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2. Canals. The Ohio or Grand Canal unites the Ohio with Lake Erie. Beginning at Cleveland, on the lake, it proceeds southerly along the Cuyahoga, to the portage between this stream and the Tuscarawas ; here it strikes the latter stream, and passes along its valley southwesterly. It then passes off to the Scioto, and descends the valley of that river to the Ohio, at Portsmouth. It is 306 miles in length, besides a lateral cut to Columbus, of 11 miles, one to Lancaster, of 10 miles, and the Dresden cut, with slack-water navigation, of 17 miles. It has 1,250 feet of lockage. This canal was executed by the State of Ohio. It was begun in 1925 and completed in 1832, at a cost of 4,500,000 dollars. The Walhonding Canal, from Roscoe up the Walhonding, 23 miles, from Athens to Lancaster, 50 miles, are branches of this great work.
The Miami Canal extends from the Ohio at Cincinnati to Defiance, on the Wabash and Erie Canal, 180 miles, with a branch from Middletown to Lebanon, called the Warren Canal, 20 miles in length. The Wabash and Erie Canal connects Lake Erie and the Mississippi, through the valleys of the Maumee and Wabash, and has been constructed by Ohio and Indiana; the portion within the former extends from its western boundary to Manhattan on the Maumee, 87 miles ; below the junction with the Miami Canal, it is 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep. The White Water Canal, from Cincinnati to the White Water, at Harrisonburg, 25 miles, connects Cincinnati with the great Indiana works. The Mahoning or Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, extending from the Ohio Canal, at Akron, down the Mahoning to its mouth in Pennsylvania, is 90 miles in length. The Sandy and Beaver Canal, extending from Bolivar, on the Ohio Canal, by the valleys of the Sandy and Beaver rivers to the mouth of the latter, 76 miles. Both of these works unite the great lines of canals of the two States, and give to Ohio a shorter route to the Atlantic waters. The total length of canals completed in Ohio, is upwards of 800 miles.
3. Railroads. The comparative cheapness of canals, the advantageous position of the leading rivers, and the bulkiness of the articles to be transported, have combined to give them the preference over railroads in Ohio. Several important works of the latter class have, however, been executed or commenced. The Mad River Railroad connects the Miami, at Dayton, with Lake Erie, at Sandusky City, through the valleys of the Mad River and the Sandusky, 153 miles in length. The Sandusky and Monroeville Railroad extends from Sandusky City to the latter village, 15 miles. The Toledo and Kalamazoo Railroad is chiefly in Michigan, and was constructed before the strip which contains Toledo was attached to Ohio. The Little Miami Railroad extends from Cincinnati to Springfield, 70 miles. The Cleveland, Warren, and Pittsburg Railroad is a projected work, the execution of which would form a new connexion between Lake Erie and the Atlantic, through the Pennsylvania public works. 4. Cities and Towns. Cincinnati, the largest city in Ohio, and indeed in all the western
country, stands on the northern bank of the Ohio, near the southwestern corner of the State. Its site is the eastern part of an alluvial tract, bounded on the north by a ridge of hills. This plain contains about 4 square miles, and con
sists of two different levels, 0!
one about 50 feet higher than the other. The city rises gradually from the river, but does not make a very bold or striking appearance. It is built with perfect regularity, on the plan of Philadelphia.
The principal streets are 66 Cincinnati.
feet in width. The central
part is very compact, yet the whole outline of the city is but partially filled up, and many of the buildings are scattered irregularly about. The public edifices are of stone or brick, and most of the stores and houses are of brick. The whole aspect of the city produces a most agreeable impression on the eye of the stranger. Here are 30 churches, a lunatic asylum, hospital, theatre, the halls of Cincin
cinnati College, &c. There are 30 newspapers and other periodicals published here, and 20 public or free schools are attended by 2,000 pupils. The manufactures are extensive and various, including iron-ware, machinery, paper, printed books, leather, furniture, &c.
There are upwards of 50 steam-engines at work in the city, and there have been made here in one year, 300 cotton-gins and sugar-mills, and 100 steam-engines ; the steamboat-yards are numerous, and from 35 to 40 steamboats are built annually. The whole annual value of the manufactures is about 12,000,000 dollars. The trade is very great, both on the river and the canal, and large quantities of four, pork, whisky, and manufactured articles are exported. Cincinnati is the greatest pork market in the world, and upwards of 150,000 hogs are annually slaughtered here. The markets of the city are well supplied, and are not surpassed for cheapness anywhere in the country.
