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French took care that the import. great risk of failure. The protance and true character of his de- vinces of Sonora and Lower Calisign should be generally known fornia, especially, with their rich No man knows better than he the mines, will tempt the cupidity of the power which a policy derives from Americans in California ; and these the support of public opinion. He provinces lie so remote from the wished to get the moral sense of capital, and the means of communiEurope on his side, and to prove to cation with them are so extremely France that the "idea", was one defective, that the Mexican Governwhich was worthy of a great nation ment will have much difficulty in dewhich aspires to be the leader offending them in the event of their civilisation. He intrusted the task being attacked.' In order to secure of exposition to one of his Senators her north-western provinces, adjoinwhose character for impartiality is 'ing the Pacific, from attack, Mexico as well known as his high intel. must have a fleet, or else obtain the i lectual powers, and who enjoys a assistance of a naval squadron from celebrity greater than any which France. If the civil war in the can be conferred by the favour of United States terminates, as it Courts. Michel Chevalier is the seems likely to do, in a permanent ablest political economist on the disruption of the Union, the Mexi. Continent, he is a man of facts, can Government may find support and of sound and careful reasoning; in one or other of the riyal sections so that he was eminently fitted to into which its colossal neighbour be an expositor of the imperial will break up. But this is a very policy upon whose judgment and doubtful support to rely upon; and integrity the public could rely. He if the Mexicans are wise, they will has produced a work upon Mexico* act as men who know they are enwhich goes far beyond the scope of joying a breathing time, and that ere the present intervention, and which long they must confide in their own gives a clear and solid exposition energies to defend their territories of the condition and history of the and maintain their independence. country from the earliest times of - As regards the immediate diffiwbich we have any knowledge culties which surround the new down to the present day. Although Government, M. Chevalier . eviwarmly approving the motive which dently considers that the most seriled to the Napoleonic intervention ous is that which may arise from in Mexico, he nowhere shows the the conduct of the Pope from the slightest trace of the spirit of a par- policy of the very Church which tisan. He views everything clearly the Emperor takes under his special and dispassionately, and takes full protection. In order to regenerate account of the difficulties which Mexico, says M. Chevalier, it is inbeset this attempt to establish a dispensable that the Government stable Mexican empire.. . should secularise and take into

The greatest danger' which besets its own mana:ement the immense the new empire, manifestly arises property of the Church; by which from the ill-will with which the means the finances of the State Americans of the United States would be played on' a prosperous will regard an undertaking which footing, without really in pairing has for its olject to rob them of the resources of the clerical body. their prey. Either the new Mexi- But the Pope has hitherto shown can empire must be established on himself strongly op: osed to any solid foundations before the termi- such project; and M. Chevalier nation of the civil war in the United staies that the influence of the clerStates, or the project will run a gy is so great among the Mexicans,

+ Mexico, Ancient and Modern.' By M. Michel Chevalier, Senator, and Meinber of the Institute of France.

that no Government can secure less be drawn into the country: an adequate amount of popularity The mines of the precious metals which sets itself in opposition to will likewise engage the eager atthe Head of the Church. Is, then, tention of the Government, as the the Pope to make the required con- , most promising of all the immediate cession, or is the new Emperor to resources of the State. Two-thirds find himself surrounded by disaffec- of all the silver circulating in the tion, arising from the great influ- world has been produced from the ence of the clergy over the minds mines of Mexico. Nevertheless, of the people ? Before embarking the mineral wealth of the country for his new empire, the Archduke can hardly be said to have yet been visited Rome to obtain the bene- explored; and probably Humboldt diction of the Pope, and also doubt was right in his conjecture, that if less to endeavour to procure & the mines of Mexico be adequately favourable settlement of this im- worked, Europe will again be inunportant question. We have not dated with silver as in the sixteenth heard that the Archduke succeeded century. In any case we may exin the latter and more important pect that, ere long, the produce of part of his mission. He got a bless, the Mexican mines will to a great ing on his voyage, but, probably, a extent redress the balance of the non possumus as regards all else. precious metals, and prevent any

