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Lynı. 5. Inhabitants. The inhabitants of the British possessions, like those of our Western States, are much diversified by emigration. They are principally composed of Americans, French, English, Scotch, Irish, Germans, and Dutch. The Indians are of various tribes and will be described separately. The French Canadians live chiefly in a

line of settlements on the north of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and Montreal. In complexion they are as swarthy as Portuguese.

6. Dress. This is generally the same as in the United States, except that in winter furs are more worn. The clothes are impenetrable to cold, and the caps cover the face, neck, and ears, leaving exposed only the nose and eyes. A gray capot, reaching to the knee and girded by a sash of gay colors, is the characteristic costume of the country. The habitans, or occupiers of land, wear a straw hat in summer, and in winter a woolen or fur cap ; the moccasins are made of sole leather, and the dress of the females of this class is that of a French peasant.

7. Languages. The languages are chiefly the French and English, and law processes are sometimes served in both. Not a fifth of the inhabitants of Lower Canada speak English.

8. Manner of Building. The houses are generally of one story, small, but comfortable, and in the country surrounded with garden plats, which are not, however, kept in the best condition. Some of the roofs are covered with tin. In winter the rooms are heated by stoves to a high temperature, and the Canadian will, without suffering, quit a room heated to 900 of Fahrenheit for an external cold of 30° below zero.

9. Food. The people are as bountifully supplied with all the common articles of food as those of the United States, and they are generally the same. At the commencement of winter the swine and poultry are killed and placed in garrets, &c. where they are frozen, and thus preserved till spring, and in winter the markets are well stocked ; for this is the season when the roads offer the greatest facilities of communication. The usual spirituous liquors are rum, and the others which are common in the United States, and the consumption is considerable, though there is not much habitual intemperance, unless among the “rafters," &c.

10. Diseases. The diseases are generally the same with those that prevail in the New England States.

11. Traveling. The great chain of communication is on the lakes, and the river St. Law


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On the river, there are steamboats, and where they cannot ply, long pirogues, which

are not unattended with danger. The taverns are not distinguished for accommodations, but the people are so hospitable, that a traveler is generally welcome at a private house. Winter is the season when there is the most traveling, for pleasure or business. The provisions and products of farms are then carried to market on sledges or carioles, which are small sleighs, and generally drawn by the small but spirited Canadian horses, at a rapid rate.

In the unsettled parts, dog. sledges are used for traveling in winter, and travelers pass the night in the woods, where they kindle fires and cook their provisions.

12. Character, Manners, &c. The char

acter of the people of Canada is as much
Slave Lake.

mixed as that of the United States. There
are many elements, that it is the work of time
only to mingle in one mass. The French
Canadians, however, form a separate society,
marked with its own peculiarities. They are
volatile, social, cheerful, and hospitable to a
great degree. They seldom remove from the
neighborhood in which they were born, where
they prefer to live for the sake of the society,
that has more charms for them than wider pa-
trimonies. Several generations often live un-

der one roof. There is among them, as well as
throughout Canada, great equality in property.
Sunday is the great fète on which the French
make their display ; though in the long win-
ter, every day seems devoted to amusement.

Dinner-parties are constantly held, and no
Travelers resting at Night.

sooner is the cloth removed, than the sound

of the violin summons all to the dance. Among the French and some of the other inhabitants, it is common to see females laboring in the fields or gardens, bronzed by the sun, while in the United States, a woman is seldom seen thus employed, or even standing long in the sun without the defence of a sun-bonnet. Many

a of the Canadian semales, therefore, though handsome while young, soon become coarse and masculine. There are few crimes committed in Canada ; few personal disputes that are settled by blows; and property is so safe, that it is not a general practice to fasten the doors at night. The most reckless class are the rafters, who float timber down the streams when they are first open in spring. Their employment compels them sometimes to stand in water for a day at a time, and no one ever saw an aged raftsman. Health is soon sacrificed, and it has grown into a common saying, that a raftsman has, at the end of summer, “a ruined constitution, spendthrift habits, a blue pair of trowsers, and an umbrella.”

