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toward the end of the 17th century, settlements were formed by the French at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, as already related. These establishments, however, did not become politically important. At the treaty of Paris, in 1763, this country came into the possession of Great Britain. This State formed a part of the region which in 1789 was placed under a territorial government, with the title of the Western Territory. In 1800 that part comprising Indiana and Illinois, was made a distinct Territory. In 1809, Illinois was made a separate Territory, and in 1818 it was admitted into the Union as an independent State.

CHAPTER XXXIII. MICHIGAN.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

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1. Boundaries and Extent. Michigan is bounded on the S. by Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin ; E. by lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior, and their connecting rivers ; N. by Lake Su

; perior ; and W. by Wisconsin. It extends from 41° 20' to 49° N. lat., and from 82? 20' to 91° W. long., having an area of 70,000 square miles. It consists of two great natural divisions, the lower peninsula, between lakes Huron and Michigan, and the upper peninsula, between the latter and Lake Superior.

2. Face of the Country. The centre of the lower peninsula forms an elevated table-land, 300 feet above the surface of the lakes, and divides the waters flowing into Lake Michigan from those running into lakes Erie, St. Clair, and Huron. The face of the country in general is

, level or gently undulating; the southern part consists of open land, known by the name of the Oak Plains, with a productive soil; in the southwest, are fertile prairies. The basins of the lakes are deep depressions, sinking far below the level of the ocean, although their surfaces are upwards of 600 feet above it. The upper or northern peninsula is much more hilly and rugged than the southern ; the rivers are much broken by rapids and by falls of great height, and the western part is covered by the lofty ridges of the Wisconsin or Porcupine Mountains, which are estimated to rise to the height of 2,000 feet above Lake Superior.

3. Rivers. The rivers of the northern peninsula mostly flow north into Lake Superior, and, though large streams, have rapid and broken currents. The Montreal is the northwestern boundary, and it has a fall of about 90 feet, just above its mouth. The Ontonagon and Keweena are also considerable rivers. The Menomonie flows into Green Bay, and forms the southwestern limits of this section. It is navigable about 80 miles. Within the lower peninsula, are the St. Joseph's, with a course of 200 miles, and navigable for steamboats 70 miles; the Kalamazoo, a smaller and more rapid stream, navigable for boats; the Grand River, or Washtenau, which has a winding course of about 300 miles, rising to the northwest of Saginaw Bay ; the Marquette and the Monteste, all flowing into Lake Michigan ; the Cheboiegan, a large stream in the north, flowing into Lake Huron ; the Saginaw, composed of 5 or 6 large branches meeting from the south, the east, the west, and the north, and passing into the bay of the same name; and the Huron and French rivers, smaller streams, running into Lake Erie.

4. Lakes. Beside the great bounding lakes, that have already been described under the head of North America, there are a great number of smaller lakes in the southern peninsula, contributing not less to the beauty than to the fertility of the country ; no one of them is considerable for its size, but they are so numerous as to form a striking feature of the country.

5. Climate. The winters are severe, particularly in the northern part, and snow lies to the depth of from 6 to 18 inches, for several weeks, even in the southern part. The average temperature of winter is 20°; of summer, 80'. The spring is wet and backward; summer, dry; autumn, mild; winter, dry and cold.

6. Minerals. Salt springs occur in many places; iron and lead ore, gypsum, and coal are found, and peat is abundant. Copper is thought to exist abundantly in the northwest. On the banks of the Ontonagon have been discovered large masses of native copper, one of which weighed 2,200 pounds. The mineral resources of the country have not yet been turned to much account.

