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though now decayed. It was settled in 1804, by the Germans, under Rapp, who subsequently sold the establishment, and removed to Economy, in Pennsylvania, as we have related at page 267. The lands and village of Harmony were purchased by Robert Owen of New Lanark, in Scotland, who attempted to establish here a community upon the co-operative system, but this has been abandoned.

Lawrenceburg on the Ohio, just below the mouth of the Miami, has an advantageous situation for trade, and is in a prosperous condition. Population, 1,800. Evansville derives importance from its being the southern terminus of the great series of canals, now constructing across the whole length of the State. Terre Haute is a new and flourishing village, which takes its name from its situation on an elevated bank of the Wabash. Logansport and Lafayette are the most important towns higher up. Fort Wayne, at the head of the Maumee, and at the junction of the Wabash and Erie Canal with that river, has been created by that work. These towns have from 1,800 to 2,000 inhabitants. On Lake Michigan, the only town of importance is Michigan City, which has grown up in the wilderness within a few years ; it stands at the end of the Northern Canal, and its trade, already considerable, will be much increased by the completion of that work. Population, 2,500.

3. Canals. Indiana has adopted a system of canals, embracing all of the great rivers of the State, which become unserviceable by the lowness of the water during a part of the year. In 1936 the legislature directed the execution of a series of works, and authorized the raising of a loan of 10,000,000 dollars, for that object. The Wabash and Erie Canal, one of the most important of the great works in the country, extends from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Ohio line by the Maumee, whence it is continued to Maumee Bay, by the State of Ohio ; length of the Indiana section, 195 miles; of the Ohio section, 87 miles. The Central Canal, from Indianapolis down the valley of the White River to Petersburg, and thence by the Big Pigeon Creek to Evansville, 190 miles, is in progress ; the northern prolongation of this canal will extend from Indianapolis to a point on the Wabash and Erie Canal near Peru, a distance of about 120 miles. The Cross Cut Canal extends from Terre Haute to the Central Canal, near the mouth of Eel River, 40 miles, and renders the communication between the Ohio and Lake Erie complete, should the northern section of the Central Canal not be executed. The Whitewater Canal, in progress, will extend from Cambridge City on the National Road, down the valley of the Whitewater River to Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio, 76 miles. In connexion with Illinois, Indiana has also undertaken to remove the obstructions to the navigation of the Wabash, above the mouth of the White River ; the bed of the river is here filled with rocks, bars, and islands, rendering the channel crooked and intricate, and at low water too shallow to be passed even by the river boats. The Northern Canal will extend from Michigan City, on La Michigan, through Valparaiso, South Bend, and Elkhart, to Fort Wayne, on the Wabash and Erie Canal, 160 miles.

4. Railroads, sc. In connexion with these lines of canals, the State has also undertaken the construction of several great overland routes of intercommunication, consisting in part of roads made on the principle of Macadam, and in part of railroads, and has given its aid to some private undertakings. The Madison and Lafayette Railroad, from Madison on the Ohio, through Indianapolis and Crawfordsville, to Lafayette on the Wabash Canal, 160 miles, and the Jeffersonville and Indianapolis Railroad, from the Ohio at the former place, to intersect the Madison road, at Columbus, are in progress. The portion of the road between Indianapolis and Lafayette is constructing on Macadam's plan. From New Albany to Vincennes, the State is also constructing a Macadamised road 104 miles long. The Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis Railroad is in process of construction by a company, which has received assistance from the State ; length 90 miles. The Michigan and 'Laporte Railroad extends from Michigan City to Laporte, 12 miles, and is to be continued to Southbend, on the St. Joseph's, 28 miles further. 5. Agriculture, &c. The industry of this State is almost exclusively agricultural ; beef,

; pork, bacon, cattle, horses, swine, wheat, Indian corn, hemp, tobacco, &c., are largely exported, but we have no data for estimating the total amount produced, or the surplus for exportation. Ginseng, bees’-wax, feathers, whisky, are also exported. Manufactures can hardly be said to exist, except in the form of household cottons and woolens ; there are, however, some distilleries, a few iron-furnaces and salt-works, tan-yards, saw and grist mills, and glass-works. The abundance of fuel and the inexhaustible water-falls of the streams, offer great facilities for the establishment of manufactories, and rich stores of coal, iron-ore, salt

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springs, lime, gypsum, good marbles, freestones, and grindstones are known to exist, although little attention has yet been paid to these sources of wealth.

