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a government composed of rogues, Moldavians were capable of governfrom the Prince on the throne to ing themselves, it would be difficult the lowest clerk. The Moldavians to devise a form of government themselves, moreover, are absolutely suitable to their institutions. As useless. The whole industry of the there is no primogeniture, and country is in the hands of other the title of Boyard is not heredraces, who develop its resources in itary, the class possesses all the spite of the native population. If drawbacks of an aristocracy withthe Jewish community, for instance, out any of the advantages. It gives were suddenly to disappear, there no stability to society, while it would be utter collapse. The whole furnishes the frivolous, element. financial interests of the country There is no sympathy between the are in their hands. In Jassy, as in proprietor and his peasant, and no every little country town, the pop- middle-class connecting-link. The ulation is dependent upon Israel- consequence is that Prince Couza ites for its most trivial necessaries; has been able to perpetrate a coup they perform every function for d'état, and take a popular vote with society, except those which they perfect safety, the secret of his tacleave to the gypsies. These latter tics having been to enlist the peaconfine themselves almost exclu- santry against the proprietors, by sively to four walks in life; they allowing them to hold their lands at are invariably either musicians, & money instead of a service tenure. postilions, cooks, or blacksmiths. It will be more convenient, howUntil within the last eight years, ever, to consider the policy of Prince they were on a footing of serfdom Couza in connection with Wallaalmost identical with that of the chia, though the effects of the cenAmerican negro, but they may now tralisation of the government meet become emancipated on payment of one at every turn in Moldavia. The ten ducats a-head.

change incidental to passing from The remaining foreigners, of being an independent country into whom there is a great variety a province must always be disagreesprinkled all over the country, do able; but still the evils might have whatever these two predominating been mitigated, had Prince Couza, races leave undone; so that, in the by any one act of administration, end, the Moldavians contribute ab- shown any consideration for his own solutely nothing towards the com- province—had he, for instance, mercial, social, or political, well- encouraged the extension of the being of the community. Except- Lemberg and Czernowitz Railroad, ing the peasants, they we of no or even promoted the construction sort of use; they simply cumber of good carriage-roads in the prothe ground, and keep better men vince. At present there are scarcely off it. Such good ground as it is fifty miles of metalled road in all too! It follows that there is no Moldavia, and they existed before Moldavian middle class. A Mol- the union. In fact, the result of davian is either a boyard, an em- this measure, from which so much ployé, or a peasant; never, by any was anticipated, has been simply chance, anything else. The pea- that the plunder which two rulers sants have a certain amount of land formerly divided between them is allotted to each, in return for which now appropriated by one man, whose they give a proportion of service to power of mischief is on twice the the proprietor. In Wallachia they scale it used to be. There is no may transfer themselves to other end to the capabilities of Moldavia, estates upon giving a year's notice; if capital and enterprise, supported but in Moldavia they are fixed to the by good government, were only soil. In Wallachia the landlords are forthcoming. The mineral resources nearly all absentee; in Moldavia of the Carpathians are totally unthey live on their properties, which is developed, but that they exist on so far in their favour. Even if the a very large scale is not in doubt.


The soil is prolific and fertile, and the forbidden degrees of consancapable of producing corn, in pro- guinity, a fourth is permitted portion to its area, beyond any something on the principle of starother in Europe. The nature of ring a life at pool in billiards. In the the country lends itself expressly whole society of Jassy there was only to the construction of railroads : one woman who had not been divorcthere are no engineering difficulties, ed, but she had only been married a labour is abundant; and as forming few weeks. It naturally follows in a highway. for the corn produce of a limited society that the divorced Galicia, and immense back- couples are perpetually meeting country to the Black Sea, there can each other; and as they do not, in be no doubt whatever that it would the first instance, part on the ground pay. At a very little expense the of incompatibility of temper or any two large rivers which flow through domestic difference, but generally Moldavia to the Danube might be simply from love of change-or, in made navigable; and there is no other words, change of love-they reason why steamers should not remain perfectly good friends afterbriny Moldavian produce down the wards; and a woman introduces you Sereth and the Pruth from the in- first to her present husband as mon nermost recesses of the country. mari, and then to her late husband How easy, by a very small expendi- as mon ex-mari; so that it is ture of tact and honesty, to com- quite possible to find yourself dancpensate to the Moldavians for all ing in a set of lancers with seven they have lost by the union! One people, every one of whom has been would imagine that no more agree- married at some time in his or her able or grateful task could be found, life with each of the others. In than to have the power of producing this respect the system seemed prosuch vast and certain results. Not ductive of sociability and good-felonly would it consolidate the throne lowship rather than otherwise; and of the ruler, but it would give him a a great deal of the pleasure of personal satisfaction which he will society in these parts arises from never derive from the consciousness the intimate footing upon which that he is stealing the public funds; the members are with each other; and yet the nature of the chief for it is evident that, if all the papas ruler is so degraded, that he can and mammas have been husbands derive no higher gratification from and wives, all the children are, the exercise of that power which more or less, brothers and sisters. he has proved absolute, than when There are certain inconveniences using it for purposes of pillage. attending this great confusion of

