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House. But a schoolboy's notion the founder vested in the Mercers' of bullying is probably not exactly Company in trust for this purpose, the same as his mamma's. One of now produce nearly $10,000 a-year. the young Westminster witnesses The school itself, founded distinctly stoutly denies that he ever saw any as a day-school-for the scholars bullying there, though he admitted were specially forbidden éven to it might be possible ; indeed, he bring their meat and drink therehad heard of a case, in his own gradually became in a great measure time, which might be considered a boarding school for country as well such : "there was a fellow put in as London boys, since the early a cupboard and smoked."

hours at which the school opened in

the morning proved more and more .“3118. (Lord Clarendon.) How was inconvenient to parents whose boys he smoked with brimstone ? No, with

were not on the spot. It bas now(the brown paper and wood, and one thing

hours having been altered) again re. or the other. ... 3121. Was it one

sumed its original character, some big boy who shut up one little boy, or

few boys only boarding with a cler. several boys combined ! It was done by several boys; it was one boy who

gyman not connected with the school. planned it, and got them to do it.

The scholars are appointed by no. 3125. What had the unfortunate boymination, by the Court of Assistants done! Nothing, I think. That was of the Mercers' Company ; the apthe reason why it was considered bully- pointments being Jooked upon ing.-3126. if he had done anything generally as a piece of valuable pavery wrong, it would not bave been tronage, which each member of the bullying ? Not such wanton bullying." electoral body (about twenty-eight

in number) exercises in rotation, in But though the royal foundation behalf of his friends, as used to be at Westminster may fairly take the the case in the elections into college highest rank amongst the London at Eton and Winchester. No exaschools, yet by far the most an- mination has been customary, nor cient and wealthy of them is that does any seem to be actually rewhich Job Colet, Dean of St. quired by the statutes, except that Paul's, founded in the year 1510 the candidates should bave sufficient in St. Paul's Churchyard; whose acquaintance with English and first master was William Lilly, and Latin to be able to read and write which claims to have been the first his own lessons." The natural conschool in England in which,Greek sequence has been the introduction was taught. He founded it for the from time to time, as the head-masfree education of "children of all ter complains, of “ most wretched " nations and countries indifferently," boys into the school. One honourbut "Londoners and his own coun- able exception, however, in the trumen in particular," to the num- exercise of this patronage, comes ber of one hundred and fifty-three, before the Commission in evidence having regard to the mystical num- let us charitably hope there may ber of the draught of fishes. They be others. Canon Blakesley, one were to be instructed by a master of the wardens of the Company, thus and "sur-master," "in good and describes, the course he has adopted clene Laten literature ;" to the ex- since he became a governor: clusion of all which he terms "bar

“Wheri' parents have applied to me bary and corruption, and Laten

* for their sons, and I was satisfied of the adulterate," and such as he says

respectability of the applicants, I have "may rather be called blotterature

taken their names down, and examined than literature." At this fixed the children myself to find out who was number of 153 the school has re- the most promising boy, and to that mained ever since, though in other one I have given my presentation. ... respects it has gone through many I never pledge myself actually to adhere changes. The modest estates which to this practice. For instance, if I had VOL. XCVI. ---NO, DLXXXVIII.

2 1

a request made for a presentation for punishment of flogging in most the son of a man of letters who was in public schools is now almost exclastraitened circumstances, I should not sively confined, can very rarely think myself bound to subject the come under the master's cognisance. child to the usual test.”—Evidence, of course, a mere day-school educa927, 936.

tion in a city like London, and But in very few cases are nomin- where the boys, as at St. Paul's, ations made in such conscientious spend perhaps two hours of the accordance with the spirit and in- day in going and returning from tent of the founder.

school, with an additional hour's In some points St. Paul's is what break in the middle of the day, many parents would consider a when they are allowed to go whermodel school. There is no fagging, ever they please to get their lunch and no flogging. " That truly or dinner, is liable to the serious British institution, the rod," is, to objection that the gravest moral Mr. Commissioner Vaughan's asto- misconduct may go on without nishment, unknown in those happy either master or parent being aware precincts. There is only its weak of it. In fact, Dr. Kynaston fairly substitute, the cane. Even that disclaims for himself any real reinstrument, however, in able hands, sponsibility for his scholars in any • had been made in former times to respect except their school-work; do a good deal of duty. Now, "be has not an opportunity of obonly six formal cuts are adminis- serving the moral conduct of the tered, always on the hand; but boys, except in their general prowhen the present head-master first priety of demeanour, and in matters entered upon his duties, he found of discipline between the master a good deal of what cricketers call and the boys."* This, with the "lively hitting to all parts of the want of social intercourse in the field" going on" especially about boarding-house and the play-ground, the legs and back;" so much so, which has been already noticed, is that "the noise alone formed a the point in which London daygreat obstruction to the progress of school life falls so far short of the the school duties.” The reason best public school training. Such why the young Paulines are neither school friendships as are formed fagged nor birched lies in the fact depend, it is confessed, somewhat of the school being exclusively a on the accident of “going home day-school. When boys only asso- the same way," or some other ciate with each other in the school- chance association. Yet with all room, under the immediate eye of these disadvantages, one is pleased the masters, and separate imme- as well as surprised to find that it diately afterwards for their several used to be said of the Paulines at the homes, any system of fagging universities, that they “hung togewould be neither possible nor de ther more than other schools ;" sirable ; and any exceptional in- though it was “perhaps because stances of the kind the master they went up only three or four towould very properly check : so gether, not like a large school, where also, having little or no connection they send up thirty or forty." with the school except during les St. Paul's is lavish in prizes and son hours, the only offences which exhibitions to the universities--too usually come under the master's lavish, in proportion to the amount eye are those of idleness or disor- of competition for them, as the der ; the moral discipline of the head-master boldly complains, and boys must be supposed to rest as the Commissioners fully agree. wholly with the parents, and those There are usually not more than graver moral offences, to which the five or six boys who go off to college

