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The following table exhibits Hassel's enumeration of the various races of men :
III. Malay or Dark Brown Race. 1. Caucasians, Georgians, &c.
1,118,000 Malays, inhabiting the peninsula of Malac2. Arabians, Moors, Jews, Abyssinians,
ca, the island of Ceylon, and the islands Berbers, Armenians, &c. 54,523,000 in the Pacific Ocean,
32,800,000 3. Hindoos, Persians, Afghans, Curds, &c. 143,353,000 4. Tartar nations; - Turks, Turcomans,
17,095,000 Usbecks, Kirguses, &c.
IV. Ethiopian, Negro, or Black Race. 5. Greeks,
African Negroes, 530,000
62,983,300 6. Arnauts,
5,200,000 7. Sclavonian nations ; - Russians, Poles,
Hottentots, Lithuanians, Croats, &c.
Ger8. Teutonic or German nations ;
Papuans, Negroes of Australia, mans, English, Swedes, Dutch, Danes, 60,604,000
Total, 69,633,300 Norwegians, &c. 9. Roman or Latin nations ; — French, Italian, Spanish, Walloons, Wallachians, 75,829,000
V. American or Copper-colored Race. 10. Celts or Caledonians, Low Bretons, Basques, &c. 10,484,000 North American Indians,
5,130,000 South American Indians,
5,140,000 Total, 436,625,000 Caribbees, &c.
17,000 II. Mongolian, Tawny, or Olive Race.
Total, 10,287,000 Mongul nations, Thibetians, &c.
436,625,000 Birmans, Siamese, Anamese, &c.
32,500,000 Mandshurs or Mantchoos,
69,633,300 Finns, Esthonians, Laplanders, &c.
10,287,000 Esquimaux, Samoides, Kamtschatdales, &c. 185,700
3. Languages. Some writers have endeavored to arrange the human tribes into classes or families, according to the relations of their languages; comprising under the name of family those nations whose languages are closely connected in grammatical structure or in the etymology of their roots. Thus the German, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, and English languages bear a close resemblance to each other, and the nations speaking those languages are considered as kindred tribes, forming a family of nations to which has been given the name of the Teutonic family. The whole number of known languages is about 2,000. Of these fifteen are spoken or understood over a wide extent of country or by a great number of individuals : viz. the Chinese, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Hebrew, Sanscrit, German, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Greek, Latin, and Malay.
4. Population of the Globe. Very different estimates have been made of the entire population of the globe ; a regular enumeration has been made only in a few states, and the whole number of individuals in some has been calculated from a consideration of the known number of males, or of men capable of bearing arms, or of taxable polls, &c. But these data are not possessed in regard to many countries, and there are extensive regions of the world quite unknown to us. Accordingly the most trustworthy estimates of late writers differ considerably on this subject, some calculating the number of individuals of the human race at 1,000 millions, and others at 650 or 700 millions. Supposing the population of the globe to be rather less than 750 millions, the following table exhibits an estimate of its distribution in the five great divisions of the world.
Old World or Eastern Continent,
XI. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.
1. Origin of Government. Let us for a moment go back to the very infancy of society, and trace its progress in the formation of government. The ties which unite husband and wife, parents and children, formed the family, or domestic circle. Those families that happen to live in the same neighborhood, after quarreling for a while, at last agree to live in harmony together; certain rules become established among them, which for a time are only considered customs. The union of these families does not form a state, but only a civil society. These small societies soon perceive, that their customs and observances require to be clearly expressed, and to be invested with the authority of laws. Men of superior capacity become the
, lawgivers of these hamlets or villages. As soon as the rights and duties of individuals become thus established, political society commences.
But this is a community without efficient government. They have laws; but these, in order to render them effectual, require some power to execute them. The want of this power leaves society a prey to anarchy and confusion. The experience of these evils teaches mankind to establish some system, by which laws shall not only be framed, but enforced. Such a system is government, and when once established in a community, that community becomes a kingdom, empire, or republic, according to the particular form of government that is adopted.
