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for the reasons already given, we do sealing-wax, two pencils, two pieces not consider that statement alto- of pen - string, two wedges, two gether trustworthy. We will take knives, two dips (little round globusimply the admissions of the head-lar ink-bottles), and two dip-corks;' master,' and of boys on the found- one witness (the complainant) adds ation who, with something of that to these," an unlimited quantity of partial blindness which makes the note-paper, small and large size, lover see all perfections in a very ditto ditto of quarterns (square ordinary face, consider the internal pieces of paper), ditto ditto pens: " economy and administration of the but another witness explains that college to be “the best you can these latter articles are carried, not have""in short, a system incap- in the pocket, but in a portfolio able of improvement."* But it is which he is obliged to take with at least so peculiar a system as to him into school. These stores are require a somewhat tedious explana- not for his own use, but for the tion in order to be understood at all. convenience of his seniors, who

All who are elected as Queen's never carry the necessary supply scholars go at once into college as upon their own proper persons, but "juniors". their position in the call upon any junior who is at hand school (which of course has been to supply the want of the moment. already gained during the year in The senior allows his junior to prowhich they have been non-founda- cure in his name at the stationer's tioners) may be high or low; but as a certain supply of the necessary juniors they are fags, and in that articles, which he then expects to be position they remain for one year. always forthcoming when wanted. The boy who is elected head of his But it is not only his senior" remove into college has certain pri- who is his master, as would be the vileges and immunities which make case in almost any other public his position very much better than school ; he has practically two masthat of his newly elected fellows; ters besides, in the boys of the so much so, that he is called the second and 'third election (i.e. in “liberty-boy." The difference in their second and third year of colhis fortunate lot is fully expressed lege) to whom he is specially atby the old classical formula in tached, and who can make similar which, from time out of memory, demands upon him at any moment they are received into the college The system may be more clearly community - "You be free (liber), understood by a few questions and all the rest be slaves (servi)."

answers from the evidence. The duties of a boy during his junior year in college are certainly"3147 (Sir S. Northcote). Instead of such as to justify the term. He the senior keeping his own pen-knife, has, of course, all the ordinary the third election his, and the second fagging practical at other public election his, the junior is supposed to schools, in the way of running on keep them all, and to have them always messages, fielding out at cricket, produceable ? Yes ; sometimes the etc. But besides this, he is ex. second and third elections do not give pected to be a sort of walking store- him theirs ; but as a general rule they house of small provisions for his do. He is bound to produce them not senior's ordinary wants. The con- only to his own senior, and to his own tents of the pocket of his college second election, but to any one? Yes waistcoat make the uninitated

--Who may take them ? Yes. - Sup

posing the boy to whom he gives the wonder what manner of waiscoat

pen - knife, and who is not his own it may be. He is expected to carry senior, does not return it to him, is that in it, and to produce upon demand, his loss? Yes. He must get another ? "two pieces of india-rubber, two Yes. - Does that frequently happen? pieces of gutta-percha, ditto of Yes, I daresay it does. Not very fre

* Mr. Stewart, Evid. 3352, 3353.

quently I should think. - For how has to make for his senior, as often many is the boy to be supplied, with as he may require it, which seems paper, for his own senior only, or for to be two or three times in the the two senior elections? For anybody course of the evening, either tea or who calls for it."

