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tion of wbich it proceeds, viz. that the two extremes of each class comprehend the whole of it, is one which could not conveniently be acted on; if it had been, in the case of Bias's argument for instance, (which is a fine antique specimen of it,) the human race would probably have long since been extinct; for he contended that marriage altogether was to be avoided, because an eminently beautiful wife might be a source of jealousy, and a hideously ugly one, of disgust; but still the argument is found serviceable for the purposes of an argument, i. e. to perplex an opponent. We shall endeavour to pass between the horns of this dilemma, by replying, that it is neither by the very best, nor the worst, of our countrymen, that we would see our colonies stocked ; and as nine-tenths belong neither to the one description, nor the other, this exception produces no great difficulty: the former class, indeed, are not likely to be induced to emigrate, as they generally thrive very well at home; and the latter are not likely to thrive any wbere.
But in an improved and fully peopled country, and especially in times like the present, there cannot fail to be great numbers of persons not deficient in industry and good conduct, who, from the unfavourable state of the markets, from excessive competition in every profession and branch of labour, or from casual misfortunes, find themselves either at a loss to obtain a comfortable independent maintenance for themselves or their families, or excluded from the prospect of some respectable situation in life, or perhaps of some matrimonial union, on which their hopes had been fixed. To persons so situated, emigration seems to be precisely the appropriate resource. It need not be apprehended that all the facilities and encouragement, or even all the persuasion and assistance, that can be bestowed, will ever induce those to emigrate who are so circumstanced, and so disposed, as to be contented with their lot at home; and if they are not, their departure is not to be regretted: but it does not follow that all such are of so restless and dissatisfied a temper, that they will never be steady and contented any where : e. g. suppose a strong attachment to exist between a young couple, who are, perhaps, secure from indigence in a single state, but have no prospect of decently bringing up and providing for a family; if they are uneasy at being compelled to renounce an object, the desire of which is so natural, and, in itself, so blameless, are they therefore to be reckoned among those restless characters, who are impatient of every hardship and privation, and unfit for any settled and regular course of life? If, indeed, the violence of a romantic passion prompts them to set at defiance the dictates of prudence, and to marry without a reasonable prospect of supporting their offspring, they are much to be blamed; though even in that case they are generally prepared and willing to undergo much toil and
privation, privation, through they may have over-rated the prospects of success. Now there is no reason why persons so situated may pot prove industrious and prosperous settlers. They will have difficulties and hardships to encounter--for these we have supposed them prepared :--but these difficulties and hardships are all at the begioning of their course. Instead of having to look forward to a continual increase of them, as their family increases,-to regret the past, and dread the future, more and more, each succeeding season, they will find their prospects growing continually brighter, and their resources more abundant. Year after year the forest recedes before the persevering cultivator: fresh fields are clothed with corn or herbage ; his cattle multiply ; his increasing produce enables him to proceed with still greater rapidity in extending his improvements ; the log-hut is enlarged into a convenient dwelling, and fitted up with those articles of comfort and luxury which perhaps he had at first been compelled to forego ; and his children inherit, in the place of an unproductive thicket, a fertile and well stocked farm.
It is not too much to say that the degree of industry, frugality, and temperance, which are absolutely essential to enable a person in the middling or lower orders, in this country, to maintain his station in society, and preserve himself from want, are in Canada, sufficient to raise bim to comparative wealth. We know from most respectable authority, that one of the wealthiest individuals of a considerable town of Upper Canada arrived in that country as an emigrant, with no other property than the axe with which he was to labour. And though several fortunate circumstances must have concurred to produce such an extraordinary degree of success, there is no presumption in calculating, in the case of every settler, on an independent competence, as the natural result of steadiness and good conduct.
It is not, however, generally speaking, desirable, that men should be encouraged to go out as mere labourers, without having either more money than just enough to pay their passage, or any preconcerted arrangement for obtaining employment when they arrive; and especially is such a step to be deprecated in the case of those who have families : much severe distress has been the consequence of such imprudence ; for though there are perhaps many settlers who would be glad to hire them, yet from their remote and scattered situations, and the difficulties of communication, much time may elapse before their mutual wants are made known to the parties, so that the demand and supply may be brought to balance each other; and in the mean time the emigrant is perhaps starving in a strange country. It was for the relief of this distress, the amount of which has been very great, that the societies to which we have already alluded were first established in Canada.
- The best plan perhaps would be that which is hinted at in the printed statement; viz. that those who are emigrating as farmers should, either at their own expense or otherwise, take out with them such labourers as they might personally know, or bave good assurance of, as honest, steady, and skilful ; making some bargain with them beforehand, as to the time and terms of the engagement. Arrangements might also be made through the medium of such societies as those already established in Canada and in London, for supplying with labourers, the settlers already established there, many of whom probably would be glad to receive men bringing from this country testimonials as to character.
One description of workmen, who would be especially wellsuited to the colony, is not, perhaps, so frequent in this country now, as formerly, viz. a Jack-of-all-trades : in some remote districts, such artisans are still prized ; but in proportion to the increase of population, and the consequent subdivision of labour, they fall into disrepute. As Plato remarks of a certain class of pbilosophers, (who, notwithstanding the lofty appellation bestowed on them, were neither more nor less than artists of this description,) no one chuses to employ the one man who can do many things tolerably, when he can have access to several who can do each of them excellently: and hence, though in general men of superior ingenuity, their poverty is become proverbial. They have accordingly the more reason to try their fortune in a young settlement, which is exactly their proper field. A scattered population, bad roads, remoteness from towns, and a novel situation, leave in a most helpless condition the man who has concentrated all his powers in learning to perform some one operation very skilfully, and who has no resources.