7. Natural Curiosities. The southern shore of Lake Superior exhibits a singular phenomenon, called the Pictured Rocks. They are a series of lofty bluffs and precipices, exhibiting the appearance of towering walls, ruins, caverns, waterfalls, &c., in every variety of combination. They are generally about 300 feet in height, and often overhang the water. The color varies in shades of black, yellow, red, white, and brown. The waves, driven by the violent north winds, have worn the rocky shores into numerous caverns, bays, and indentations, which increase the romantic effect of these appearances. In one place, a cascade tumbles from the top of the rock in so wide a curve, that boats pass between the sheet of water and the shore. Another spot exhibits a mass of rock supported by four natural pillars, and overgrown on the top with trees; it is called the Doric Rock, and closely resembles a work of art.

8. Soil. The country along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan consists of hills of sand thrown up by the lake, and producing some scanty herbage, and a few stunted trees. The land is still encroaching upon the water. In the eastern part of the peninsula, the soil is fertile ; the northwestern parts have been little explored ; but the land along the rivers is of an excellent quality. Perhaps, taken as a whole, there is no region of equal extent, that contains so much good land as the lower peninsula. In the northern, however, there are extensive tracts of sandy plains and rocky hills.

9. Vegetable Productions. All the water-courses, ponds, and marshes in the northwestern parts, are covered with the Zizania aquatica, or wild rice. It is a tall, reedy water-plant, and springs up from the depth of 6 or 7 feet, where the bottom is soft and muddy ; it rises nearly as high above the water ; its leaves and spikes resemble those of oats, but are much larger. When it is intended to be preserved, the spikes are bound together to preserve the grain from the water-fowl, who resort to these spots in millions. After it has ripened, canoes are rowed among the grain ; blankets are spread in the bottoms of the canoes, and the grain is beaten out

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It is as white as common rice, and has much the taste of sago.

upon them.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

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1837,

1. Divisions. Michigan is divided into 41 counties.

Population at different Periods. 1810, 4,762 1830,

28,004 1820, 8,896

175,000 2. Towns. The city of Detroit, the capital, and much the largest town in the State, occupies the site of an old French post and village, which took the name, meaning Strait, from the river which connects lakes St. Clair and Erie. Although founded at the beginning of the last century, Detroit was an inconsiderable village in 1830 ; its business and population have increased with great rapidity during the last few years, and must continue to grow with the growth of the great region bordering on the upper lakes. Standing in the centre of this great chain of seas, and on the summit level in which the principal rivers of the continent rise, it communicates easily with Quebec, New York, New Orleans, and with the shores of lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. There are here several handsome public buildings, the streets are regular and spacious, and the situation pleasant. Population, 10,000. Numerous large steamers run between this place and Chicago on the one side, and Buffalo on the other, touching at the intermediate parts. The city of Monroe, on the River Raisin, is a flourishing and busy town, with an active trade and considerable manufactures. Population, 3,500. Adrian, Ann Arbor, Tecumseh, and Pontiac, in the southeast, St. Joseph, Niles, and Grand Haven, in the southwest, are small but growing villages.

On the island of Mackinaw, at the mouth of the straits of the same name, are the little village of Mackinaw, and a frontier post of the United States. Fort Brady, at the outlet of Lake Superior, is the northernmost military post of the United States in this quarter. Here is also the little village of St. Mary, the only white settlement in the upper peninsula. Population 800, mostly French and half-breeds. There is also a military post at the foot of Lake Huron, called Fort Gratiot.

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Allegan
Arenac
Barry
Berrien
Branch
Calhoun
Cass
Chippewa
Clinton
Eaton
Genesee

Gladwin
Gratiot
Hillsdale
Ingham
Ionia
losco
Isabella
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Kent

Lapeer
Lenawee
Livingston
Macomb
Mackinaw
Midland
Monroe
Montcalm
Oakland
Oceana

Ottawa
Saginaw
St. Clair
St. Joseph
Sanilac
Shiawassee
Tuscola
Van Buren
Washtenau
Wayne

