he chooses the word distemper,
said in favour of Theobald's reading, taking it, as which in Shakespeare is applied to both conditions.
the Clarendon Press editors do, as comparing | There is no question at all of Macbeth's followers,
human life to “a narrow strip of land in an but only of the nature of his violence. In clas-
ocean." Yet examination will, I think, show con- sically-derived words used by Shakespeare it is
clusively that the reading and interpretation are always the safe plan to refer to the Latin dic-
equally untenable. Presumably the Clarendon tionary. Turning to Lewis and Short's 'Dic-
Press editors take bank as "sand-bank," and tionary'I find under “Causa," " In medic. lang. a
shoal as its practical synonym, i. e., land covered cause for disease...... Hence in late Latin for dis-
at times by shallow water. But if so, what a ease,for which various authorities are cited. Causa
strange notion is this of a man who jumps from a is, in fact, what in modern medical, as well as legal,
sand-bank into the shoaly waters of the sea! Is language is called a “case,” i.e., the matter at
not this an extraordinary way of picturing the leap issue. “ Distemper'd cause," then, I take to mean
into eternity's gulf? Jump no doubt means his “malady of distemper," and in the same sense
tropically "to risk," as the Clarendon Press the passage above quoted from ' Hamlet,' where it
editors demonstrate, but it clearly has its literal is to be noted that the expression is "your cause

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