6. Government. The legislature is called the General Assembly, and consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The senators are chosen for 3 years, and the representatives yearly ; one third of the senators are renewed annually. The Governor is chosen for 3 years, and may be once re-elected. Elections are popular, and suffrage is universal. The State sends 7 representatives to Congress.

7. Religion. The Baptists have 200 ministers ; the Methodists, 220; the Presbyterians, 70, and the Roman Catholics, 6. There also are Friends, Episcopalians, Lutherans, &c.

8. Education. Indiana College, at Bloomington, founded in 1827, has 6 instructers, and 120 students. South Hanover College, at South Hanover, has the same number, and Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, nearly as many. Ashbury University, at Greencastle, and Vincennes University, are respectable schools. Popular education is provided for by the constitution of this State, but it has not yet received much attention.

9. History. The French from Canada explored this country, and settled Vincennes in the early part of the last century. The settlers were soldiers of Louis the Fourteenth. For more than an age, they lived in a state of seclusion, almost separated from the rest of the world, and partially assimilated with the savages. By the treaty of 1763 between France and England, this region came into the possession of the English, although the change was merely nominal, and no additional settlements were made in the country. In the revolutionary war, the French at Vincennes manifested so favorable a disposition toward the American cause, that the government made them a grant of land in the neighborhood of the town, at the end of the war. In 1800, Indiana was placed under a territorial government, and about this time new settlements were formed. The Indians committed various hostilities from time to time upon the frontiers, and in 1811, at the instigation of the British, who furnished them with arms and ammunition, one of their leaders, called the Shawnee prophet, collected a numerous body, and made such devastations that the United States government despatched an armed force against them. In November 1811, the troops marched into the Indian country, and encamped near the Prophet's town, at Tippecanoe, where the savages had collected an army of 600 warriors. General Harrison, the American commander, proposed a negotiation ; the Indians accepted it with every protestation of friendship, and agreed to hold a council the next day. The Prophet, at night, consulted his “grand medicine," and declared to his followers, that ,

” " the enemy was now in their power, fast asleep, and should never wake.” Before the dawn of day, the Indians burst into the American camp with horrid shouts, and a fierce engagement succeeded, amid the confusion of darkness and the yells of the war whoop. The militia fed, but were soon rallied. The troops formed a solid column, and charged the savages at the point of the bayonet. They were soon driven from the field and routed, but nearly 200 Americans fell in the battle. The Prophet's town was then set on fire. This severe blow put an end to the incursions of the savages for a time; but during the war of 1812, they joined the British, and were troublesome to the frontier towns of this, and the neighboring States. Indiana was admitted into the Union in 1816.

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CHAPTER XXXII. ILLINOIS.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Boundaries and Extent. This State is bounded N. by Wisconsin ; E. by Lake Mich

; igan and Indiana ; S. by Kentucky, and W. by Missouri and Iowa. It extends from 370 to 42° 30' N. latitude, and from 87° 17' to 91° 15' W. longitude. It is 380 miles in length, and 160 in mean breadth, and contains 59,000 square miles.