Ere this, the new Emperor will derangement in the relative value have landed at Vera Cruz, amid of gold and silver by adding largesalvoes of artillery, and will have ly to the supplies of the latter commenced his royal progress to metal. Let us hope also that, as the capital. On the way, he will soon as the finances of the State have abundant evidence of the permit, the Emperor will seek to fallen condition of the country; and restore his capital the noblest city when the magnificent valley of Ana- which the Spaniards ever built in huac opens upon him, he will see the New World to its former how ample are the triumphs which splendour, and make it worthy await him if he succeeds in his of its magnificent site, which is mission. Doubtless his first act hardly rivalled, and certainly not will be to assemble a council of surpassed, by any in the world. the notables, the leading men in the Let him do in some degree for country, to ascertain from them the Mexico what Napoleon has accomwants of the nation, and to obtain plished for Paris. Let him employ their co-operation in the measures the crowds of beggars, which disfirequisite to reorganise the state gure the streets in works of embeland regenerate the people. Order lishment and public utility - theremust first be established, and the by arousing them to a life of honest administrative system put upon an industry, and at the same time efficient footing. The work of re- making his renovated capital a generation will necessarily be a beautiful and stately symbol of the slow one, and years must elapse be- happy change which in like manner, fore much progress can be made we trust, will be accomplished in in awaking the energies and de- the country at large. veloping the resources of the coun. If the new Emperor has difficultry. Mexico is almost roadless, and ties to encounter, he has also many the cost and difficulty of transport advantages. Although a stranger, at present are serious obstacles to a majority of the people will receive the development of the export him as a monarch of their own trade. A railway from Vera Cruz choice, and the remainder will to the capital will probably be the readily acquiesce in the new regime. first great public work undertaken He has no native rivals: there is by the new Government; and in no old sovereignty to be overborne the execution of this work, foreign -- no old traditions of government capital and enterprise will doubt- to be encountered and supplanted.

French took care that the importtance and true character of his design should be generally known. No man knows better than he the power which a policy derives from the support of public opinion. He wished to get the moral sense of Europe on his side, and to prove to France that the “idea” was one which was worthy of a greatination which aspires to be the leader of civilisation. He intrusted the task of exposition to one of his Senators whose character for impartiality is as well known as his high intellectual powers, and who enjoys a celebrity greater than any which can be conferred by the favour of Courts. Michel Chevalier is the ablest political economist on the Continent, — he is a man of facts, and of sound and careful reasoning; so that he was eminently fitted to be an expositor of the imperial policy upon whose judgment and integrity the public could rely. He has produced a work upon Mexico" which goes far beyond the scope of the present-intervention, and which gives a clear and solid exposition of the condition and history of the country from the earliest times of which we have any knowledge down to the present day. Although warmly approving the motive which led to the Napoleonic intervention in Mexico, he nowhere shows the slightest trace of the spirit of a partisan. He views everything'clearly

great risk of failure. The provinces of Sonora and Lower California, especially, with their rich mines, will tempt the cupidity of the Americans in California; and these provinces lie so remote from the capital, and the means of communication with them are so extremely defective, that the Mexican Government will have much difficulty in defending them in the event of their being attacked. In order to secure her north-western provinces, adjoining the Pacific, from attack, Mexico must have a fleet, or else obtain the assistance of a naval squadron from France. If the civil war in the United States terminates, as it seems likely to do, in a permanent disruption of the Union, the Mexi

..can Government may find support

and dispassionately, and takes full

account of the difficulties which beset this attempt to establish a stable Mexican empire. The greatest danger which besets the new empire, manifestly arises from the ill-will with which the Americans of the United States will regard an undertaking' which has for its olject to rob them of their prey. Either the new Mexican empire must be established on solid sourdations before the termination of the civil war in the United States, or the project will run a

in one or other of the rival sections into which its colossal neighbour will break up. But this is a very doubtful support to rely upon; and if the Mexicans are wise, they will act as men who know they are enjoying a breathing time, and that ere long they must confide in their own energies to defend their territories and maintain their independence. As regards the immediate difficulties which surround the new Government, M. Chevalier evidently considers that the most serious is that which may arise from the conduct of the Pope—from the policy of the very Church which the Emperor takes under his special protection. In order to regenerate Mexico, says M. Chevalier, it is indispensable that the Government should 'secularise and take into its own management the immense property of the Church; by which means the finances of the State would be placed on a prosperous footing, without really impairing the resources of the clerical body. But the Pope has hitherto shown himself strongly opposed to any such project; and M. Chevalier states that the influence of the clergy is so great among the Mexicans, that no Government can secure an adequate amount of popularity which sets itself in opposition to the Head of the Church. Is, then, the Pope to make the required concession, or is the new Emperor to find himself surrounded by disaffection, arising from the great influence of the clergy over the minds of the people? #: embarking for his new empire, the Archduke visited Rome to obtain the benediction of the Pope, and also doubtless to endeavour to procure a favourable settlement of this important question. ... We have not heard that the Archduke succeeded in the latter and more, important part of his mission. He got a blessing on his voyage, but, probably, a mon possumus as regards all else. Ere this, the new Emperor will have landed at Vera Cruz, amid salvoes of artillery, and will have commenced his royal progress to the capital. On the way, he will have abundant evidence of the fallen condition of the country; and when the magnificent valley of Anahuac opens upon him, he will see how ample are the triumphs which await him if he succeeds in his mission. Doubtless his first act will be to assemble a council of the notables, the leading men in the country, to ascertain from them the wants of the nation, and to obtain their co-operation in the measures requisite to reorganise the state and regenerate the people. Order must first be established, and the administrative system put upon an efficient footing. The work of regeneration will necessarily be a slow one, and years must elapse before much progress can be made in awaking the energies and developing the resources of the country. Mexico is almost roadless, and the cost and difficulty of transport at present are serious obstacles to the development of the export trade. A railway from Vera Cruz to the capital will probably be the first great public work undertaken by the new Government; and , in the execution of this work, foreign capital and enterprise will doubt