3. Canals and Railroads. In 1837, the legislature created a Board of Commissioners of Internal Improvement, and authorized the raising of a loan of 5,000,000 dollars for the purpose of executing a series of public works, as follows :- 1. The Southern Railroad, is to extend from the city of Monroe to New Buffalo, on Lake Michigan, 180 miles. 2. The Central Railroad, from Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph, 200 miles. 3. The Northern Railroad, from Huron, at the foot of Lake Huron, to the mouth of Grand River, 200 miles. Appropriations were also made for surveys of the Kalamazoo, St. Joseph, and Grand River, in order to ascertain the best means of improving the navigation of those rivers, and several canals. The Northern Canal connects the Grand River, by the Maple River branch, with the Saginaw. The Clinton and Kalamazoo Canal connects Lake Michigan, by the Kalamazoo and Clinton rivers, with Lake St. Clair ; and a ship canal round the falls of the St. Mary is proposed. Other railroads constructed by individuals are the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad, 30 miles in length; the Detroit and Shelby Railroad, from Detroit to Utica, 23 miles; the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad, extending from Toledo in Ohio, through Adrian, to Marshall on the Kalamazoo, with a branch to Havre, at the mouth of the Ottawa; and the Ypsilanti and Tecumseh Railroad, 25 miles.

4. Agriculture, &c. The inhabitants are almost wholly occupied in agricultural pursuits. The productions are the same with those of the adjoining States. Wheat and oats are the principal crops, and maize or Indian corn, rye, buckwheat, barley, hemp, and flax are generally cultivated. The common fruits and garden vegetables thrive, and heavy crops of grass are obtained. The live stock is pretty numerous. There are about 500 saw-mills, and 150 gristmills, in the State, but the manufactures are inconsiderable. The trade consists chiefly in the export of its surplus produce, with furs and skins from the interior, and the importation of manufactures and tropical productions for consumption.

5. Education. The University of Michigan has recently been established on a very liberal scale, at Ann Arbor, and is well endowed by the State. There are also colleges at Spring Arbor and Marshall, and very ample provision has been made for the establishment of a system of common education.

6. Government. The constitution of the State was formed in 1835. The Governor is chosen for the term of 2 years, and a Lieutenant-Governor chosen for the same term, is President of the Senate. The legislature consists of a Senate, chosen biennially, and a House of

, Representatives, chosen annually. These officers and bodies are all elected by popular vote, and suffrage is universal. Michigan has 1 representative in Congress.

7. History. Lake Huron was visited by Champlain as early as 1615, and a post and mission were established by the French at Mackinaw, in about the middle of the 17th century. Fort Pontchartrain, on the present site of Detroit, was built some time after. In 1763 this country passed with Canada into the hands of the British, but the English garrison at Fort Mackinaw was surprised and massacred by the Indians, in that year. Until 1805 Michigan formed a part of the Northwest Territory, but in that year became a distinct government. In 1812 Detroit was captured by the British, and the terrible massacre of the Americans at Frenchtown, by the Indian allies of that power, followed. The enemy was soon after driven from the peninsula by General Harrison, and in 1936 Michigan was admitted to the rights and rank of a State.

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CHAPTER XXXIV. WISCONSIN.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Boundaries and Extent. Wisconsin extends from Lakes Michigan and Superior to the Mississippi, being bounded on the N. by the Hudson Bay Company's Territories and Lake Superior, on the E. by that Lake, Michigan, and Lake Michigan, S. by Illinois, and W. by the Mississippi and Iowa. It lies between 42° 30' and 49° 30' N. lat., and between 56° 50' and 96° W. long., being about 600 miles in length, and from 100 to 200 in breadth, with an area of 80,000 square miles.*

2. Mountains. The Wisconsin or Porcupine Mountains extend from the head of Rock

* The course of the boundary between Lake Superior claiming the valley of the Kaministiquia or Dog River, and the Lake of the Woods is a subject in controversy the former that of the St. Louis, as the line of direction. between Great Britain and the United States; the latter

River to Lake Superior, traversing the central part of Wisconsin. Their elevation in some parts is estimated to be about 2,600 feet. There is a ridge of low hills between the sources of the Mississippi and the Red River from 1,200 to 1,500 feet above the level of the sea, but not more than 200 or 300 above that of the surrounding country. A similar ridge stretches round the western end of Lake Superior, dividing its tributaries from those of the Mississippi.

