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worthy but misguided man writes exercise the halo of a poetic himself, we perceive, J.P. on his mind. Neither can it be said of title-page ; and asks us to bear in him that he was popular with his mind that he is “author of Lady contemporaries. A tall gaunt figure, Morgan ; her CareerLiterary and manners rude, sometimes bordering Personal,' and of The Life, Times, upon boorishness, and an aptitude and Contemporaries of Lord Clon- in saying sharp things in season curry, &c.'” The letters J.P. stand, and out of season, offended the we presume, here as elsewhere, for multitude, who seldom care to look Justice of the Peace. Let us ex- far into the characters of those who press the hope that the Justice's tread upon their corns. But belaw is better than his literature. neath this rough exterior there As to 'Lady Morgan; her career, were qualities which gradually Literary and Personal,' and The worked to the surface and did their Life, Times, and Contemporaries of owner yeoman's service. CoppleLord Cloncurry,' we confess that stone, in particular, found out ere we never saw one or other of them. long that his queer-mannered pupil But if to Lady Morgan and Lord was no 'common man; and the Cloncurry Mr. Fitzpatrick has meted pupil, not much accustomed in those out the same measure of 'injustice days to be treated kindly, opened which he has dispensed to Arch- his heart to the tutor, and they bebishop Whately, then he will have came fast friends. Certainly there contrived to render two very silly, were few points of resemblance beand, to the utmost extent of their tween the constitutions, moral and poor ability, very pestilent people, intellectual, of the two men. But even more ridiculous after death the attachment thus commenced than they made themselves in their remained unbroken to the last; lifetime.
they shared each other's confidence Richard Whately, the hapless through life. victim of an Irish J.P's. attempt We are not prepared to say that at authorship, was the youngest son Whately ever deserved to be reof the Rev. Joseph Whately, one of garded as a great man; but he was, the Prebendaries of Bristol. He throughout the whole of a career was born on the first of February, which extended beyond the average 1786, in Cavendish Square, London, duration of human life, an able and during one of those temporary so- industrious man. As an undergrajourns in the capital with which his duate he lived a good deal alone, and family were accustomed to refresh was never idle. Besides holding his . themselves. After passing through own in classics and mathematics, & good private school, he was en- he studied French, German, and tered at Oriel College, Oxford, of Italian, and read a great deal of which Mr. Copplestone, subsequent- history, annoting as he went along. ly Provost, and by-and-by Dean of Logic, metaphysics, and, above all, St. Paul's and Bishop of Llandaff, political economy, likewise, attractwas then the classical tutor. Mr. ed his attention, for his talents were Whately's career as an undergrad- as discursive as his capacity of uate was respectable, but by no labour was immense. His powers means brilliant. He maintained a of conversation, also, though very fair place in the lecture-room, and peculiar, were always great. In generally acquitted himself well at general he harangued somewhat collections ; but he neither aston- after the fashion of Coleridge, ished his teachers, as the late Sir but controversy never came amiss William Hamilton did, by the ex- to him, and he was especially briltent and accuracy of his scholarship, liant when provoked to support a nor, like Keble, won both their fallacy or maintain a paradox. How admiration and affection by throw far his possession of these qualities ing over the commonest College may have helped him to the Fellow