In the earliest state of society, the patriarch or head of a family is naturally regarded as its ruler. Thus the patriarchal form is used in the infancy of society. In time of war, the strongest and most sagacious leader naturally assumes the principal authority and becomes the chief. As society advances and the nation increases in number and wealth, the chief assumes the rank and authority of a prince or king. A prince of a warlike disposition conquers the adjacent countries, and, ruling over several nations, becomes an emperor. Convinced, by experience and observation, that monarchical forms of government are not adapted to promote the highest happiness of the people, the inhabitants of a country throw off the yoke of tyranny, and frame a system, in which the authority shall be placed in the hands of persons chosen, from time to time, by themselves, thus giving rise to a free government.
2. Government. The government of a state is the body or bodies of men, to which are intrusted the power of making and executing the laws, the management of the public concerns, and the defence and promotion of the general welfare.
3. Powers and Branches of Government. The most important powers of a government are, that of making laws, or the legislative power ; that of interpreting or applying them to individual cases, or the judicial power; and that of executing them, or the executive power. Each of these powers is, in many states, confided to a distinct body, and the government is, therefore, divided into three independent branches, the legislature, the judiciary, and the executive.
4. Forms of Government. There are various forms of government differing in their character and appellation, according to the disposition of the powers of government in few or many hands, and the organization of the different branches;
(1.) A monarchical government is one in which the supreme power is exercised by a single individual ; if the sovereign succeeds his predecessor by right of inheritance, it is a hereditary monarchy; if he is chosen by the nation, or certain privileged classes, or dignitaries, it is an elective monarchy ;
(2.) When the sovereign has no law but his own will, and can dispose at pleasure of the lives, persons, and property of his subjects, the government is a despotism ; if the sovereign unites all powers in himself, but is bound by the laws, the government is an absolute monarchy ;
(3.) When the authority of the head of the state is restricted by the concurrent authority of the representatives of the nation or of certain privileged classes of the nation, the government is called a limited or constitutional monarchy ;
(4.) A republican government is one in which the supreme power is in the hands of the whole body of the people, or is exercised by the principal citizens; in the former case, it is called a democracy or democratic republic ; in the latter an aristocracy or aristocratic republic ;
(5.) States are also differently denominated according to the title of the sovereign, without regard to the form of government ; thus a monarchy is styled an empire, kingdom, duchy, principality, electorate, landgraviate, &c., according as the head of the state bears the title of emperor, king, duke, prince, elector, landgrave, &c. ;
(6.) of the popular form of government, that of the United States furnishes the leading example. This is founded upon the theory, that the true end and first object of government should be to secure the highest happiness of the people, and that the surest mode of accomplishing this end, is to intrust the government to the people. It may safely be asserted, that no country on the earth enjoys so much freedom, so equal a distribution of rights and privileges, with so little confusion and anarchy, as our own.
The other republican governments which now exist, some of them ostensibly modeled after our own, exert by no means so happy an influence. It is obvious, that a popular government must be good or bad, according to the character of the people from whom it flows. laws cannot be framed by the ignorant. Free institutions cannot proceed from slaves. An upright, virtuous, and just administration cannot be expected, where the people are vicious and debased. Let us draw this lesson from the spectacle exhibited by the other republics, that a form of government, however good, will not secure the happiness of a people, unless they are wise and virtuous, and choose the wise and virtuous to administer it.
5. Colonies. Colonies are establishments founded by states, or sometimes by individuals, in foreign countries, for commercial or benevolent purposes ; and subject to the authority of the mother country. Factories are trading stations established in foreign countries. Colonies founded by the transportation of convicted criminals are called penal colonies. 6. Towns. Cities. Cities. Villages. The name of town or city, strictly speaking, is not given
to a collection of houses on account either of its extent or population, but in consequence of certain privileges which the place enjoys. A city has a local government, at the head of which is a mayor, or other officer, to regulate its internal affairs. It has also a court, police, and system of local laws.
