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ed statisties; in prose literature, ting moment back to their former through the inveterate building-up and better selves; -why, all these of tombs to the prophets; in poetry, problems, we say, find in the preby the reiteration of approved me- sent aspect of English and Contitaphors, and the shooting down, or nental schools forcible and vivid rather the re-serving up, of whole illustration, cartloads laden with old materials. With the guidance of some such

Thus, as we have said, do we see principles as those just enunciated, on all sides, and in every direction, it were interesting to trace the pediboundless stores wherewith to con- gree and to pronounce upon the struct an elaborate eclecticism. antecedents of the styles of high And far be it from us to call in art, of domestic incident, and of question the originality which may landscape, which are now dominant remain possible notwithstanding, in our Exhibitions. It were inand even, perhaps, through the aid structive to show how the grand of this systematic copyism. We school of Italy was carried to the believe, for example, the picture shore of Britain, how it suffered already quoted, The Messenger at shipwreck, and then, at a moment the Wells of Moses,' is just as ori- when all might be deemed lost, how ginal as works produced in any up it rose once more into life, though prior epoch. A scrutiny into the in garb bow changed, in the works history and development of art dis- of Mr. Leighton and Mr. Watts. In covers a slow, sure, and accumula- like manner, though with much tive progression, step by step. The more detail and precision, we should building which we worship as a desire to set forth the causes which wonder of the world was put to- at this moment conspire towards gether stone by stone; and even the literal naturalism manifest on the original conception of the archi- the walls of every gallery in the tect, if original it ever were, will country. And then coming to be found to be but a conglomerate specific departments, it were a task, of scattered elementary ideas, which if not tempting, at least profitable, prior men had conceived and put to trace the various styles of porinto rudimentary form. We dwell trait-painting back to their historic with emphasis upon this line of originals--to point out how Vandyke thought, because it is this eclectic and Titian formed our English cism, this compilation, and the Reynolds--how their manner, broad growth that comes from concerted in handling and senatorial or plepower, which can alone enable the beian in bearing just as the subject critic and connoisseur to adjudicate might suggest, descended upon Waton the merits, and to decide upon son Gordon, Knight, and others of the coming prospects, of our English the school and then how, when school. Scarcely more certain are people grew perhaps a little tired of the laws which guide the planets, being painted after the good old fashthan the dynamics which impel, and ion in which their grandfathers and yet control, the cycloid movements grandmothers descended to poster. of the arts. How genius repeats ity, suddenly set in a reaction; and herself, and yet is never twice the so Sandys, with the detail of Van same; how the arts retrace their Eyck and Holman Hunt, in the former steps, and yet never tread severity of Albert Durer, rise to precisely along the same path; how the zenith. The multiplication of they gather strength in their orbit, small cabinet-pictures after the and gain progressive velocity as Dutch practice demands no elaborthey approach to central nature, ate analysis. A school so simply which stands as the sun in the fir. naturalistic springs indigenous to mament; and then again, at sea- every soil; as a way-side flower it sons, how wildly they wander into blooms in all hedgerows, and dedarkness, only to return at the fit. mands little culture save such as

dened by the stirring stroke of music, and passionate with love's outburst. Here are lavished the gay. est of colours; here are arrayed the most picturesque of costumes; here shine faces bright as flowers, sparkling with eyes brilliant as gems. In a scene such as this, which most travellers witness in Seville or Granada, Mr. Phillip is triumphant. Mr. Lewis may have portrayed Spain with minute detail, but no one has caught, like Mr. Phillip, the very life of these children sporting in the passionate south. The post of honour in the large room has, by an error in judgment, been assigned to “The Courtyard of the Coptic, Patriarch, Cairo,' by J. F. Lewis—a canvass which, as a mirror shattered in a thousand fragments, shows, the too crowded life of Cairo in direst confusion. Mr. Lewis, to our mind, has never been able to give to his oil pictures the matchless qualities, possessed by his drawings. Even the opacity of his water-colour pigments was redeemed by a brilliancy which in oilpaints is lost in dead density. We incline to the opinion, indeed, that for works within the limits of a cabinet size, no medium which the world has yet known attains excellencies which equal those now reached by the water-colour process, which is, in fact, tempera painted on paper in lieu of the ancient panel. Therefore in the interest of art, and with the remembrance of such drawings as the ‘Encampment on Mount Sinai,' we have again to question the policy of the step taken by Mr. Lewis, when he transferred his allegiance from the Old Water-Colour Gallery to the Academy in Trafalgar Square. Perhaps, however, the very best work which this artist. has yet executed in oil, is to be met with in the present Exhibition, under the title ‘Caged Doves, Cairo;' doves of two species caged in a diverse sense—a winged dove, the pet of a houri, who is herself caged in a harem. The lattice-work of the window floods a sparkling light, and casts a dappled