* Evidence, 623.

every year (a strangely small pro- school, increasing it to 200, and portion, when it is considered that add a second affiliated school for the 153 scholars are "almost in- boarders at a distance from town. variably” the sons of clergymen or But the Commissioners recommend professional men " West - End the sale of the present site, where boys”), and all of them get exhis the noise of the traffic seriously bitions. The captain of the year interrupts the work of the school, gets one of £120, for four years, and which is said also to affect the tenable with any scholarship at any health of the boys, and the erection college in either university; the of a new school for 500 boys in next has one of £100 to Trinity, some such locality as Pentonville Cambridge; the next £80, and the or the new Victoria Street; still Court give as many of £50 each as maintaining Dean Colet's foundamay be required, " to any one that tion for the purposes for which he the examiners say is fit to go to the plainly intended it—" a day-school university." Besides this liberal to which the dwellers in London provision, the Court of Assistants were to have access for the purpose is in the habit of giving an honora- of acquiring the highest literary rium to those who after leaving culture." They think, with the school obtain scholarships or honours Bishops of London and Manchester, at the universities, or what the that the need of such schools in Commissioners term “certain sup- London is at least as great as ever, posed distinctions in public com- and that “the want of a more petitive examinations." Not less thoroughly grounded and higher than £160 was expended under element in the secondary classes of this head in the year 1860. The our professions is producing in Secretary, in drawing up the report some quarters slow but irremedion these points, relieves his mind able mischief." They recommend from the dryness of detail by a touch no addition to the 153 scholars of satire not uncongenial to him. on the foundation, but that the He observes in the name of the election should be strictly comCommissioners that the principle petitive, and that the non-foundaof giving a boy an exhibition on tioners, whose numbers would be the mere certificate of the examiners so largely increased, should be eligithat he is not absolutely unfit to ble to all the exhibitions, which hold it, is to us a novel one;" and might then be at least doubled in that “to bestow a' sum of money number. With these reforms, it is upon a young man as a reward for their opinion that the school "might having obtained a considerable ad- and ought to become the first in dition to his income, is a proceeding London, and one of the first in the reasons of which are not self- Great Britain." evident." The truth is, the school The school attached to Sutton's trust has so much money that they Hospital of the Charter-House do not know what to do with it. differs in one essential point from « They have a present available sur- St. Paul's; all the boys on the plus of at least £2500 per annum," foundation are boarders. These are with a prospect of £2000 more if now fifty-four in number, who receive the school lasts until 1888; and it gratuitously board, lodging, educais due to the Court of Assistants to tion, medical attendance, and clothsay that they have for some time ing. They are nominated, subject been considering what is best to be to a mere formal examination, by done with it; whether to increase the sixteen governors (amongst the numbers of the school on its whom are the two Archbishops) in present site-which would be very rotation, excepting that, under a difficult and not very desirable-or ate arrangement, two scholars in to remove it altogether into the every year are selected by competicountry, or to retain the present tion. Every foundation scholar

who chooses to go to the univer- parent results. On one occasion, I resities receives, on passing a moderate member the sixth form were dancing to examination at the age of eighteen, a chorus of Dante instead of construing an exhibition of £80 per annum tó a play of Sophocles, as he thought. any college, for four years: or an There was a præpostor of one form who, outfit of £100 is given him, if he , being a little mite, but a clever scholar,

was put by Dr. Russell at the head of goes into the army or navy, or his class, but he said it was torture to otherwise requires such help. Be- him above everything: he felt all the sides the foundation scholars, there responsibilities of his place. Dr. Russell have usually of late been between would call out,' Fifth form, where is your forty and fifty boarders, and about præpostor?' Please, sir, here he is!' the same number of day-boys. But at and they would hold him up by the neck. one time, in consequence of what you cannot wonder if after that the seems to have been a sudden and school fell."-Evidence, 544-546. temporary popularity, the numbers

In the next ten years the numbers rose in a remarkable manner; in had sunk to ninety-nine. The larger the year 1825 there were as many numbers were more than the school as 480. The cause of this sudden or the boarding houses could fairly rise and collapse is explained in the accommodate, and some of the bedvery amusing and characteristic evi- rooms were “crowded fearfully." dence of the present Dean of Peterborough - an old Carthusian, and “ The governors interfered, but I do late head-master of the school.

not think Dr. Russell cared very much.