A town has also some privileges, such as the right to enact certain by-laws appertaining to the place ; or laying taxes for the support of the poor, for the maintenance of schools, and for various other purposes.
Villages are generally mere collections of houses. In different countries, cities and
towns have different privileges, and these terms Washington.
are, of course, used with various significations.
It may be remarked, that the great cities of Europe surpass our own in population and the splendor of their public edifices. The cities of Africa and Asia, though many of them very populous, are inferior both to those of Europe and America, in beauty, comfort, and convenience. A large proportion of the houses are of mud; the streets are generally narrow, gloomy, and without pavements, and the houses low, with flat roofs. In Persia, and parts of India, there are some gorgeous palaces, which have a certain degree of magnificence ; but they cannot compare with those of Europe for beauty and elegance.
1. Varieties of Religious Systems. All the various religious systems, professed by different nations, may be reduced to two great classes ; the one comprising those which acknowledge the existence of a Supreme God, the Creator, Preserver, and Ruler of all things, and the other including those which do not recognise the existence of a Supreme Intelligence.
2. Fetichism. Sabeism. To the latter class belong the innumerable forms of superstition which prevail among ignorant and barbarous tribes. Fetichism is the worship of fetiches, that is, of various living or inanimate objects of nature ; the elements, rivers, fire, trees, and whatever else the credulous savage sees endowed with powers of good or evil, become the objects of gratitude or fear and worship. Different forms of fetichism prevail among the negro tribes of Africa, in Australia, Polynesia, and in some parts of Asia and America. The sacrifice of human victims often forms a part of its horrid rites. Sabeism is the worship of the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and stars ; this is an ancient form of religious faith, but has ceased to prevail very extensively.
3. Judaism. Judaism acknowledges no revelation, but that made to the Hebrews by Moses and the prophets. The Jews are the descendants of the ancient Hebrews, and though dispersed over all parts of the world, they preserve their ceremonies and faith. Their sacred books are the books of the Old Testament, written originally in Hebrew ; they still expect the coming of the Messiah promised by their prophets, and observe the seventh day of the week or the Sabbath. Since their dispersion, they have ceased to offer the sacrifices prescribed by the law, and instead of their ancient priests or Levites, they have substituted Rabbins or learned men, who expound the law in the synagogues. Among the Jewish sects are the Talmudists, so called because they receive the Talmud, a collection of traditions and comments upon their sacred books; the Caraites, who reject the absurd traditions and superstitious follies of the Talmud ; the Rechabites, who live in the oases near Mecca, and receive only the earlier books of the Old Testament; and the Samaritans, who still offer sacrifices on Mount Gerizim. 4. Christianity. Although founded on Judaism, and originating among the Jews, Chris
tianity teaches, that the Messiah, promised by the Jewish prophets, has come, and brought a new revelation to men, and that Jesus Christ is this Messiah ; the New Testament contains the revelations of this divine Teacher.
Among all the religions of ancient and modern times, there is none which will bear the test of a rational investigation, except Christianity. This is the only system which can pretend to a divine origin, and the only one to which mankind can look for a remedy against the various moral evils which are seen to pervade every branch of the great human family.
Christianity is divided into three portions ;
the Greek, or Christian church, which is Church of the Nativity.
established by law in Russia, prevails in
Greece, Hungary, and part of Turkey. The Roman Catholic, Latin, or Western church, maintains the supremacy of the Pope, prevails in many parts of Europe, and has a considerable number of followers in North America. In some of the West India islands, in Mexico, Guatemala, and South America, it is the established religion.
The Protestants are those who protest against the Pope, and take the Bible of the Old and New Testament as their guide. They are divided into many sects, of which the principal are Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Quakers, Unitarians, and Universalists. The Protestant religion, in its various forms, prevails in the United States, England, Scotland, Wales, Holland, and some other European countries.