Water is furnished from the river by steam machinery. Cincinnati occupies the site of old Fort Washington, and the outlines of the city were marked in 1789. The first settlers were principally from New England and New Jersey. Since the peace of 1814, the city has augmented with wonderful rapidity, and now contains a population of 40,000 souls.
The city of Columbus, on the Scioto, is the seat of government. It is situated to the southwest of the centre of the State, and occupies a pleasant acclivity. It was founded in 1812, in the midst of a thick forest. It contains a State-house, penitentiary, an institution for the blind,
. a lunatic hospital, and an asylum for the deaf and dumb, all established by the State.
Zanesville, on the Muskingum, a little below the falls of the river, contains many mills and manufactories, including woolen and cotton mills, iron and brass founderies, paper and flour mills, glass works, machine-shops, &c. Here are 2 bridges across the river. national road, from Cumberland through the Western States, passes through this town. Population, including the adjoining villages of West Zanesville and Putnam, 7,000.
Steubenville, on the Ohio, in the eastern part of the State, was founded in 1798, and incorporated as a city in 1805. It has manufactures of woolen, cotton, paper, iron founderies, tanneries, &c. and a flourishing commerce. Population, 4,000. Chillicothe, on the Scioto, vidway between Columbus and the Ohio, was formerly the seat of government. The situation is pleasant, and the plan of the town is regular. In the centre stood a huge Indian mound, which was demolished, and the site converted into building lots. Considerable manufacturing is carried on here, and its trade, by the canal, is extensive. Population, 4,000. Dayton, on the
, Great Miami, at the junction of the canal with that river, is a flourishing place with many factories and mills. Population, 3,500. Marietta, at the mouth of the Muskingum, has a beautiful situation, and is the oldest town in the State ; it was settled in 1788, but is not at present a flourishing place. Some of the streets of the town are annually flooded by the river. Population, 1,500. Circleville, on the Scioto, below Columbus, is built on the site of an ancient circular fortification. It is surrounded by a fertile country, and the Ohio canal passes by the town. Population, 2,000.
Cleveland, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, is the most important of the lake ports in Ohio. It stands on a high plain, the streets are regular and spacious, and the harbor is commodious and safe, protected by stone jetties about 1,200 feet in length. Here is also the spacious canal basin of the Ohio canal. The city has grown in population, trade, and wealth, with surprising rapidity ; its population is 6,600, or, including the village of Ohio City, 8,600 ; the exports exceed, in value, 3} millions annually. This part of Ohio is called New Connecticut, or the Western Reserve, because it was reserved by Connecticut, when that State ceded to the general government her claims to the western lands. Huron, Norwalk, and Sandusky City, are also flourishing towns in this section. Toledo, on Maumee Bay, is a growing place in a very commanding situation, being at the common outlet of 2 great canals into the lake. Population, 2,500. Portsmouth, at the southern terminus of the Ohio canal, Athens, on the Hocking, and Hamilton, on the Miami, are likewise flourishing towns, with about the same number of inhabitants.
5. Agriculture. Maize is the chief article of culture, and in some parts 110 bushels have been raised upon an acre ; though 50 bushels may be considered an average crop. The soil is well fitted for wheat, rye, barley, oats, spelt, and buckwheat, all which are cultivated. Fruits are abundant, and the soil is thought to be the best for garden vegetables of any in the western country. Tobacco has been lately introduced. Hemp is cultivated in some parts. Swine are one of the staple productions, and the farmers having lately turned their attention to sheep
breeding, wool has become an important item. The number of sheep owned in the State exceeds 2,000,000. The number of horned cattle is about 500,000.
6. Commerce. The advantages for trade which are secured by the local position of this State may be perceived by glancing at the map. The Ohio affords it a direct intercourse with all the country in the valley of the Mississippi ; while, by means of Lake Erie on the north, it communicates with Canada and New York. The Ohio canal completes a line of internal navigation from New York to New Orleans, through this State. Ohio enjoys the most active commerce of all the Western States. The northern and eastern countries export to Montreal and New York by the lake, great quantities of agricultural produce. But the chief of the exports are to New Orleans. The articles are flour, grain, pork, bacon, lard, whisky, horses, cattle, and manufactures.