2. Rivers. The Mississippi forms the boundary of this State on the west. The Illinois rises near Lake Michigan, and flows west and south to the Mississippi. It is above 400 miles in length, and is navigable by boats nearly to its source. About 200 miles above its mouth, the river widens so as to form a lake 20 miles long and 2 in width, called Peoria Lake. This is a beautiful sheet of water surrounded by prairies; it is very deep, and the current of the river through it is not perceptible. One of the head streams of the Illinois rises within 10 miles of Lake Michigan. Here is a morass, which at certain seasons discharges its waters into the Illinois in one direction, and into the Chicago which falls into the lake, on the other.

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Boats of 5 tons' burden have passed through from the Illinois to the lake. The rocky shores of the lake everywhere exhibit evidence that its waters have considerably lowered, and there is little doubt that it was formerly drained by the branches of the Illinois. Rock River rises be. yond the northern limit of the State, and flows southwest to the Mississippi ; it is 300 miles in length. The Kaskaskia rises a little east of the interior of the State, and flows southwest into the Mississippi ; it is 250 miles in length, and is navigable for boats. The Wabash forms a part

of the eastern boundary, and receives from this State the Little Wabash 130 miles in length.

3. Climate. The winters are severe over the whole State ; the rivers are frozen over for several months in the year, and the winds from the northerly points, coming from the lakes or from the great central table-land of North America, are very cold. The air is in general dry, pure, and healthy, but there are many spots which are rendered sickly by pestilential exhalations.

4. Soil. Three different qualities of soil may be distinguished in a general description. First, the alluvial borders of the rivers, which are from 1 to 8 miles wide, sometimes elevated, and at others low and subject to inundation. These consist of alternations of wood and prairie, and have almost always a fertile soil. Second, between the alluvion and the bluffs which bound them, are level tracts from 50 to 100 feet high. These consist mostly of prairie, either dry or marshy, and are less fertile than the alluvions, but are commonly preferred by emigrants. Third, the interior, which consists of an intermixture of woods and prairies ; here the soil is various, and the surface waving or broken. One sixth of the bottom or alluvial land, is overflowed for a longer or shorter time by the rivers, and is thereby rendered unfit for cultivation, although it is productive in timber. There is a tract called the American Bottom, beginning at the mouth of the Kaskaskia, and extending along the Mississippi, to the bluffs at Alton; it is 90 miles in length, and 5 in average width, and consists of soil 25 feet deep, as rich as can be found in the world. About the French towns it has been cultivated, and produced maize every year without manuring, for above a century. In the north there are tracts somewhat stony, yet in every other part the plough may pass over millions of acres without meeting so much as a pebble to impede its course. 5. Minerals

. Iron is found in different parts of the State. Native copper, in small quantities, has also been met with. The chief mineral production, however, is lead. Here are the richest lead mines in the world. The district which furnishes the ore, lies in the northwest part, and extends beyond the limits of the State. It comprises a tract of above 200 miles in extent. The ore is inexhaustible. It lies in beds or horizontal strata, varying in thickness from 1 inch to several feet, and yields 75 per cent of pure lead. For many years the Indians and hunters were accustomed to dig for the metal ; they never penetrated much below the surface, but obtained great quantities of the ore, which they sold to the traders. The public attention was drawn to this quarter, and from 1826 to 1828, the country was filled with miners, smelters, merchants, speculators, and adventurers. Vast quantities of lead were manufactured, the business was overdone, and the markets nearly destroyed. The business has since revived, and from 8 to 10 million pounds of lead are annually made at the mines. The principal mines are in the neighborhood of Galena. The whole State abounds in coal. It appears above the surface in the ravines and gullies, and in the points of bluffs. There is scarcely a county in the State, unable to furnish it in large quantities. Limestone and sandstone occur in every part. Salt springs are common, but they are generally neglected.

6. Face of the Country. This is one of the most level States in the Union. part consists of vast plains, or barrens, gently undulating. One may travel across immense prairies for many days, without meeting with an eminence worthy to be called a bill. The banks of the Mississippi exhibit lofty bluffs, and near the Ohio, is a range of hills of moderate height.

The greater

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Divisions. This State is divided into 87 counties. *

.