shade upon the green and gold of the lady's robe—a dazzling effect, of which this artist has been long fond, here carried to consummate perfection. Several other painters, such as Webb, Herbert junior, Walton, Fisk, and Goodall, have either visited the East in person, or sent as their delegate a photographic apparatus. With one exception, we must pass these respective products by, and that exception we of course make in favour of F. Goodall's ‘Messenger from Sinai at the Wells of Moses.” Mr. Goodall may be quoted as the representative of that careful, well-balanced, and eclective style, towards which our English school is now tending; ai style in which accurate drawing gives truth" and attains expression, in which close and detailed study is directed to strict topographic accuracy, wherein colour is forced up to a pitch little short of decorative splendour; and lastly, where composition becomes an intricate calculation, whereby all these several elements may be set off to best advantage. It is notorious that in art the world has arrived at an age in which everything has been in generations past already attempted and done. The Roman school was pre-eminent in form, the Venetian resplendent in colour, the Bolognese skilful in composition, and perhaps in any one of these separate qualities it is hard for us now in these last days to make an advance on the attainments of former times. Yet a super-excellence which may be impossible in dissevered units becomes practicable in a balanced and collective, whole. And this is just that eclecticism to which our English schools, whether of painting, of sculpture, or of architecture, are now tending—a proclivity, moreover, not limited to the domain of the arts, but extending into every realm of knowledge, –found in science, through her accumulative stores; in metaphysics, by the mass of chop-logic and seedy chaff; in political philosophy, by the heap of compiled maxims and tabulated statistics; in prose literature, through the inveterate building-up of tombs to the prophets; in poetry, by the reiteration of approved metaphors, and the shooting down, or rather the re-serving up, of whole artloads laden with old materials. Thus, as we have said, do we see on all sides, and in every direction, boundless stores wherewith to construct an elaborate eclecticism. And far be it from us to call in question the originality which may remain possible notwithstanding, and even, perhaps, through the aid of this systematic copyism. We believe, for example, the picture already quoted, “The Messenger at the Wells of Moses,’ is just as original as works produced in any prior epoch. A scrutiny into the history and development of art dis&fers a slow; sure, and accumulafire progression, step by step. The building which we worship as a wonder of the world was put toother stone by stone; and even the original conception of the architact, if original it ever were, will be found to be but a conglomerate of scattered elementary ideas, which Prior men had conceived and put into rudimentary form. We dwell with emphasis upon this line of thought, because it is this eclectiism, this compilation, and the growth that comes from concerted Power, which can alone enable the critic and connoisseur to adjudicate on the merits, and to decide upon the coming prospects, of our English Scarcely more certain are the laws which guide the planets, than the dynamics which impel, and yet control, the cycloid movements of the arts. How genius repeats herself, and yet is never twice the same; how the arts retrace their steps, and yet never tread Precisely along the same path; how they gather strength in their orbit, ind gain progressive velocity as they approach to central nature, which stands as the sun in the firmament; and then again, at seasons, how wildly they wander into darkness, only to return at the fit

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ting moment back to their former and better selves; — why, all these problems, we say, find in the present aspect of English and Contimental schools forcible and vivid illustration. With the guidance of some such principles as those just enunciated, it were interesting to trace the pedigree and to pronounce upon the antecedents of the styles of high art, of domestic io. and of landscape, which are now dominant in our Exhibitions. It were instructive to show how the grand school of Italy was carried to the shore of Britain, how it suffered shipwreck, and then, at a moment when all might be deemed lost, how up it rose once more into life, though in garb how changed, in the works of Mr. Leighton and Mr. Watts. In like manner, though with much more detail and precision, we should desire to set forth the causes which at this moment conspire towards the literal naturalism manifest on the walls of every gallery in the country. And then coming to specific departments, it were a task, if not tempting, at least profitable, to trace the various styles of portrait-painting back to their historic originals—to point out how Vandyke and Titian formed our English Reynolds—how their manner, broad. in handling and senatorial or plebeian in bearing just as the subject might suggest, descended upon Watson Gordon, Knight, and others of the school — and then how, when people grew perhaps a little tired of being painted after the good old fashion in which their grandfathers and grandmothers descended to posterity, suddenly set in a reaction; and so Sandys, with the detail of Wan Eyck and Holman Hunt, in the severity of Albert Durer, rise to the zenith. The multiplication of small cabinet-pictures after the Dutch practice demands no elaborate analysis. A school so simply naturalistic springs indigenous to every soil; as a way-side flower it blooms in all hedgerows, and demands little culture save such as nature in shower and sunshine bestows on her favoured children. Wilkie was, we all know, one of the first, among us who gathered this plant growing a little rudely and coarsely on the flat lands of Holland, and gave to the foundling a dressing more decorous. A glance into the Academy, or indeed at any of our Exhibitions, will at once indicate what industry, and aptitude painters, whose names are legion, have brought to the formation of this Anglo-Scottish or Dutch school. Webster, T. Faed, Hardy, Smith, Provis, and Nicol, not to enumerate others, form of themselves a phalanx sufficiently strong. As for our English landscape, the glory of our native art, its pedigree is soon told. Salvator Rosa and Gasper Poussin, who were still towers of strength down to the commencement of the present century, are now wholly overthrown in their ancient, dominion. Claude, however, is not yet quite forgotten. He still reigns in the elements of air and water; he yet, through the glories of Turner, who was more than a Claude for England, shines in the sunset sky and illumines the radiant, sea; and even in the present year, when a Danby enthrones the sun in mid-heaven, can we not wholly forget the tribute due to placid and poetic Claude, whose soul never found its surfeit in serene sunsets. Yet in this our analysis of the present phasis of England's landscape-art, we were indeed remiss not to mention the master to whom every one of our painters is alike indebted. . If we cast an eye to the works contributed by Creswick, Leader, the Linnells, Cole, Huline, Knight, and Brett, we cannot fail to see that these several artists in their studies have thought little of Salvator, Poussin, or Claude, but in simple earnestness devote their best days and years to nature. The old masters have been, for these

