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description; establish lines of telegraph and military posts; use materials of every description found in the Indian country; build houses for agencies, missions, schools, farms, shops, mills, stations, and for any other purpose for which they may be required, and permanently occupy as much land as may be necessary for the various purposes above enumerated, including the use of wood for fuel and land for grazing, and that the navigation of all lakes and streams shall be forever free to citizens of the United States.

Annual pay

of Blackfoot na

ARTICLE 9. In consideration of the foregoing agreements, stipulations, and cessions, and on condition of their faithful observance, the United ment for benent States agree to expend, annually, for the Piegan, Blood, Blackfoot, and tion. Gros Ventres tribes of Indians, constituting the Blackfoot nation, in addition to the goods and provisions distributed at the time of signing this treaty, twenty thousand dollars, annually, for ten years, to be expended in such useful goods and provisions, and other articles, as the President, at his discretion, may from time to time determine; and the superintendent, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of the Indians in relation thereto: Provided, however, That if, in the judgment of the President and Senate, this amount be deemed insufficient, it may be increased not to exceed the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars per year.

ARTICLE 10. The United States further agree to expend annually, for the benefit of the aforesaid tribes of the Blackfoot nation, a sum not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars annually, for ten years, in establishing and instructing them in agricultural and mechanical pursuits, and in educating their children, and in any other respect promoting their civilization and christianization: Provided, however, That to accomplish the objects of this article, the President may, at his discretion, apply any or all the annuities provided for in this treaty: And provided, also, That the President may, at his discretion, determine in what proportions the said annuities shall be divided among the several tribes.

Same subject.

ARTICLE 11. The aforesaid tribes acknowledge their dependence on Provisions to the government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all secure peace, and indemnity citizens thereof, and to commit no depredations or other violence upon against Indian such citizens. And should any one or more violate this pledge, and the depredations. fact be proved to the satisfaction of the President, the property taken shall be returned, or, in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the government out of the annuities. The aforesaid tribes are hereby bound to deliver such offenders to the proper authorities for trial and punishment, and are held responsible in their tribal capacity, to make reparation for depredations so committed.

War not to be

Nor will they make war upon any other tribes, except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between themselves and other made on other tribes except in Indians to the government of the United States, through its agent, for self-defence. adjustment, and will abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians, Provision parties to this treaty, commit depredations on any other Indians within against depredathe jurisdiction of the United States, the same rule shall prevail as that dians. prescribed in this article in case of depredations against citizens. And Criminals to the said tribes agree not to shelter or conceal offenders against the laws be surrendered. of the United States, but to deliver them up to the authorities for trial.

tions of other in

ARTICLE 12. It is agreed and understood, by and between the parties Annuities may be stopped in to this treaty, that if any nation or tribe of Indians aforesaid, shall violate case of violation any of the agreements, obligations, or stipulations, herein contained, the of this treaty. United States may withhold for such length of time as the President and Congress may determine, any portion or all of the annuities agreed to be paid to said nation or tribe under the ninth and tenth articles of this treaty.


ARTICLE 13. The nations and tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, desire to exclude from their country the use of ardent spirits or other against intoxicaVOL. XI. TREAT.-6

tion or the intro- intoxicating liquor, and to prevent their people from drinking the same. duction of ardent Therefore it is provided, that any Indian belonging to said tribes who is spirits.

This treaty to be in full for compensation.

Annuities not

guilty of bringing such liquor into the Indian country, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her proportion of the annuities withheld from him or her, for such time as the President may determine.

ARTICLE 14. The aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, west of the Rocky Mountains, parties to this treaty, do agree, in consideration of the provisions already made for them in existing treaties, to accept the guarantees of the peaceful occupation of their hunting-grounds, east of the Rocky Mountains, and of remuneration for depredations made by the other tribes, pledged to be secured to them in this treaty out of the annuities of said tribes, in full compensation for the concessions which they, in common with the said tribes, have made in this treaty.