13. Amusements. The chief amusements are in winter ; the principal one, which is pursued with great spirit, is to ride fast in carioles. One family has sometimes several of these

. Dancing is a favorite amusement, and is more general among the common people than in the United States. Spearing fish by torch-light is one of the most attractive of the active sports of the Canadians.

14. Education. The means of education are very limited ; comparatively few of the natives can read and write, and the remark applies to some of the members of the House of Assembly. Among the French, more females than men can read. The arts and sciences are not, of course, in a flourishing condition. 15. Religion. All creeds have unlimited toleration, though the Catholics are the most nu

The Jesuits were formerly wealthy. In both Canadas there are about 20 clergymen of the English church. There are Presbyterians, and divers other sects.

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180 82 96 363 967 348 282 355 250

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16. Indians. These are so similar to those in the Territories of the United States, tnat a detailed account of them is unnecessary.

The Hurons live north of the lake of that name, and the Mohawks and a remnant of the Six Nations, dwell about the river Ouse. The Mississaugus inhabit the sources of the river Credit, and the once formidable Iroquois are generally settled on the banks of the Ottawa. Not far from Montreal, is an Indian village of 1,200 inhabitants, a tribe of the Iroquois. They profess the Catholic faith ; and there are some hamlets of converted Hurons near Quebec. There are near the settlements other inconsiderable tribes.

The following table shows the number of the Christian Indians, or those who reside within the limits of the provinces, near and generally surrounded by the settlements of the whites. But few of these have the aboriginal blood pure in their veins, and most of them have lost the knowledge of their native tongue, using the French or English instead of it :

Hurons of Lorette
Algonquins of Three Rivers

of Becancour

of the St. Francis Iroquois of Caughnawaga

of St. Regis

of the Lake of the Two Mountains

2,923 The most numerous tribes, however, are those which dwell far from the whites ; and these are principally the Chippiwyans (of the same stock with the Chippeways in the United States), and the Knisteneaux or Crees. The Knisteneaux inhabit a wide extent of territory, and their language is that of the tribes which border on the Atlantic. They are a well formed race, and their women are the handsomest of all the Indian females. These tribes paint their faces, and they are more cleanly than other Indians. They are hospitable, generous, and mild, when not infuriated by spirits. They do not, however, consider chastity as a virtue, but they are not unkind to their women. They are vain and boastful, not much regarding truth ; but strict in regard to the rights of property. They are so honest, that at the trading-posts they are allowed to enter every apartment without restraint. They are unbounded in hospitality, and although they often suffer from famine, every one in an encampment is free to share the food of a successful hunter. They do not follow gaming with the destructive ardor that characterizes many tribes. The women possess considerable influence, and both sexes are exceedingly fond of their children ; if the mother, more hasty in her temper, sometimes bestows a blow on a disobedient child, her heart is immediately softened by the roar which follows, and she mingles her tears with those that streak the smoky face of her darling. Tattooing is universal among the Crees, and the operation is very painful

. Their chief remedies for disease are conjurations, and the sweating-baths. They believe in a good spirit and an evil one, and have, like many rude tribes, a tradition of the deluge. They sometimes vow to abstain from particular kinds of food for a limited time, to walk on all-fours a certain number of days, or undergo other ridiculous penances.

The Assiniboin or Stone Indians, are a tribe of Sioux. They rear many horses, and subsist chiefly on the buffalo. The Stone Indians are habitually treacherous, though their appearance is prepossessing. Their eyes are large and expressive, nose aquiline, and forehead bold. A profusion of black hair hangs over the ears, and shades the face. The dress is neat and convenient, consisting of a vest and trowsers of leather, and a buffalo robe. These Indians steal whatever they can, particularly horses. The Slave Indians live further west, and though at war with the Stone Indians, resemble them. Both races are desperate and daring. The Chippiwyans are a widely-spread race, divided into many tribes. They are repulsive in their appearance, having wide nostrils, broad faces, and high cheek bones. They are sullen and selfish, never giving or receiving with a good grace. A stranger may go hungry from their lodges, unless he thrusts his knife uninvited into the food. They are not, however, dishonest, and theft is rare among them. In the most of these tribes the lot of females is grievous, and some mothers have been known to destroy their female offspring, that it might escape the same servitude. Aged and sick people are abandoned to perish. Their disputes are generally settled by wrestling; and the victor of a match which he may himself provoke, may carry off the wife of the vanquished. The Copper Indians, the Dog-ribs, the Hare Indians, the Quarrellers,


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the Beavers, &c., are all tribes of the same race, living at the northward. Between the Northern Indians and the Esquimaux, there has generally been a savage and irreconcilable war.