ship which in 1811 he obtained, we are not prepared to say; but he was certainly not indebted for that advancement to the honours carried off in the schools; and the English prize essay, creditable to the College as it was, would not have turned the scale in his favour had it stood alone. Whately was by nature a hard worker. He could never “rest and be thankful" himself, nor allow anybody else to rest out of whom he conceived that work ought to be got. He was, likewise, a great reformer of abuses, real and imaginary. This is conspicuously shown in the declension which his opinions underwent, from what are generally regarded as High Church dogmata to their opposites. He had no belief latterly in tradition, and very little in the doctrine of an apostolical succession, both of which had originally found favour with him. On the other hand, his faith in the great principles of Christianity never wavered. However oddly he might at times enunciate that faith, however eccentric he might be in his manner of discharging the functions of his office, Whately, from boyhood to the hour of death, remained firm in his acceptance of the fundamental principles of Christianity. For example, he looked to a life beyond the grave, solely on the grounds laid down for that inheritance in the New Testament. Unlike Lord Brougham and other philosophers whom he admired, Whately scouted the idea of the natural immortality of the soul. All the inferences which these draw from the phenomena of dreams, and the exercise of memory and imagination, went with him for nothing. He was as much convinced as they that the vital principle in man, and indeed in all animals, is immaterial: but he found, neither in that conviction nor in the speculations of Aristotle or Plato, the slightest reason for coming to the conclusion that the soul of man must necessarily be immortal. On the contrary, he filled several pages of his common-place book with observations which show
that, in his opinion, not one of the heathen philosophers entertained or had the faintest reason for entertaining decided views on that subject; and that Aristotle in particular, to whom Lord Brougham refers as accepting a future state of reward and punishment, distinctly rejects the notion. We recommend our readers to look into this interesting little essay, which they will find in the volume entitled ‘Miscellaneous Remains,' which the piety of Dr. Whately's gifted daughter has induced her to publish. It will amply repay the light labour of a perusal.
Besides busying himself in the correction of College and University abuses, and indulging his natural taste for literary and philosophical composition, Whately threw himself into the work of tuition, both public and private. Besides teaching a class as one of the recognised tutors of Oriel, he read at by-hours with a select few of the more aspiring undergraduates, and helped them in the race after honours. It is characteristic of the man that he persevered in this course, not only in spite of a constitutional dislike to the occupation, but in some sort because the occupation was distasteful to him.
“It is curious to consider,” he wrote in 1818, “what it is that makes public tuition such a poison to me as it seems to be. The thing that most fatigues the mind seems to be that which is felt as a task; I mean that the latter circumstance is the cause of the former, not vice versa. So, at least, it is with me, who often do the same thing with pleasure when voluntary, which fags me when I am compelled to it. This, however, is the case both with private and public tuition; but the latter seems to derive its greatly superior effect from the additional anariety. Every man requires to be separately watched, and requires, in some degree, a different treatment; and hardly ever will the whole of a class be going on well. So as compared with private tuition, it is like balancing ten things at once. Besides this, there is a personal interest in each
private pupil which, if he goes on well, ters could confer. Senior and is a vast lightening of labour, and which Whately became fast friends at is felt in but a very weak and watery once ; and to Senior more, perhaps, manner towards each of so many public than to Earl Grey himself, Whately pupils. I work from a sense of duty; was, in point of fact, indebted for but my affections cannot be engaged his advancement to the see of Dubby a body corporate."