coffee as he may choose, to wash Besides keeping up this travel- up his tea-things, and to perform ling supply, he is expected to leave any other services in the way of certain drawers in his bureau, in fetching and carrying which may which his pen-knives, pens, and be required. paper are contained, always open The evidence of boys and masfor his seniors' accommodation. ters alike prove that the constant About twice in every fortnight it interruptions to which a junior is comes to his turn to be "call;" he liable at any and every moment has then to get up (awaking him during the evening, are a very seriself as he can) about four o'clock ous hindrance even to a studious during a considerable part of the boy; and Dr. Scott himself admits year, to light the fire in chamber that "a boy who is tempted to be (first raking out the cinders from idle, as most of them are, finds very the grates), to call such of the considerable difficulty in doing his seniors as desire it at any subse- work." One boy in turn every quent hour, and to repeat the call, evening has to light the gas, to if necessary, until those young gen- keep the fire up, and to go round tlemen get up. He is even ex- to collect any orders from the pected (at all events in theory) to seniors (messages into the town, be at half-a-dozen bed-sides, on &c.) for College John," who is in pain of punishment, at the same waiting at six o'clock for that purhour precisely. If any of the pose. There is a special form of seniors get up at this early call for words religiously observed on this the purpose of reading (as is very and on several other occasions. frequently the case at Westmin- The junior has to make proclamster), he is expected to provide for tion in this style, and in no other : them a cup of tea or coffee at any “ Any more orders ? John is going hour between four and six; and off.” A young gentleman who, for this purpose he has to keep a upon one occasion, thought proper kettle boiling during that time. “At to substitute the more refined ansix o'clock a second call relieves nouncement, “John is about to bim of these duties; and it is not leave," got 'into considerable diffiuntil half-past six that an indivi- culties. “He was had into the dual called “College John" (who upper election-room, and the seniors seems to have an easier time of it talked to him for a long time." It than any junior) makes his ap, is to be hoped that the results of pearance on the scene, cleans this lecture upon the preference due boots and shoes, &c., but finds the to simple Queen's English were not lighting of the fires and the calling wasted; and one wishes that it of the boys, which would have were possible to summon some of been a servant's work in any our modern fine writers before the well-regulated school, already done Westminster board of critics. for him. “The grates are never As a Westminster fag discharges cleaned at all," except by the boy most of the duties of " College who is "called” raking out the cin- John," so also in rotation he acts ders. The fag's duties during the as college-porter. One boy each day do not differ very materially day is exempted from school-work from what might be required at for the purpose of keeping guard any other public school. After over the college during the absence locking up, as tea forms no part of the others in school. He is of the regular college meals-only called "monitor ostii," or more fresupper at eight o'clock-the junior quently known by the Greek term

Monos.” His duties are " to see that seniors' work.” They are expected college is not entered by improper to instruct these latter in all their persons," and to answer any in- duties (including the correct use of quiries that may be made. The the English language), upon their office is fully recognised by the first admission into college, and to head-master, who says, in the course insure their due performance afterof his examination, that he has wards. If anything goes wrong in sometimes to complain of the ab- this matter, the second election are sence of Monos from his post. responsible in their own persons. "3507. (Mr. Thompson)—There is no

The Westminster system is that of one to see whether he is in college or the old nursery-rhyme-"The stiek not? No. —He is there alone ? Yes. began to beat the dog, the dog beI have sometimes myself had to set gan to worry the pig," &c., until Monos an imposition for being non in the desired result is obtained by a ventus.--Then you recognise the importseries of stimulants. If a senior finds ance of the office ? Unless there is that his tea or coffee is not made some servant to watch, Monos must do to his taste, or that any other serso, or the property in the college might vice has been neglected, he no more be swept off

. - Might not Monos be thinks of inquiring into the details swept away too? He never has been, of the junior's delinquency, and I think Monos would make it heard, inflicting the necessary chastiseand in that event I should certainly ment, than the mistress of an Engsend down a senior to see what was the

lish house would think of getting matter."