3. Rivers. The Mississippi washes the western boundary and receives the principal rivers. The Rock River passes into Illinois, but is navigable within the limits of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin is one of the most important tributaries of the Upper Mississippi, and has a course of about 500 miles, rising near the sources of the Montreal of Lake Superior and the Menomonie of Lake Michigan, and approaching at the great bend within a few miles of Fox river ; its navigation is obstructed by shoals and bars, except in high stages of the water. The Chippewa is also a large stream entering the Mississippi. The St. Louis flows into the Fond du Lac or head of Lake Superior, and may therefore be considered as the source of the St. Lawrence; it is much broken by rapids and falls. The Fox River of Green Bay, is a fine navigable stream,

, with some rapids.

4. Climate. Soil. The climate scarcely differs from that of the corresponding parts of Michigan. In the southwest are extensive tracts of good soil with some swamps and marshes; the prairie or unwooded land prevails, except on the borders of rivers. In the south there are some sandy and some rugged tracts, and extensive marshes and lakes. On the Upper Mississippi are valuable forests of white pine.

5. Minerals. The most valuable mineral product has hitherto been lead, and copper is also found, but there has been no examination of the mineral resources of the earth. The lead district is a part of that which occupies a portion of Illinois and Iowa.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Divisions and Population. Wisconsin is divided into 19 counties.* The population is about 30,000.

2. Towns. The towns in an agricultural district which has been settled for only a few years, must necessarily be small. The capital is Madison, recently founded on the Four Lakes, with about 500 inhabitants. Milwaukee, on Lake Michigan, with the best harbor on this coast of the lake, has about 2,000 inbabitants. Sheboiegan, further north, has an advantageous situation for a trading town. Navarino, at the mouth of Fox River, has also a good harbor, and will become important as the country becomes peopled. Fort Howard, a military post of the United States, stands opposite to Navarino, and at the mouth of the Wisconsin is Fort Crawford. Prairie du Chien, the most northern village on the Mississippi, is on the site of an old French village, and has a population of 600 souls. 3. Canals. The Portage Canal 1į mile in length, connects Fox River with the Wiscon

. sin, and therefore the Mississippi with the lakes, and completes a steamboat navigation from Ogdensburg and Buffalo to New Orleans. The junction of the Rock and Milwaukee by a canal, is projected. 4. Indians. The Menomonies occupy a tract on the river that bears their name.

The Chippewas are thinly scattered round the heads of the Mississippi and the coast of Lake Superior. There are some bands of the Six Nations from New York on Green Bay.

CHAPTER XXXV. MISSOURI.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Boundaries and Extent. This State is bounded N. by Iowa, W. by the Indian Territory and the Missouri, E. by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and S. by Arkansas. It extends from 36° to 40° 30 N. latitude, and from 890 to 95° 30' W. longitude. It is 300 miles in length and from 220 to 300 in breadth, and contains 68,000 square miles.

2. Mountains. The Ozark Mountains extend from the central parts of this State south-
* Brown
Fond du Lac
Manitouwoc

Rock
Calumet
Grant
Milwaukee

Sheboiegan
Crawford

Marquette

Washington
Iowa
Portage

Walworth.
Dodge
Jefferson

Racine

Green

Dane

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westerly into the region west of the Arkansas. East of them is a ridge called the Iron Mountains. Some of the peaks of these mountains are said to be 3,000 feet high, but they have been little explored.