* Adams

Alexander
Bond
Boone
Brown

Bureau
Calhoun
Carroll
Cass
Champaign

Clark
Clay
Clinton
Coles
Cook

Crawford
Dane
Dekalb
Dewitt
Dupage

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Population at different Periods. 1800

2,239
1830

157,445 1810

12,232
1835

272,427 1820

55,511 2. Canals. In 1837 the legislature established a Board of Fund Commissioners to manage the fiscal concerns of the public works, and a Board of Public works, to determine the routes and superintend the execution of such works. The Internal Improvement Fund consists chiefly of loans raised for the purpose, and of the proceeds arising from the sales of lands given by Congress to aid the object. The Michigan and Illinois Canal extends from near Peru, below the Lower Rapids of the Illinois, up the valley of that river and the Desplaines, and across the portage between the latter and the lake to Canal Port, on the south branch of the Chicago, 5 miles from its mouth ; length, 96 miles, depth, 6 feet, width at the top, 60 feet ; estimated cost, 8,654,337 dollars ; a navigable feeder of 4 miles, to the Rapids of Fox River, making the whole length 100 miles, is included in this estimate. A branch through the Sauganaska Swamp to the River Calumet, and thence to the Northern Canal in Indiana, is also projected The improvement of the channel of the Wabash, in connexion with Indiana, and the removal of obstructions in the beds of the Illinois, Rock River, Kaskaskia, and Little Wabash, have likewise been undertaken by direction of the State. The other public works are railroads.

3. Railroads. By the act of 1837, already referred to, the following railroads were directed to be undertaken ; 1. The Central Railroad to extend from the city of Cairo at the junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi, through Vandalia, and Shelbyville, intersecting the Illinois River, at the southern termination of the Michigan Canal, to Galena, about 460 miles ; 2. The South Cross Railroad from Alton, through Edwardsville, and Salem, to Mount Carmel, with a second route diverging at Edwardsville, and extending through Nashville, and Frankfort to Shawneetown, and a branch from Lebanon, on the latter, to Belleville ; whole length about 320 miles ; 3. The Northern Cross Railroad, extending from Quincy through Meredosia, Springfield, and Decatur, to the State line in the direction of Lafayette, Indiana, 220 miles; 4. The Alton and Terre Haute Railroad, from Alton through Shelbyville and Paris to the State line, in the direction of Terre Haute, 160 miles ; 5. The Warsaw and Bloomington Railroad, extending from Warsaw on the Mississippi, through Peoria to Bloomington, with a branch from Mackinaw to Pekin on the Illinois ; whole length about 160 miles. The railroads undertaken by individual enterprise, are the Chicago and Desplaines Railroad, 12 miles in length, a continuation of which to Galena is projected ; the Jacksonville and Augusta Railroad, from the former place to the Illinois, opposite the latter, 24 miles; and the Rushville Railroad, from that town to the Illinois at Erie, 10 miles.

4. Towns. Vandalia, formerly the seat of government, stands on the Kaskaskia, somewhat south of the centre of the State, and upon the great national road. It has been founded but a few years, and has about 1,000 inhabitants Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, near the Mississippi, is the oldest settlement in the whole western country, and was founded by the French, shortly after the first visit of La Salle, in 1683. While the French held possession of the country, Kaskaskia was a populous town, and the seat of government. In 1721 it contained a college of Jesuits. After the war of the Revolution it declined, but lately it has begun to revive. Cahokia is another ancient French settlement on the Mississippi ;

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Edgar Edwards Effingham Fayette Franklin Fulton Gallatin Greene Hamilton Hancock Hardin Henry Iroquois Jackson Jasper Jefferson Jersey

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it is nearly as old as Kaskaskia. Shawneetown, on the Ohio, is the largest place in this State, upon the river. It has about 1,000 inhabitants. Galena, in the northwest, on the Mississippi, is the centre of a lead-mining district.