17. History. The portion of the American continent first seen by Europeans seems to have been early visited by the Scandinavian colonists of Greenland; it was the coast of Labrador, re-discovered by Cabot in 1497. Verazzani afterwards visited the shores of the present British Territories in the service of France, in 1524, and Cartier first penetrated into the gulf and river of St. Lawrence in 1534, and the following year. In 1610 Champlain ascended as far as the upper lakes, and at the same time Hudson entered the great bay that bears his name. Soon afterwards the country now forming the Canadas took the name of New France, that portion of the Provinces on the Atlantic having been previously occupied by the French, under the name of Acadie ; yet in 1621 the latter was granted by King James the First of England, under the name of Nova Scotia or New Scotland. Repeated wars between England and France also involved the British and French colonies on this side of the water in hostilities, but in 1763 New France and Acadie were finally ceded to Great Britain, and the French power in this quarter was thus annihilated. New Brunswick was separated from Nova Scotia in 1784, and in 1791 the Province of Quebec was divided into the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. In 1912-14, a war between the United States and Great Britain led to several invasions of Canada by the former. In 1837 numerous risings took place in the Canadas against the constituted authorities, but the spirit of revolt was checked by the British troops, and the constitutions of the two provinces were declared by the British government to be suspended. A union of the two provinces with a new constitution, so as to throw the local legislation into the hands of the British population, seems now to be the intention of the mother country.


1. Boundaries and Divisions. Upper Canada, a colony of Great Britain, is bounded on the N. and W. by New Britain, E. by Lower Canada, from which it is in part separated by the river Ottawa, and S. by the United States, from which it is separated by the great lakes. Its northern and western linits are undefined. It is divided into 25 counties, which are subdivided into townships, and contains a population of 300,000.

2. Face of the Country, Climate, and Soil. The surface presents an almost unbroken level, with a fertile soil, and a mild and healthy climate.

3. Rivers and Lakes. The Ottawa and st. Lawrence, with the great lakes, wash its borders, and afford important advantages for trade. The Thames, flowing into Lake St. Clair, and the Ouse, into Lake Erie, are the principal rivers within its limits. The river Niagara, which separates New York from Upper Canada, is the outlet of Lake Erie, and discharges its waters into Lake Ontario after a course of 36 miles. The whole descent, from the level of Lake Erie to that of Lake Ontario, is 330 feet. Grand Isle, or Ararat, an island 12 miles in length by 7 in breadth, divides its channel for some distance, but below that island the waters are again united. Here they become broken by rapids, for the distance of nearly a mile, and at length are precipitated over a ledge of rocks, 165 feet high, forming the celebrated falls of Niagara, which have already been described. Lakes Nipissing and Simcoe are considerable sheets of water.

4. Towns. The capital is Toronto, lately York, on Lake Ontario, with 10,000 inhabitants. Its harbor is shallow, and the country around is barren. Kingston, on the same lake, is the next largest town of Upper Canada. It is agreeably situated, and well built, containing several public edifices, and about 5,000 inhabitants. The harbor is excellent, and ships of the line can come close to the shore.

It has a flourishing trade, and in summer the port is crowded with the various kinds of lake and river craft. The English government has a dock-yard here. There is a great number of thriving villages in Upper Canada, which though lately built in the midst of the wilderness, contain from 1,000 to 1,500 inhabitants. Bytown on the Ottawa, is connected with Hull in Lower Canada, by a fine bridge of 11 arches, and 800 feet in length; Brockville and Prescot are on the St. Lawrence ; Dundas and Hamilton are rapidly increasing villages, at the west end of Lake Ontario. London, on the Thames, is a flourishing town with 2,000 inhabitants. Goderich, recently built on Lake Huron, is the most western settlement. Niagara, Queenstown, and Chippewa, small towns on the river Niagara, became the scene of




military operations during the war of 1812-14. Sherbrooke, at the mouth of the Ouse, Malden and Amherstburg are the principal places on Lake Erie.