It must be admitted that he has relationships ; but one advantage to bad material to work with ; his own the stranger is, that he finds himministers and employés being as self in a large family instead of in unscrupulous and dishonest as him- a stiff society, where some time self, he would have to import virtue must elapse before he feels himself from foreign countries to enable at home. him to carry out his plans, if he The Moldavians themselves are had any, for the welfare of the accustomed to defend the system on country. It is probable that the the score of morality. They maintain political immorality existing in these that the great facilities which exist Principalities is to be traced to a for divorces lessen the temptations great extent to the peculiar social to infidelity; but this is a theory conditions which exist in them. By which can scarcely be said to be the rule of the national Greek borne out by the results. Where Church, divorces may be obtained the marriage tie is so easily disthree times during a lifetime, both solved, even while it exists it parties consenting; and in the event is apt to lose much of its sacred of one of the marriages having been character; and however much may contracted between people within theoretically be urged in favour of

loosening the bonds of matrimony, and if there is an objection on the the experiment, as tried in the part of the other, society considers Principalities, is not encouraging. the question; nor are there any It is needless to point out the un- domestic details too minute for dishappiness to which such a state of cussion en plein comité. Where things may often give rise—where, art and literature are ignored, for instance, the marriage has lasted where newspapers are unread, and for an unusually long period, and the only subject of discussion is one of the parties is opposed to its local politics, which is soon exdissolution, but is forced into con- hausted, if it were not for the eversenting to it by the other-or where recurring incidents which society the children are separated from the furnishes by the very nature of its parent most attached to them. It composition, it would be indeed is true that, the society being small, dull; but there is a freshness and they can nearly always meet; but a piquancy about these topics which that does not compensate for the never lose their flavour. The old rupture of the home ties. The fact ladies, running through the circumis, that home ties, as we under- stances attendant upon all their stand them, necessarily cannot ex- own divorces, bring the benefit of ist, and that it would not do for a the accumulated experiences of young person in these countries to four marriages to bear for the benebe troubled with too much depth of fit of the young friend who is makfeeling. There is a good deal of ing, under their advice and instrucpassion and of caprice; but where tion, her second matrimonial venthe men cannot claim the respect of ture. To a stranger it seemed odd the women, it is evident that the to sit and discuss with the indivionly kind of affection worth any- dual most interested, whether she thing-that which is based upon ought to change her husband now esteem-is unknown. Both men or put off that function, and to and women, consequently, very eas- hear advice given after dinner openily get over their love-affairs, and ly upon the subject; then, perhaps, domestic troubles do not exist, be- to see the couple in the same room, cause there is nothing domestic in though if things had come to this the country-not even annoyance. stage, they were each devoted in a Everything is canvassed in the small different direction, generally with society, and the chief topics of con- the view of preparing something versation are the changes and chan- beforehand; for it is considered the ces of that matrimonial life which height of absurdity and imprudence is 80 singularly composed. The to allow a divorce to come upon family is society at large. Every- you suddenly, and to find yourself body's private affairs are common stranded without either a husband property, and the most delicate in esse or in posse. questions of existence are referred In giving this description of soby both parties to the world. There ciety as it exists in these countries, is a charming confidence existing I do not mean to pass any unkind between society and the individuals criticism upon it. Unless one is who compose it, and who confide prepared for it, there is something in it, enlist its sympathies, and, in rather startling when one rememcases of differences, endeavour to bers that one is still in Europe; gain its suffrages. Thus, before a but every country has its peculiar divorce takes place, the pros and conventional standard, and ours is cons form the principal topic of con- not perhaps so perfect that we can versation at every evening reunion. afford to carp too much at our The husband has his friends, the neighbour's. Their religion sancwife hers; for although it is not tions the principle, or, as we should necessary to quarrel before this de- call it, the want of principle, upon scription of separation, still the pro- which society exists, and their conposition has to come first from one; sciences do not reproach them; but