The Indians east of the Mountains, parties to this treaty, likewise recognize and accept the guarantees of this treaty, in full compensation for the injuries or depredations which have been, or may be committed by the aforesaid tribes, west of the Rocky Mountains.

ARTICLE 15. The annuities of the aforesaid tribes shall not be taken

to be taken for to pay the debts of individuals. debts.

ARTICLE 16. This treaty shall be obligatory upon the aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties hereto, from the date hereof, and upon the United States as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate.

In testimony whereof the said A. Cumming and Isaac I. Stevens, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, have hereunto set their hands and seals at the place and on the day and year hereinbefore written.

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And whereas, the said treaty having been submitted to the Senate of the United States for its constitutional action thereon, the Senate did, on the fifteenth day of April, eighteen hundred and fifty-six, advise and consent to the ratification of the same, by a resolution in the words and figures following, to wit:


April 15, 1856.

Resolved, (two thirds of the Senators present concurring,) That the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of the articles of agreement and convention made and concluded between the United States and the Blackfeet and other tribes of Indians, at the council ground on the Upper Missouri River, October seventeenth, eighteen hundred and fiftyfive.



Now, therefore, be it known, that I, FRANKLIN PIERCE, President of the United States of America, do, in pursuance of the advice and consent of the Senate, as expressed in their resolution of the fifteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, accept, ratify, and confirm the said treaty.

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States to be hereto affixed, having signed the same with my hand.

[L. S.]

Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-fifth day of April, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, and of the independence of the United States the eightieth.

By the President :


W. L. MARCY, Secretary of State.




WHEREAS a treaty was made and concluded at Keshena, State of Wisconsin, on the eleventh day of February, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, between Francis Huebschmann, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Menomonee tribe of Indians, assembled in general council, which treaty is in the words and figures following, to wit:

Feb. 11, 1856.

Whereas a treaty was entered into at Stockbridge, in the State of Preamble. Wisconsin, on the fifth of the present month, between the United States of America on the one part, and the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians on the other, stipulating that a new home shall be furnished to the said Stockbridge and Munsee Indians, near the south line of the Menomonee reservation; and

Whereas the United States desire to locate said Stockbridges and Munsees near the said line in the western part of the said reservation, on lands on which no permanent settlements have been made by the Menomonees; and

Whereas there is no objection on the part of the Menomonees to the location of the Stockbridges and Munsees in their neighborhood, therefore, this agreement and convention has been entered into

Articles of agreement made and concluded at Keshena, State of Wiscon- Title. sin, on the eleventh day of February, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and fifty-six, between Francis Huebschmann, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Menomonee tribe of Indians, assembled in general council.

ARTICLE 1. The Menomonee tribe of Indians cede to the United Cession of land States a tract of land, not to exceed two townships in extent, to be select- to the U. States. ed in the western part of their present reservation on its south line, and not containing any permanent settlements made by any of their number, for the purpose of locating thereon the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians, and such others of the New York Indians as the United States may desire to remove to the said location within two years from the ratification hereof.

Payment for

ARTICLE 2. The United States agree to pay for the said cession, in case the said New York Indians will be located on the said lands, at the said cession. rate of sixty cents per acre; and it is hereby stipulated, that the monies so to be paid shall be expended in a like manner, to promote the improvement of the Menomonees, as is stipulated by the third article of the treaty of May twelfth, eighteen hundred and fifty-four, for the expenditure of the forty thousand dollars which had been set aside for their removal and subsistence, west of the Mississippi, by the treaty of October eighteenth, eighteen hundred and forty-eight.

ARTICLE 3. To promote the welfare and the improvement of the said Menomonees, and friendly relations between them and the citizens of the United States, it is further stipulated

Laws may be made for the af

1. That in case this agreement and the treaties made previously with the Menomonees should prove insufficient, from causes which cannot now fairs of the Menbeen [be] foreseen, to effect the said objects, the President of the United omonees.

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