5. Canals. Rideau Canal, from Kingston to Bytown, affords a navigation by rivers and akes of 160 miles, with an actual excavation of but 20 miles. It has 47 locks, with a total lockage of 437 feet. Welland Canal, connecting lakes Erie and Ontario, is 41 miles in length, and sufficiently wide and deep to admit vessels of 120 tons. It overcomes the fall of Niagara by 37 locks ; summit level 330 feet. A caval has been projected to unite the Thames Chatham with Lake Erie.

6. Inhabitants. Government. Upper Canada is peopled almost entirely by Irish and Scotch emigrants ; there are also many English, and some settlers from the United States. The executive administration is vested in a Lieutenant-Governor, with an executive council. The legislature or Provincial Parliament is composed of a legislative council, and a House of Assembly; the latter is chosen by the counties and the 3 towns of Kingston, Toronto, and Niagara. The executive officers and members of the legislative council are appointed by the king of Great Britain. 7. Education. Religion. About one fourth of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics ; the

; rest are principally Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists. There are but few Episcopalians, yet the reservation of one seventh part of each township for the support of the Protestant clergy, has been appropriated exclusively for their use. There is a university, called King's College, and another seminary, called the College of Upper Canada, has lately been founded. Grammar and elementary schools have been established, and have received pecuniary aid from the provincial legislature.

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1. Boundaries and Divisions. The British province of Lower Canada lies on both sides of the St. Lawrence, having the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the E. ; New Brunswick and the United States on the S. ; and Upper Canada on the W. Its northern limits are undefined. It is divided into 40 counties, which are subdivided into seigniories and townships. The population is about 600,000.

2. Rivers. The principal river is the St. Lawrence, which, issuing from Lake Ontario, falls into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, after a course of 800 miles. Considering its head waters to be the streams which flow from the central table-land of North America into Lake Superior, and the great chain of lakes, with their outlets, the rivers St. Mary, Detroit, and Niagara, to be parts of this river, the St. Lawrence has a course of about 2,500 miles, and in point of depth, width, and volume of waters, is one of the principal rivers of the world. Below Lake Ontario it expands successively into the lake of the Thousand Isles, lake St. Francis, and lake St. Peter. It is navigable for ships of the line to Quebec, 400 miles, and for the largest merchant ships to Montreal, 180 miles further ; the tide Aows up about 500 miles. The other rivers of Lower Canada are its tributaries ; on the north are the Ottawa or Uttawa, and the Saguenay, large navigable rivers, flowing through a region little known ; the former is supposed to have a course of 1,000 or 1,200 miles, but its navigation is much interrupted by rapids. The Saguenay is remarkable for its depth, and is navigable for 90 miles to its falls ; — for

about 50 miles it has the appearance of a long mountain-lake, and the scenery around is wild and magnificent. At its junction with the St. Lawrence it is 840 feet in depth, being 600 feet deeper than the latter river. The St. Maurice is also a considerable stream from the north, and the Montmorenci, which falls into the St. Lawrence at Quebec, is celebrated for its cataract, which is 240 feet in height, and which, when the river is full, pours a large volume of water over its precipitous bank. On the south the principal tributaries are the Sorel or Richelieu, the outlet of Lake Champlain, the Chaudiere, with a beautiful cascade rushing down a precipice 100 feet in height, and the St. Francis.

3. Soil and Climate. The winters are long and severe ; the thermometer often falling to 40° below zero. The heat is intense for a short time in summer. The air is pure, clear, and healthy. The country on the south of the St. Lawrence is mountainous, and chiefly covered with forests; to the north the surface is also in general broken and rugged, and rising by successive banks, called steps or ramps, into an elevated table-land ; little is known of the interior. The soil along the rivers is fertile, and the productions are similar to those of the northern part of the United States.

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