lin. For Senior, a man of great If Whately took a personal inte. talent-which a very silly manner rest in each of his private pupils, a and a vast amount of vanity could large majority of those who profited not mar- made himself useful to by his instructions and scholarship the Whigs in various ways, and repaid the feeling fourfold. To the was especially consulted by them case of one of these gentlemen, re- in the preparation of their new Poor cently taken away from among us, Law. "It happened that, during an we may be permitted to allude. interview with Earl Grey, the lattor
The late Mr. Nassau Senior, going spoke of the death of Archbishop in for his bachelor's degree, waz Magee, and of the difficulty which plucked. He failed, if we recollect he experienced in finding a succesright, in divinity--to break down in sor for that prelate from among a which, as it formed the first subject body so tinctured as the more emion which the aspirant was then nent of the clergy then were with examined, rendered fruitless any Toryism. "You need not go far amount of general learning; and for a man who will fill the see with insured immediate rejection. No- credit to you and honour to himwise distrustful of himself, Mr. self,” said Senior. Then followed Senior determined to try again at an account of Whately - of his the next examination ; and, in the scholarship, his reforming propenmeanwhile, looked out for a private sities, his acquaintance with the tutor with whom to read. He called principles of political economy, and upon Whately, and expressed a wish his Liberalism. Lord Grey listened to be received by him as a pupil. attentively, inquired farther about Whately, never very tender of the Whately, and finally, in a manner feelings of others, though as little most gratifying to the subject of delighting in the pain which he in- this sketch, offered, him the archflicted, as man could well be, scarcely bishopric. But we must not antook the trouble to look his visitor in ticipate the incidents of our story. the face, but answered, “You were Whately pursued the tenor of plucked, I believe. I never receive his eccentric way as fellow and pupils unless I see reason to assume tutor of Oriel from 1812 till the that they mean to aspire at honours." summer of 1822. He contracted I mean to aspire at honours," re- during that interval, various intiplied Senior. “You do, do you ?” macies, some of which carried with. was the answer. “May I ask what in them, from the first, the seeds class you intend to take ?” “A of early dissolution; while others, first class," said Senior, coolly. founded on general similarity of Whately's brow relaxed. He seemed tastes and views, promised to be, tickled with the idea that a lad who though all were not, enduring. Dr. had been plucked in November, Newman, for example, a very young should propose to get into the first man when Whately and he first clsss in March; and he at once became acquainted, acknowledged desired Senior to come to be coach- the influence of a nature harder ed. Never were tutor and pupil than his own, yet bore the yoke better matched. Senior read hard impatiently. Arnold and Blanco -went up, as he had proposed to White, on the other hand (the latter do, into the schools in March - and a Spanish exile for conscience' sake, came out of them with the highest who fixed his residence in Oxford, honours which the examining mas- and was much sought after by the
more intellectual of the resident diversity of opinion on that point members of the University), took to never interfered with the friendship him with all their hearts. Arnold between the two men, probably becontinued on terms of the closest cause both of them considered that intimacy with Whately till his own no great principle was at issue ; death. It was not so with Blanco — that the question was one of White. That unfortunate man, after speculative opinion, and nothing going through every phase of reli- more. gious belief, from the highest An- Besides Newman, Arnold, Keble, glicanism down to the depth of Pusey, and Blanco White (the latter Unitarianism, took refuge from fur- an outsider), Whately numbered ther doubt in total infidelity; and among his .contemporaries and acthen, though not without à pang, quaintances at Oxford, Davison, Whately threw him off. What a Froude, R. Wilberforce, Spencer, story is his! How distressing to Hawkins, Lloyd, and Hamden. It read, yet how full of warning and cannot be said, however, that, with instruction, especially to the young! the exceptions above enumerated, With Keble, Pusey, and others of he looked much into that gifted, their way of thinking, on the other circle for the companions of his hand, Whately was all along in a state lighter hours. Already that taste of restrained antagonism. He went began to develop itself which bewith them so far as to assert the came a master-passion in later life. natural independence of the Church He delighted in being looked up to, upon the State, arguing only for the and infinitely preferred to the sobeneficial effect to both of a union ciety of giants in intellect that of on fair terms. But the doctrine of persons who were willing to make apostolical succession, with its his views their own. Let us not, necessary inference, that there however, be unjust to such men is a marked difference between as Hinds, late Bishop of Norwich, Churches, one of which is Episco- Dr. Fitzgerald, afterwards Bishop pally governed, while the other of Cork, Dr. Dickinson, Bishop of acknowledges no special