7. Manufactures. The domestic fabrics are considerable, and there are some large manufactories of woolen, cotton, paper, &c., at places already indicated. The manufacture of steam machinery, and other articles from iron, is considerable. To these may be added linseed and
. castor oil, whisky, cabinet furniture, salt, glass, hats, &c.
8. Government. The legislature is called the General Assembly, and consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The senators are chosen for 2 years, and the representatives
The Governor is chosen for 2 years. Susirage is universal, and elections are popular. Ohio sends 19 representatives to Congress. 9. Religion. The Presbyterians have 230 ministers; the Baptists, 170; the Methodists,
; 200 ; the Lutherans, 60 ; the Associate Presbyterians, 10 ; the Associate Reformed, 25; the German Reformed, 30 ; the Episcopalians, 25; the Swedenborgians, 4 ; there are also some Catholics, Unitarians, Universalists, Quakers, and Shakers. The singular sect known as Latter Day Saints or Mormons, have a Mormon Temple at Kirkland.
10. Education. The University of Ohio, at Athens, was founded in 1802 ; it has 6 instructers, and 50 students. Miami University, at Oxford, was established in 1824. It has 11 instructers, and 90 students. The Western Reserve College, at Hudson, was established in 1826. It has 8 instructers, and 50 students. Kenyon College, at Gambier, was established in 1829. It has 6 instructers, and 150 students. Franklin College, at New Athens, was estab
, lished in 1824. It has 6 instructers, and 80 students. The Granville College, at Granville, the Marietta College, at Marietta, the Cincinnati College, at Cincinnati, are also among the higher seminaries. The last named has 8 teachers, and 90 students. Common schools were established by the legislature in 1825. The University of Ohio is endowed with 2 townships of land, and the Miami University with 1. There are about 20 incorporated academies in the State, but few of them have any permanent funds for their support, and they are not all in constant operation.
11. History. This State was first settled under the auspices of a company of revolutionary officers and soldiers, called the Ohio Company, to whom the continental Congress made a grant of a million and a half acres of land, to the northwest of the Ohio.
This company was organized at Boston, in March, 1786. The first permanent settlement was made by a band of 47 emigrants from the counties of Essex and Middlesex in Massachusetts, and the States of Rhode Island and Connecticut. These persons founded Marietta on the 7th of April, 1788. Another settlement was made the following year at Columbia on the Ohio, 6
, miles above the spot where Cincinnati now stands, by a company from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. A number of French emigrants settled at Gallipolis in 1791. territorial government was established by Congress over this region in 1781, under the title of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio. The country was much annoyed by Indian hostilities, and after the disastrous campaign of General St. Clair, many of the inhabitants removed to Kentucky. But the savages were effectually subdued by General Wayne, in 1795, and from this period may be dated that unexampled prosperity which has distinguished Ohio among all the Western States. The fame of this region, for richness of soil and amenity of climate, drew multitudes of adventurers from the Atlantic country, and in 1802 it was erected into a State, and admitted into the Union. It has continued progressively to advance in population, wealth, and industry, and exhibits the most striking instance of the rapid progress of social improvement, which any age or country can boast.
CHAPTER XXXI. INDIANA.
1. Boundaries and Extent. This State is bounded N. by the lake and State of Michigan; E. by Ohio ; S. by Kentucky ; and W. by Illinois. It extends from 37° 45' to 41° 50' N. latitude, and from 84° 42' to 87° 49' W. longitude. It is 250 miles in length, from north to south, 150 in breadth, and contains 36,000 square miles.
2. Rivers. The Ohio washes the southern limit of the State. The Wabash rises in the northeastern part, and flows southwest nearly across the State, when it turns to the south, and flows into the Ohio, forming towards its mouth the western boundary. It is 500 miles in length, and is navigable for keel-boats to within 100 miles of its source, where there are rapids ; above this point, small boats may ascend to the source of the river. The Little W'abash, Eel River, White River, and Tippecanoe River, are branches of the Wabash. The Tippecanoe is celebrated for battle fought upon its banks, in 1811, between the United States troops and the Indians. White Water River, in the eastern part of the State, flows southerly to the Great Miami, a few miles above its mouth ; its waters are remarkably cold and transparent. The St. Joseph of the Lake passes into Michigan, the St. Joseph of the Maumee into Ohio, and the Kankakee into Illinois.