up from her dinner-party and going This important office, however, is down into the kitchen to box the not entrusted to an ordinary junior, scullion's ears for not boiling the but is held in turn by the boys of potatoes. As one of the witnesses the "second election" and the himself a senior - very naively "liberty-boy"

puts it before the Commissioners, This state of bondage (we are "it would be a great bore for the really using only the Westminster senior .to go into the under-election language) continues during the room to superintend; he might as whole of the first year, when, from well do everything himself." "Supa "junior" a boy becomes one of posing," he adds, “that I had had the second election.” Not that tea brought to me one night, I know his servitude ends here, but it as- it is bad, but it would be a great sumes a different form, which is bore if I had to go and see that one of the peculiarities of the West- the fellow made it properly."I of minster system. These second-elec- course; so the senior either thrashes tion boys have, * as one of the Com- or reprimands, according to his own missioners satirically puts it — and humour or the flagrancy of the case, Dr. Scott admits the position to be his “second election" -the respon“quite correct” "two vicarious sible minister; and the second elecduties which they performed-one tion passes on the thrashing or the was to be punished themselves for reprimand, en ricochet, to the offendothers occasionally, and the other ing junior. One of the Commiswas occasionally to punish for sioners observes that this vicarious others.”+ Their business in shortsystem is likely to be worse for the is “to see that the fags do their juniors than a direct government by

Or rather had, for Dr. Scott has now formally abolished the abuse. The pre sent tense, in all cases, must be taken as referring to the state of things at the date of the inquiry. The head-master in consequence of the facts brought to his knowledge, immediately issued written rules abolishing not only this delegated punishment, but all kicking, striking with rackets or cricket-stumps, &c., all fagging between eight and ten at night, and the supplying of pens and paper by the juniors. + Evidence, 3480.

Evidence, 3252, 3254.

their more legitimate masters — in in their recollection-called “tanfact, “ to make the second election ning in way.” “Way" was the washmore severe than the seniors them- ing-place, into which a junior, for selves would be.” But this the wit. what was considered some grave failness is unwilling to admit; he ure in his duties, was taken by the thinks rather that “if he got licked orders of his senior, made to put one occasionally by the senior, it might leg up on a sink, and in that position tench him a little consideration for kicked (with a short preparatory run) his junior perhaps." We should by his second election." It is due fancy, on the other hand, that the to the present generation of Westlicking would lose nothing in the minster to say that the witnesses extransmission,

amined by the Commission decidedly The punishments to which a fag reprobated the custom, and denied is liable for distinct neglect of duty all complicity or knowledge of even have taken a very objectionable the single instance which had'ocshape at Westminster, even assum. curred of such a punishment in their ing that cases of undue severity in own time : but they admitted that their infliction may now be rare. such kicking was "certainly the old It is not necessary to take our view idea supposed to be part of the punof them from the account given ishment," and only remitted of late by the complainant, Mr. M years because the seniors then in especially as he admits that they power had a general feeling against were never so inflicted upon himself

, it. Dr. Scott himself, who appears and other witnesses deny having not to have known of the existence either seen or heard of such cases in of such traditionary barbarity until their own experience. One of the Mr. M's complaint was made, seniors informs us that the common speaks of it as "atrocious;" and he punishment was "buck-horsing." has issued a distinct edict (in which

"2980. (Lord Lyttelton). That was he appears to have been anticipated boxing the ears, was it? Yes.-(Lord by the proper feeling of the seniors), Clarendon). Buekhorsing was rather that no such punishment shall take severe, was it not? That depended upon place in future. One or two more of circumstances. Of course, you could what may be called (as compared hurt a fellow very much, but not so much with this “ tanning in way") the as with your fists.—But it was done sev. pleasant eccentricities of Westmineral times, was it not, backwards and for- ster discipline, and we have done wards? It was not confined to one side, with the subject. Lord Clarendon I got buckhorsed pretty often. It did asks-availing himself of some of not do me any permanent injury. Of course it stung at the time.-Do you

Mr. M—'s revelationsthink that at that time you always de “ 3014. Is there another form of punserved it? Sometimes I did, sometimes ishment-hitting on the calves of the I did not."