Episcopal Meath, and Dr. West. They were order among the clergy, he received indeed Whately's satellites, and at first with considerable mis- owed to him the preferments to giving, and by-and-by with deri. which they attained. But looksion. This and his contempt for ing to the circle in which they the doctrine of tradition, a feeling moved, and the principles which which he never concealed, placed be- they professed, their worst enemy, tween him and the founders of if they have one, will not deny to the Tractarian school an impassa- them the posession of great good ble gulf. It was not so in the case sense, and at least a fair measure of of Arnold. Arnold, as we need literary and practical ability. scarcely stop to explain, held and Whately removed to a vicarage taught that the Church both is, and in Suffolk in 1822, and shortly ought to be, the creature of the afterwards took to himself a wife. State; that the clergy, whether A family came fast to add to his bishops or prcsbyters, take their cares, and to stimulate his industry. proper place in society only when It was untiring. He did little for they feel themselves to be as his parish, it is true. His training much servants of the civil power as a college don-liberal don as he as magistrates or constables; and was disqualified him from dealing that the idea of receiving, from the usefully with a peasant population. imposition of hands any special But he studied hard and wrote character of sanctity, is the merest much, on a great variety of subsuperstition. Now, no one could jects. In 1822, the first year of reject this notion more decidedly in his incumbency, he preached the his own way than Whately. Yet Bampton Lectures, selecting for his
subject a characteristic theme- epitome of the Aristotelian, or ra• The Use and Abuse of Party Feel- ther Socratic, system of syllogistic ing in matters of Religion. These argumentation. The new Principal were followed by essays : one series of St. Alban's Hall had not been intended for the edification of many months in office before his rustic labourers; another, 'On the great work "The Elements of Difficulties in the Writings of St. Logic' made its appearance in a Paul, and in other parts of the New separate form, with a preface which Testament. The latter maintains, told inany truths, and did not in a scholarly manner, the Armenian care to tell then pleasantly. The view of St. Paul's theology, and Elements of Logic' was accepted shows, at once ingeniously and dis- at the time, and may still be continctly, that to the writings of the sidered to be a work of very congreat apostle the advocates of Cal- siderable power. It popularises a vinism have no right to appeal. science which had been so dealt The work attracted considerable at- with previously in England as to tention at the time, and was quoted deter the keenest appetite from against the author many years approaching it; and it had the afterwards, with no small measure additional merit of inciting other, of acrimony, by the more violent of and some of them better qualified, the ultra - Protestant party over labourers to enter upon the same whom he was called upon to pre- field; but it met with large opposide when appointed to the see of sition too. Sir William Hamilton Dublin.
attacked it fiercely; and the EdinWhately was out of his element burgh Review' itself, forgetful of as vicar of Halsworth and Chadis- past obligations to the author, did ton. He never complained, for it him as much mischief as possible by was not in his nature to give utter- damning his performance with faint ance to complaints on any subject; praise. And, looking at the matter but it is certain that he received from the point of view which Sir with unmixed satisfaction, in 1826, William Hamilton took up, there is the announcement that Earl Gran- no denying that the treatise lay ville, than Chancellor of the Uni- open to many and grave objections. versity of Oxford, had nominated Logic, as taught in Oxford then, him to the headship of St. Alban's and even as Whately explained it, Hall. It was the position which, bears very little resemblance to above all others, he could have most that science which Professor Jardesired at that time to hold. Uni- dine of Glasgow, sixty years ago, versity life had become to him second rendered at once so popular and so nature, and he returned to it with useful. But then the question arises, à mind overflowing with plans for whether Jardine's system was the the correction of abuses and the pro- true system; whether the groundmotion of sound learning. Whether work for acute reasoning must be his plans were in every instance laid in a preliminary acquaintance wise as well as practical, 'may be with the constitution of the human doubted. But whatever Whately mind; in other words, whether, in willed, that he laboured assiduously Scotland, we have not accustomed to bring about; and Oxford soon ourselves to run two distinct subfelt again that a reformer, and a jects into one, by blending metavery troublesome one, was in the physics and logic together? Be midst of it.
this as it may, Whately did, in the One special object of Whately's course of his favourite treatise, abhorrence and contempt was the what he was not much in the habit study of logic, as it was then con- of doing when his opinions were ducted in the University. The only called in question. He took the text-book in use was Aldridge's reproofs of his critics in good part, a queer, quaint, and ill-arranged and went so far as to modify, in