it does seem that the more it is up amid discussions derogatory to examined the less can be said in its their parents in particular, and to favour. Whatever be the cause, there the sexes in general, to acquire a can be no doubt that, as a race, the sense of honour? If possible, the Moldo-Wallachians do not occupy a standard will get lower and lower high position in European estima- with each new generation, and the tion, and one cannot help thinking only way to raise it would be by that their religious and social views sending the children to be educated have something to do with it. It in countries where virtue, public has been so much the habit of tra- and private, is considered essential vellers to accept their hospitality to the respect of the community, and and then to abuse them, that it is where vices are visited with its conwith hesitation one ventures to give demnation. Such a thing as being impressions more or less unfavour- expelled from society is unknown able to the general existing state of in the Principalities, simply because things; but their amiable qualities it would be impossible for a man cannot blind one to what appears to to commit any crime bad enough us evils in their society; nor can for such a fate. There is no reason their warm hospitality and lavish why all this should not be changed. generosity prevent one from stating The moral capabilities of the race opinions elsewhere, which it was may be as high as those of any useless to attempt to dissemble other, if they only had the chance even while in their society. It is of developing them; but they lathe earnest desire to see a new era bour under the disadvantage of dawn upon the country that leads being, in this remote corner of one to condemn the old; nor do Europe, the perpetual subject of the inhabitants express themselves intrigue to the great powers who satisfied with their political or so- protect them, and who have from cial condition, nor with the position the first set an example of polithey occupy in the eyes of Europe. tical immorality in every transThe peculiar relations in which the action connected with the destiny sexes stand towards each other ren- of these provinces. Whether they der cliivalry on the part of the men have contaminated the Powers, an impossibility. The sentiment or the Powers have contaminated is totally unknown among them, them, is difficult to determine; but and there is, consequently, no basis the atmosphere seems charged with for that sense of honour which intrigue -- social, political, national, should pervade every other relation and diplomatic. 'Before these counin life. No man who does not tries can be regenerated, they must know what is due to a woman can get rid of a protectorate which deform the faintest conception of what moralises them, of a Prince who is due to another man; for it is so plunders them, and of a religion much easier to fulfil the generous and which degrades them. Whether noble instincts of oue's nature in they would be in a better plight the former than in the latter case, separated from each other, ruled that we may take it for granted over by princes of foreign extracthat those who fail in the simplest tion, and unprotected by any, one, will fail in the most difficult duties which is their ambition; or incorof life.

porated into the two neighbouring The most melancholy considera- Powers, which is their dread, it is tion growing out of this state of difficult to determine. So far as things is that connected with the they are themselves concerned, no rising generation. How is it pos- change could be for the worse; and sible for children troubled with so far as the peace and tranquillity doubt from infancy as to who are of Europe are concerned, almost their nearest relations, trained in an any change would be for the atmosphere of deceit, and brought better.




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It was just as Bella said; Alice thing for those women whose grace had sent of that poor boy "twice and beauty win homage and devoas much in love as ever." Poor fel- tion thus to sport with the affeclow! what a strange conflict was tions of their worshippers, and that that that raged within him !-all in this exercise of a cruel power that can make life glorious, give they find an exquisite delight. But ecstasy to the present and hope to Alice was too proud and too highthe future, mingled with every- hearted for such an ignoble pastime. thing that can throw a gloom over But then he had read too that existence, and make it a burden and women sometimes fancy that, by å task. Must it be ever thus - encouraging a devotion they never must the most exquisite moments mean to reward, they tend to of our life, when we have youth elevate men's thoughts, ennobling and hope and health and energy, their ambitions, and inspiring be dashed with fears that make them with purer, holier hopes. us forget all the blessings of our Wbat if she should mean this, and lot and deem ourselves the most no more than this? Would not her wretched of created beings?

very hatred be more bearable than In this feverish alternation he such pity? For a while this cruel travelled along homeward - now thought unmanned him, and he thinking of the great things he sat there like one stunned and could do and dare to win her love, powerless. now forth-shadowing the time when For some time the road had led all hope should be extinguished, between the low furze-clad hills of and he should walk the world alone the country, but now they had and forsaken. He went over in gained the summit of a ridge, and memory-who has not done so at there lay beneath them that wild one time or other ?-all she had coast-line, broken with crag and said to him - at their last meeting, promontory towards the sea, and inasking what ground there might be land swelling and falling in every for hope in this, what reason for fanciful undulation, yellow with belief in that. With what intense the furze and the wild broom, but avidity do we seek for the sands of grander for its wide expanse than gold in this crushed and crumbled many, a scene of stronger features. rock! how eagerly do we peer to How dear to his heart it was! How catch one glittering grain that shall inexpressibly dear the spot that whisper to us of wealth hereafter! was interwoven with every incident

Surely, thought he, Alice is too of his life and every spring of his good and too true-hearted to give - hope! There the green lanes he me even this much of hope if she used to saunter with Alice-there meant me to despair. Why should the breezy downs over which they she offer to write to me if she in- cantered-yonder the little creek tended tbat I was to forget her? where they had once sheltered from "I wonder," muttered he, in his a storm; he could see the rock on dark spirit of doubt-"I wonder if which he lit a fire in boyish imitathis be simply the woman's way of tion of a shipwrecked crew! It treating a love she deems beneath was of Alice that every crag and her?'' He had read in some book cliff, every bay and inlet, spoke.. or other that it is no uncommon “And is all that happiness gone

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