Springfield, a busy and Hourishing town, in the centre of the State, has lately been made the capital ; it stands on the borders of a beautiful prairie, in the midst of a highly fertile tract, and is the most important interior town in the State. Population, 2,500. Jacksonville, with nearly as many inhabitants, is a thriving village in the vicinity. Peoria and Peru, on the upper Illinois, are becoming important centres of business.

But the two largest towns, and the commercial depots of the northern and southern parts of the State respectively, are Alton and Chicago, the former in the southwest, on the Mississippi, the latter in the northeast, on Lake Michigan. Chicago is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the river of the same name, and at the point where the chain of great lakes approaches nearest to the Mississippi, and has become the great mart of Illinois ; having easy communication with the Atlantic at New York and Quebec, and with the Mississippi by the canal and the Illinois, it is the great thoroughfare for northwestern travel, and the chief depot for imported merchandise. In 1830 there were but a few huts here, and at present the population exceeds 6,000. Annual value of imports, about 3,500,000 dollars. Alton stands on the bluffs, at the head of the American bottom, between the mouths of the Illinois and Missouri, and commands the trade of an extensive and growing population. The town consists of two distinct villages, Upper and Lower Alton, and contains a college, penitentiary, theological seminary, numerous manufactories, &c. Population, 4,000. Quincy is the principal town on the Mississippi above Alton. Population, 2,000.

5. Agriculture. Agriculture, as might be expected in a new country, with a scattered population and a teeming soil, absorbs almost entirely the attention of the inhabitants. Indian corn, or maize, is the staple product of the State, and the average crop is about 50 bushels to the acre. Wheat is also raised in large quantities, and yields flour of a superior quality, which is highly esteemed in the New Orleans market; oats, rye, and buckwheat, are found to thrive. Hemp, flax, cotton, and tobacco, are also raised, and the castor-oil-bean is successfully cultivated. Large herds of horned cattle, and droves of horses and mules, are raised and kept with little trouble, and great numbers are driven out of the State on the hoof, or sent down the river in Alat-boats. Thousands of hogs are raised with little attention or expense, and pork is largely exported.

6. Manufactures. 'Manufactures, except of the ruder sort of articles of the first necessity can hardly be said to exist. Castor-oil and linseed-oil, flour, whisky, leather, salt, the common agricultural implements, cotton-yarn and some cotton, and cotton and woolen goods, are produced, the latter mostly of household make. The abundance of coal in the southern part, and the inexhaustible water-power of the north, offer every facility for the introduction of large manufacturing establishments ; but the present condition of the inhabitants does not permit their application on a large scale. It appears from returns made to the legislature in 1835, that there were, at that time, 916 mills, 142 distilleries, and 339 manufactories in the State; but the last item includes many handicraft's workshops. Steamboat building has of late begun to assume importance as a branch of mechanical industry.

7. Government. The legislature is called the General Assembly, and consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The senators are chosen for 4 years, and the representatives for 2. The Governor is chosen for 4 years. The legislature has but one stated session in 2 years. Elections are popular, and suffrage is universal. The State sends three representative to Congress.

8. Religion. T'he Baptists have 160 ministers, and the Campbellites, Christians, and Reformers are numerous ; the Methodists 300 preachers; the Presbyterians 60, exclusive of the Cumberland, Reformed, and Associate Reformed Presbyterians. The Episcopalians number 10 societies, the Roman Catholics 12, and there are Friends, Dunkers, Moravians, and Mor

9. Education. Nlinois College, at Jacksonville, was founded in 1830. It has 5 instructers, and 60 students. Shurtlef College at Alton, Mc Kendrean College at Lebanon, and McDonough College at Macomb, are still more youthful institutions. Large tracts of land have been granted by the government for the support of schools, but no system of general education has yet been organized. 10. History.

This State was first explored by Marquette, a French traveler, in 1673, and

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