There is a memorandum in Dr. Russell's "I was a boy in the school, in 1818, order that their former order limiting the

hand,— The governors were pleased to at the height of its prosperity ; Dr. Russell, had just introduced the Bell number of boys should be attended to." » system. The Bell system was turning And after relieving his conscience a public school into a national school, by this entry, the - indefatigable making the boys teach each other, and Doctor went on crowding his rooms govern each other. It had a wonderful as before, and petting his little preeffect at first; it captivated people postors. One feature in his system most immensely.

We were drawn up before the governors, exá

was, the attempt to do away with miners, and visitors to question each corporal punishment; which other; we were drilled to handle par a great shock," says the Dean of ticular sets of questions, which were to Peterborough, to the feelings of be answered before the examiners, Dr. the school. He tried to substitute Mant and Dr. Doyley, who were, to a system of pecuniary fines, which boys' ideas a little soft. I was præ- the school voted “most angentlepostor myself at one time, and I had manly." In fact, there was a been trained to ask these questions, as regular popular rebellion, whose well as to give these answers, and these object was the abolition of fines gentlemen went away wonderstruck. and the restoration of flogging."

Our parents were taken in; The Doctor gave way; and “I they saw what appeared to them the results of this wonderful teaching, and

think," continues the Dean, said nothing could be equal to it; but had our hearts content." when the sons became old enough * The day after abolishing fines, when themselves to go to the university, and we all walked into school together, we to judge of it, then down fell the found a perfect forest of birch rods, and school.

Each separate form I should think that the whole school time had a cocky little boy who was put at of two hours was expended in the use * the head of the class, and who taught and application of them.” the rest of the boys. Dr. Russell reigned Jupiter Tonans over the whole of the

This popular "right of birch," is school, working himself brilliantly and maintained in all its integrity at indefatigably. He thought the work of Charter-House to this day, and is the school' was going on beautifully, enjoyed about twice or three times but he was certainly taken in by ap- a week,-rather a high average in

was

we

these days, as proportioned to the speaking; the Company even deny number of boys. The Commis- any legal obligation to maintain sioners consider this somewhat too the school at all; "they consider great an indulgence, especially as it that no one could challenge their follows upon ordinary school faults, act if they were to abolish it altoif a boy's name is found in the gether.” It is, in point of fact, " black book” three times in one a private school, though it has week.

usually ranked amongst the public The recommendation of the Re- ones. “If we choose to expend port is, that Charter-House, as being £2000 a-year on it," says the Master chiefly a boarding school, should be of the Company in his evidence, removed into the country, its foun- “well and good; but if we choose dation scholarships being thrown to put that money into our own open, as in other cases, to general pockets, we may do so." Expendcompetition. Archdeacon Hale, ing, however, as they do, something the “Master" (not schoolmaster) more than this sum annually in of the Hospital, would strongly salaries to masters and the general object to both. He argues, with maintenance of the school, they are some truth, against this perpetual enabled to reduce the total schoolcompetition, that "there is no charges to each boy as low as £10 reason whatever to believe that the per annum. This does not include founder proposed to educate only board, with which, in fact, the clever children:" certainly, if all school arrangements have nothing these old benefactions are to be to do; as in the case of St. Paul's, thus disposed of, it is time that the boys either board at home or some modern benefactor should wherever their parents choose to arise to found an hospital, like old place them. Some of the masters Sutton's, for the stupid ones. take boarders (which is not the “Opening" foundations may, in a case at St. Paul's); but this is encertain sense, be merely limiting tirely a matter of private arrangethem to boys who have already the ment. The education given is so advantage over their fellows of good, and the terms so low, that natural genius, or opportunities of the nominations, which are given superior early instruction. If the by the “Master, Wardens, and electors who have these valuable Assistants” of the Company in prizes in their gift would only rotation, are pretty eagerly sought regard them conscientiously as pub- after by professional men and the lic trusts; if gentlemen who are higher class of tradesinen. . Properfectly able to give their sons an bably the great attraction, in many independent education would ab- cases, lies in the liberal endowments stain from shameless solicitation for which the school has received in what is, after all, a charity, the way of scholarships and exhibilarger reform would be effected tions. Though the Oxford Comthan all these competitive examina- missioners, and the Privy Council tions will ever effect. After all, it together, have made sad havoc is a hard case that a hard-working with Sir Thomas White's, magnificlergyman or professional man, cent foundation at St. John's with half-a-dozen children, or a which formerly made Merchant widow thrown upon her own re- Taylors' the richest school in Engsources with a young family, should land—there still remains to it a be excluded from these educational very considerable share of univeraids because their boys do not hap- sity good things. It has no longer pen to be geniuses..

its thirty-seven fellowships, virIt remains to say a few words on tually entered upon immediately the excellent school maintained by on leaving school, and tenable for the Merchant Taylors' Company. life, which it enjoyed up to 1862; It has no foundation, strictly these have shrunk, under the Privý

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