* “Mexico, Ancient and Modern.' By M. Michel Chevalier, Senator, and Member

of the Institute of France.

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less be drawn into the country. The mines of the precious metals will likewise engage the eager attention of the Government, as the most promising of all the immediate resources of the State. Two-thirds of all the silver circulating in the world has been produced from the mines of Mexico. Nevertheless, the mineral wealth of the country can hardly be said to have yet been explored; and probably Humboldt was right in his conjecture, that if the mines of Mexico be adequately worked, Europe will again be inundated with silver as in the sixteenth century. . In any case we may expect that, ere long, the produce of the Mexican mines will to a great extent redress the balance of the precious metals, and prevent any derangement in the relative value of gold and silver by adding largely to the supplies of the latter metal. Let us hope also that, as soon as the finances of the State permit, the Emperor will seek to restore his capital—the noblest city which the Spaniards ever built in the New World—to its former splendour, and make it worthy of its magnificent site, which is hardly rivalled, and certainly not surpassed, by any in the world. Let him, do in some degree for Mexico what Napoleon has accomplished for Paris. Let him employ the crowds of beggars, which disfigure the streets in works of embellishment and public utility — thereby arousing them to a life of honest industry, and at the same time making his renovated capital a beautiful and stately symbol of the happy change which in like manner, we trust, will be accomplished in the country at large. If the new Emperor has difficulties to encounter, he has also many advantages. Although a stranger, a majority of the people will receive him as a monarch of their own choice, and the remainder will readily acquiesce in the new regime. He has no native rivals: there is no old sovereignty to be overborne — no old traditions, of government to be encountered and supplanted. He is the first monarch after chaos. He succeeds to a long interregnum of anarchy which constitutes a mere blank in the history of the country. His throne will be raised upon ruins which are not of his making —upon the debris of a power which had crumbled into the dust half a century before his arrival. The founding of his empire is like building a city upon the site of another which had long perished, and with which the new one does not enter into rivalry, but simply replaces. England wishes him And among the strange events of the future it may possibly happen that the House of Hapsburg may be the head of a great and flourishing empire in the New World after the original empire in Europe has been broken into pieces. The intervention in Mexico is a remarkable episode in the policy of Napoleon III., and as such will not fail to attract the regard of future historians. It is a task as novel as it is honourable for a monarch to attempt the regeneration of a country other than his own, to carry civilisation and prosperity into a region of the globe where they have fallen into decay,+even though he undertook the task primarily with a view to his own interests. To raise a country thrice as large as France

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has taken the first step which is proverbially so difficult. He has placed the Mexicans on a vantageground which they could not have obtained for themselves, and he gives to them a Government temporarily aided by his troops, recognised by the Powers of Europe, and possessing a fair amount of credit in other countries, by which the work of regenerating the moral and material condition of Mexico may be carried out. He has cleared away the old obstructions—he has founded the new empire; and whatever be the ultimate results of his enterprise, he has thereby added fresh laurels to his renown, which are all the more honourable since they are voted to him by the world at large. So far as it has gone, the intervention has been successful, and the Napoleonic idea has a good prospect of being fully realized. Meanwhile two important ends have been attained. The expedition has paid its expenses—the cost of the

intervention is to be refunded to

France by the new Government, which likewise takes upon itself the charge of maintaining the French troops which are to be left in Mexico. The enterprise, moreover, has successfully engaged the thoughts of the French people during a period when the Emperor found it advisable to remain at peace in Europe. France is still in a condition in which the stimulus of military action abroad is requisite to keep her quiescent at home. The Emperor's Mexican idea has served this purpose as well as others. And Europe has been thankful that the French have been amused otherwise than at her expense. But the Mexican idea, so far as regards the direct action of France, is now at an end; and, looking at the circumstances of Europe as well as at the fact that the Emperor's hands are again free, we think the Continental Powers may now feel as King John did when, at the close of the tournament at Ashby de la Zouch, he received the brief but significant warning, “The devil has got loose.”

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