legs with a racket? Yes; or anywhere: “ Tanning" is a severer punish- pot particularly about the calves of the ment, inflicted with a stick or racket, legs.-And with the top of the cap on the or cricket-stump; but inflicted accord- hand, laying the hand down on the ing to the witnesses, only by moni- table, and hitting with the sharp sides of tors for offences against discipline: the cap-is not that a punishment used ? "if a boy drank too much, if he went It is generally used by helps,' who are out of bounds, or was smoking, or in helping town-boys into college. Every a case of bullying, or anything of town.boy, when he tries for college, has that sort." But there was one abom a help. This help has to see that he does inable process-admitted by all wit- not do it, he licks him occasionally, at

a certain amount of work; and if he does nesses to be unjustifiable, and to have discretion. If the help happens to be a fallen into complete disuse, there hav- second election, or a junior, he is not aling been only one instance of it with lowed to use a racket or a stick, and

therefore they lick them with a cap or a the Commissioners. These fires, if book.-(Mr. Thompson). Is it considered carefully made up the last thing beabsolutely necessary that they should lick fore going to bed, retain sufficient them? If they cannot get them to do any heat throughout the night to keep work. (Sir š. Northcote). Has the help the water tolerably hot for the use any particular interest in getting the boy of the upper boys in the morning. he gets £6 worth of books if he gets him The seniors at the Charter-House in. -(Mr. Thompson). So that in fact it appear to be somewhat luxurious in is the same motive which induces a jockey the matter of washing-in cute curto flog his horse? Yes; or a school anda plus æquo operata juventusmaster to flog his pupils."

requiring hot water for this purpose,

not only in the morning, but at It will be observed that even a dinner-time and tea-time also; and Royal Commissioner, when he conde- indulging upon each occasion in a scends to joke with witness, does dry towel, which the fag has some not always get the best of it. trouble to provide, having some

Much of the bardship of a junior's times to purvey them by "criblife at Westminster is a consequence bing" from other boys. They have of the insufficient staff of servants: also to brush their masters' clothes, this is fully admitted by the head. wash their combs and brushes, and master, Dr. Scott, but it is a point clean out the washing - basinswhich is not within his control : the duties which plainly ought to be college, being really a dependency of performed by servants. Sometimes, the collegiate church of St. Peter, is as the junior under examination exsubject, as to all its domestic arrange- presses it, “the water will not get ments, to the control of the Dean and hot, the boiler is not big enough," Chapter; and although this body or other boys poke the fire and inhave of late years shown a spirit of terfere with it, and the unlucky greater liberality in the many im. fire-fag gets a thrashing--a pretty provements which have been made severe one — for what is not his (especially during Dr. Buckland's fault after all. The Charter-House deanship), they have in former years fagging system owes something of been very grudging guardians to their its severity to the small number of scholars-regarding the school, as the fags compared with their masDr. Scott suggests may have been the ters; there being only about twelve case, “somewhat as a nuisance, which of the former (at the date of the it was desirable to abate as much as Commissioners' inquiry) to some possible.” The Commissioners in ten or eleven who have the right their Report "invite the serious at- of fagging them. On the other tention of the Dean and Chapter" to hand, this right is (or should be) the manifest need of additional serv- better guarded from individual ants to relieve the juniors at least abuse than is the case at inost other from the menial offices of lighting schools, inasmuch as it does not the fires and attending to the gas. follow, as a matter of course, from

Something of the same kind of mere seniority of standing, but reservice is required from the fags at quires to be formally conferred by the Charter-House. The charge of the head-master's act, if he is satiskeeping up the large school fires, fied that a boy's general character day and night, devolves upon two will justify his being invested with juniors, called "fire-fags," who hold it. No boy can fag until he has that office for a year. Six times a- received what are technically called day these two boys of twelve or his "privileges ;" and upon any thirteen have to lift and carry to proved abuse of power these would the fire a large scuttle of coal, the be at once withdrawn. It is fair size of which, compared with the to say that nothing in the evidence powers of the little witness whom goes to show that “ bullying" forms they examined, evidently astonished any cause of complaint at Charter

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