5. Mahometanism. Islamism or Mahometanism was founded by Mahomet or Mohammed, an Arabian, who, admitting the divine mission of Moses and Jesus Christ, and acknowledging the sacred character of the Old and New Testaments, claimed to be charged with new revelations from God. Islamism teaches the immortality of the soul, a future judgment, &c. ; it prescribes prayer five times a day ; frequent ablutions ; fasting during the month Ramazan ; y early alms, to the amount of the fortieth of one's personal property ; pilgrimage to Mecca, and some other rites ; the temples are called mosques, and divine service is performed in them every Friday.
The sacred book of the Mahometans is the Koran, an Arabic word signifying the Book ; it is written in Arabic. The principal Mahometan sects are the Sennites, who acknowledge the authority of certain traditions and commentaries on the Koran ; the Shiites, including the Nosairians, Ismaelians, Druses, &c., who reject these traditions ; the Yezids, whose religious system consists of a mixture of Christianity and Mahometanism ; and the Wahabites, an Arab sect, which arose during the last century, and has endeavored to effect a reformation of Islamism by purging it of human corruptions and restoring its primitive simplicity.
6. Brahmanism Brahmanism recognises the existence of a supreme intelligence, Brahm,
but teaches, that he governs the world through the medium of numerous subordinate deities. The principal of these are Brahma, the Creator, who presides over the land ; Vishnu, the Préserver, presiding over water ; and Siva, the Destroyer, who presides over fire ; these three persons are, however, but one God, and form the Trimourti or Hindoo Trinity. The Hindoos, who profess this faith, have several sacred books, called Vedas, written in Sanscrit, and forming their code of religion and philosophy ; they teach the metempsychosis or transmigration of souls, and the immortality of the soul, and prescribe a great number of fasts, penances, and rites. Pilgrimages, voluntary death, self-torment, ablutions, &c. are
practised, and the females of the two higher Brahma and Vishnu.
castes are required to burn themselves on the
dead bodies of their husbands. 7. Buddhism. Buddhism resembles Brahmanism in many points ; it is the prevailing religion in Thibet, Ceylon, the Birman empire, and Annam ; and is professed by a portion of the people of China, Corea, and Japan. Buddhism teaches, that the universe is inhabited by several classes of existences, partly material and partly spiritual, which rise by successive transmigrations to higher degrees of being, until they arrive at a purely spiritual existence, when they are termed Buddhas. These holy beings descend from time to time upon earth in a human form, to preserve the true doctrine among men ; four Buddhas have already appeared, the last under the name of Shigemooni or Godama.
8. Nanekism. Nanekism, or the religion of the Seiks, founded by Nanek in the fifteenth century, is a mixture of Mohammedanism and Brahmanism. The Seiks adore one God, believe in future rewards and punishments, and reject the use of images as objects of worship ; they receive the Vedas and the Koran, as sacred books, but think that the Hindoos have corrupted their religious system by the use of idols.
9. Doctrines of Confucius. The Doctrine of the Learned, or the Religion of Confucius, is the received religion of the educated classes of China, Annam, and Japan ; it uses no images, and has no priests, the ceremonies being performed by the civil magistrates. The rites, such as the worship of the heavens, stars, mountains, and rivers, genii, and souls of the departed, are esteemed merely civil institutions.
10. Magianism. Magianism or the Religion of Zoroaster, teaches the existence of a supreme being, Zervan or the Eternal, subordinate to whom are Ormuzd, the principle of good, and Ahriman, the principle of evil, who wage a perpetual warfare ; numerous inferior deities and genii take part in the struggle, in which Ormuzd will finally prevail
. The sacred books of the Magians are called the Zendavesta. The ceremonies consist chiefly in purifications, ablutions, and other rites, performed in the presence of the sacred fire, the symbol of the primeval 'ife ; hence the Magians are erroneously called fire-worshippers.
11. The number of the adherents of each religious system have been estimated as follows: Christianity:
4,000,000 139,000,000 Mohammedanism
96,000,000 Greek Catholics
170,000,000 Other Religions
147,000,000 Total, 260,000,000