modern men, dead. No resuscita

tion or resurrection of a form or a life which has passed away, is by our present school of landscape painters desired or attempted. But one thing

they do earnestly strive to get upon canvas – the truth and the beauty which dwell among the hills and the woods and the streams. This they seek after, and not in vain. Having launched into general dissertation, we must now, in a few supplementary notes, concentrate attention upon some leading works which still remain without 'comment. In portraiture we have distinguished between schools of breadth and of detail. The portrait by F. Sandys may be quoted as a favourable example of the high finish known to Denner. Two full-length , figures, ‘Mr. James Hodgson' and “Mrs. Stewart Hodgson,’ by H. T. Wells, are commendable for the happy combination of a detail loved by Wan Eyck, with a colour in which a Titian might glory. When we possess native artists capable of painting pictures such as these, we scarcely understand wherefore Mr. Jensen should have been called upon to perpetrate two parodies upon ‘The Prince of Wales' and “The Princess of Wales,' — pictures which, by the prominent positions which they usurp, disfigure the Exhibition. By far the most felicitous rendering of Royalty comes from the easel of H. Weigall. ‘Alexandra, Princess of Wales,' painted by this artist, is certainly a work of much refinement and delicacy. Among the products which in balanced eclecticism happily blend varied excellencies, we must signalise Mr. Beccani's full-length figure of Lady Mary Fox, which ranks as one of the best portraits in the Exhibition. Lastly, as examples of the broad generalisation, which has descended in the English school from the time of Vandyke or of Rembrandt, we may enumerate the portraits of ‘General Cabrera,’ by J. P. Knight; ‘The Earl of Dalhousie,' by J. Phillip; and ‘John, Gibson,’ by W. Boxall. In the treatment of female heads, this manner, sometimes sturdy, is mitigated and softened, as in the heads of the Countess of House, by G. Richmond, and of the Hon. Mrs. J. Macdonald, by F. Grant. We have intentionally reserved the mention of several portraits, the closing works of Sir John Watson Gordon, in order to pay a tribute to the memory of this great and honoured painter. In style this artist possessed the charm of simplicity and the vigour of truth; few painters the world, has known could model a head with a firmer or bolder pencil. His name will henceforth go down to posterity not only as President of the Royal Academy of Scotland, not only through the grateful remembrance of the many services he conferred on artin the city of his birth, but likewise, as was the lot of Reynolds, through the illustrious men whose portraits will to future generations testify to the rare pictorial powers of this master-hand. The annals of Scotland owe to John Watson Gordon the noble portraits of Wilson, De Quincey, Cockburn, Chalmers, and Scott — pictures which now more than ever will be prized for two-sold reasons and accumulative associations. John Watson Gordon was, even to the last days of his long and active life, in the full pos: session of that vigour of hand and of intellect which have ever given to his works universal power. and worth. Within a comparatively few hours of his death he was able to devote to his profession his wonted zeal. The Academies of Scotland and of England, which his portraits have for many years adorned, will now mourn his loss—a loss which not only falls on the public at large, but a bereavement that cannot fail to be felt most acutely among private friends, to whom his simple straightforward character made him very dear. This seems a fitting ... place to record another loss which the Academy has sustained. William Mulrealy died in July last, full of ears and crowned with honours. present Exhibition is bereaved of those works which for half a century have been endeared to the public eye. To judge of the di'i

gence and the rare merit of this simple and truth-seeking artist, every student and lover of art should go to South Kensington, where the pictures, drawings, and sketches of William Mulready have been collected. The whole course of a long and laborious life is here illustrated, “from the first boyish fancy to the picture that stood unfinished on the easel” when the artist died, - a collection which forms “a worthy memorial of the great painter, who from his youth to the evening before his death was a workman in the service of art.” “I have,” said Mulready, in the evidence given before the Royal Academy Commission, “from the first moment I became a visitor in the Life School, drawn there as if I were drawing for a prize.” The evidence of this untiring devotion lies before usin the instructive series of paintings and studies wherein one of the greatest among our British artists has transcribed, as it were, a detailed autobiography. It is indeed most interesting to mark how the nascent o, as it first dawned, was jotted down in the short-hand of the painter's art; how, at a subsequent stage of development, the embryo idea grew into a draughtman's study or cartoon, till at length colour—and a colour how subtle and exquisite those who know these works most intimatel will best appreciate — being .. the picture, thoroughly mature, became, after its kind, little short of perfect. Mulready assuredly, in all the technical qualities of his art, was not surpassed by the most dexterous of the Dutch mas

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