3. Climate. On the borders of Lake Michigan, heavy rains are common, and the climate is considered unhealthy. In the other parts, this State does not differ from Ohio. In the middle and southern parts, there is seldom more than 6 inches depth of snow ; but in the north, there is sometimes a foot and a half. Peach trees blossom early in March ; the forests are in leaf early in April. There are vast quantities of flowering shrubs, which put forth_their blossoms before they are in leaf, and give an indescribable charm to the early spring. Frosts often do great injury to the vegetation, both in spring and autumn. The winter is seldom longer than 6 weeks.
4. Soil. This State is generally level and fertile. All the rivers have uncommonly wide alluvial borders. The prairies along the Wabash are celebrated for their richness and beauty. Many of the prairies and intervals are too rich for wheat. In the northern part, are swampy tracts, which are too wet for cultivation ; but, in general, a better country could hardly be desired for all the purposes of agriculture.
5. Minerals. Iron, native copper, and coal, have been found in this State, and there are salt springs in some parts ; yet the mineral productions are, on the whole, inconsiderable.
6. Caves. There are great numbers of caves in this State ; some of them have been explored, but the most of them are very little known. On the bank of Big Blue River, a small stream falling into the Ohio, is the Epsom Salts Cave. The entrance is in the side of a hill 400 feet in height. About a mile and a half within the cave, is a white column, 15 feet in diameter, and 30 feet high, regularly fluted from top to bottom, and surrounded by smaller columns of the same shape and appearance. These pillars are described as satin spar. The whole foor of the cave is covered with Epsom salt, sometimes in lumps of 10 pounds' weight, and of the purest quality. The earth taken from the ground yields from 4 to 25 pounds of this salt to the bushel.' The cave also contains saltpetre, aluminous earth, and gypsum. The rock is limestone. On one of the walls is a rude painting of an Indian with a bow.
7. Face of the Country. The southern border of the State is skirted by a range of hills and bluffs, sometimes washed by the Ohio, and at other times receding 2 or 3 miles from the stream.
They are called the Ohio Hills, and are seldom above 300 feet in height. In some other quar-
1. Divisions. Indiana is divided into 87 counties. *
Population at different Periods. 1800, 2,640 1830,
343,031 1810, 24,520 1838,
(Est.) 700,000 1820,
147,178 2. Towns. Indianapolis, the seat of government, is situated on White River, in the centre
of the State. A few years ago, the spot was a dense forest. It has now about 2,500 inhabitants, and many large brick buildings, manufactories, shops, &c. The river is navigable to this place by steamboats, in common stages of the water. The land surrounding the town is uncommonly fertile.
Vincennes is one of the oldest towns in the Western States. It was settled by the French, from Canada, early in the last century. It is situated on the Wabash, 150 miles above its mouth, and is accessible for the greater part of the year by steamboats. It has considerable
trade, and of late years has been improving. A Capitol at Indianapolis.
large and beautiful prairie adjoins the_town, 5,000 acres of which re cultivated in common by the inhabitants, after the ancient French custom. Vincennes was formerly the seat of the territorial government. It has about 2,000 inhabitants.
New Albany, on the Ohio, a short distance below Louisville in Kentucky, has a considerable trade by means of the river, and there are many steamboats built here.
It is the largest town in the State, and contains a population of about 4,000.
Jeffersonville, on the Ohio, just above the falls, is a handsome village, and enjoys a beautiful prospect of the foaming rapids in the river, and the richly-wooded banks, and the town of Louisville opposite. Population, 1,500. Here is the State prison. Vevay, on the Ohio, in the southeastern corner of the State, was settled in 1804, by 30 Swiss families, to whom the United States made a grant of a large tract of land, with a view to introduce the cultivation of the vine. Here are the largest vineyards in the United States. The inhabitants also manufacture straw bonnets, and some other articles. Madison, on the Ohio, midway between Cincinnati and Louisville, is a pleasant and flourishing town, not inferior in trade, business, and population, to New Albany. Population, 4,000. Corydon, near the Ohio, was formerly the seat of government, but is an inconsiderable place.
Harmony, on the Wabash, near the southwestern corner of the State, is a noted place,