It would appear indeed that from this cause a nation like our own, in which the subdivision of labour has been brought to the utmost perfection, is less fitted for furnishing colonists than one which has made far less progress in the arts. To illustrate this by a single instance-no one can doubt that the querns, or hand-mills, which were in use not long since in the Highlands, as well as among the ancients, occasioned much waste of labour, and that a great accession of wealth has been gained by the powerful macbinery which is now employed : but if we look to the case of a new settlement, the picture is reversed; we find, in the Ilinois district, the farmer obliged sometimes to carry his corn fifty miles, through bad roads, to the nearest mill, and to wait when he comes there, perhaps a week, before his turn comes to bave it ground; yet be submits to this evil as utterly irremediable. What a prodigious saving of labour would a colony of highlanders with their querns have in this case obtained! We really think that the manufacture of hand-mills, or of small horse-mills for this purpose, would be well worth the consideration of those who are interested in the prosperity of the Canadian settlers.
Perhaps too the society we have been speaking of may hereafter be led to adopt the plan of establishing a kind of mechanical school in this country, for communicating a slight degree of instruction in several of the most necessary arts : it would take but a very short time to make a man a tolerable carpenter, smith, &c, and the acquisition would be, in a new settlement, invaluable. We have no doubt, however, that the combined activity of intelligent individuals on both sides of the Atlantic, guided by local knowledge, and stimulated by benevolent zeal, will in time, if their numbers and funds should become considerable, devise and bring into practice every expedient, as far as the power of individuals extends, by which the prosperity of the colony may be promoted ; and if the fostering hand of government is extended, to afford free scope for their exertions,-to co operate with them, where its aid is indispensable,-and to rectify from time to time the various abuses which must be expected to creep in, --we see every reason to anticipate both a valuable resource to the redundant population of this country, and a great accession of strength to our transatlantic dominions, by the diversion thither of the better part of that tide of emigrants which is now poured into the territories of the United States; we say, the better part, because there are doubtless many emigrants of a character which would not promise much benefit to the colony; and one of the chief advantages perhaps which would result from the labours of a well-constituted society for promoting emigration, would be the careful selection of proper persons on whom to bestow their encouragement and assistance. Those in whom a rooted aversion to our constitution in church and state is one of the principal inducements for emigrating to republican America, it would neither be casy nor desirable to divert from their purpose. That is the best place for them. If they are disappointed in finding that a democratical government and the absence of a church establishment do not imply freedom from taxes, and the universal diffusion of virtue and happiness ; though their hopes are not gratified, their complaints, at least, will be silenced, or at any rate will cease to disturb our government. There may nevertheless be many, who, though not radically corrupt in their notions, nor altogether hostile to our government and religion, may bave been goaded by the pressure of distress, combined with the inflammatory declamations of designing men, to feel a great degree of impatience of the burden of taxes, tithes, and poor-rates; and such men may become, by the removal of the cause of their irritation, loyal and peaceable subjects in that part of the empire VOL. XXII. YO. 46.--Q. R.
which which is entirely exempt from those burdens. At least their angry feelings will have time and opportunity to subside, in a country where there are no tumultuous meetings in populous towns of unemployed manufacturers; but where all their neighbours, as well as themselves, have something better to do (as Mr. Gourlay found by experience) than to set about new modelling the constitution ; where the chief reform called for is to convert forests into cornfields, in which no one will hinder them from laying the axe to the root of the evil;—and in which the desire of novelty may be fully gratified, without destroying established institutions ;--where, in short, the whole structure of society is to be built up, without being previously pulled down.
ART. V.--1. Anecdotes, Observations, and Characters of Books
and Men, collected from the Conversation of Mr. Pope, and other eminent Persons of his Time. By the Rev. Joseph Spence. Now first published from the original Papers, with Notes and a Life of the Author by Samuel Weller Singer. London. 8vo.
1820. 2. Observations, Anecdotes, and Characters of Books and Men.
By the Rev. Joseph Spence. Arranged with Notes by Edmund
Malone, Esq. London. 8vo. 1820. 3. The invariable Principles of Poetry, in a Letter addressed to
Thomas Campbell, Esg. occasioned by some Critical Observations in his Specimens of British Poets, particularly relating to the Poetical Character of Pope. By the Rev. W. L. Bowles.
1819. A T length, after a tedious retention by one possessor, and, as we
now find, a concealment by another, appear the •Anecdotes of Spence;' an authentic collection which has hitherto remained unpublished, but not unreferred to, during the many years in which it has enjoyed a sort of paradoxical existence. The history of books is often curious, but that of the present is mysterious; and the mystery originates in the nature of the work itself, which was wished to be, and not to be, suppressed. The late Duke of New castle was supposed, till Mr. Singer's volume appeared, to be the sole possessor of the manuscript ; and his Grace having liberally submitted the volume to Dr. Johnson for public use, when it became a desideratum among the lovers of literary history, it was sullenly announced as a sealed book. Mr. Malone, however, was afterwards allowed to rifle it for his own purposes, and some imperfect transcripts, or capricious selections, crept abroad from time to time. The close of the history of this publication seems as mysterious