3. Rivers. The Mississippi washes the whole eastern boundary of this State. The Missouri passes through it from west to east, and here joins the Mississippi. The Osage enters from the west, and joins the Missouri near the centre of the State ; it has a boat navigation of 600 miles. The Gasconade falls into the Missouri below the Osage ; it is navigable for boats 66 miles. The Merrimack or Maramec falls into the Mississippi below the Missouri ; it is pavi

. gable 50 miles. The St. Francis, the White Water, Black and Currant Rivers rise in the south and pass into Arkansas. Grand and Chariton Rivers fall into the Missouri from the north.

Salt River is a branch of the Mississippi, in the same quarter ; these are navigable for boats. 4. Climate. This State is subject to great extremes of temperature.

The summer is intensely hot, and the winter often so severe, that the Missouri is frozen for weeks so as to be passed by loaded wagons. The sky in summer is clear, and the air generally very dry.

5. Soil. The soil of this State contains more sand, and is more loamy and friable than that of the lands upon the Ohio. The alluvial prairies are universally rich, and nearly as fertile as the river bottoms. The rich uplands have a dark gray soil, except about the lead mines, where the soil is formed of a decomposed pyrites, and is of a reddish color. Nearly all the level tracts are sufficiently fertile to produce good crops of maize without manure. The alluvial borders of the Missouri are generally loamy, with a large proportion of sand. here contains a quantity of marl or lime, and is exceedingly fertile. The richer prairies and bottoms are covered with grass and weeds so tall as to make it difficult to travel on horseback. In the southwestern part are large tracts of poor, sandy soil, covered with yellow pine, and in many parts stony.

6. Minerals. Perhaps no region in the world surpasses Missouri in the variety and abundance of its mineral resources ; to inexhaustible stores of lead and iron, coal and salt, are to be added zinc, manganese, antimony, plumbago, iron pyrites, arsenic, and copper, nitrous and aluminous earth, potter's clay, marble, freestone, and granite, sulphuretted and thermal waters, &c., and according to some accounts, indications of silver and cobalt occur. Generally speaking, the prevailing rocks are carboniferous limestones and saliferous sandstones : the Ozark Mountains appear to consist mainly of masses of instrusive rocks, granite, sienite, porphyry, &c., and of altered limestones and sandstones. The repository of the lead-ore, which is galena or sulphuret of lead, is magnesian limestone, but the limits and extent of the galeniferous region have never been ascertained ; the ore is known to be abundant, not only in the districts usually called the lead region, and the seat of the oldest and most extensive diggings, but also in several counties west of the Osage, and north of the Missouri. Operations were commenced here by the French as early as 1720. The processes have been of the rudest sort ; wherever indications of the unineral, as the galena is called by the miners, appear on the surface, an excavation has been commenced, and the whole surface of the ground has been cut out into pits of various sizes, from 3 or 4 to 20 feet in diameter, and from 10 to 15 feet in depth, the digging being abandoned as soon as the depth renders it inconvenient to throw out the earth, or to hoist out the mineral by a simple windlass and bucket ; blasting is also resorted to when a rich vein is struck in the metalliferous rock, but much of the ore is found loose in alluvial desposits, in lumps of various sizes. In a large way, it yields from 80 to 85 per cent of pure metal, but by more careful processes might be made to give considerably more. The annual produce of the Missouri diggings is at present about 7,000,000 pounds, a portion of which is manufactured into shot and sheet lead.

Iron-ore is found in numerous localities, but we have no particular account of its charàcter and quantity, except in the case of the enormous masses in Madison and Washington counties. The Iron Mountain, of this district, is a homogeneous deposit of pure, massive, specular iron, containing only in a few cases, crystals of feldspar; and the Pilot Knob, is a mountain made up in large proportion of specular iron, the feldspar often scarcely exceeding the ore with which it is mixed. Although copper and silver are known to exist, and have been successfully worked, we have no definite account of the situation and extent of the ores. Bituminous coal is found in almost every county, except in the mineral district, and the beds are said to be of great extent and of easy access. Salt springs are numerous, but little attention is paid to the manufacture of salt.

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