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to be all carried to distant markets, too much of it is therefore converted into spirits. There is much peach brandy, and also a concentrated cider, called cider royal. In the older settlements there is cider, and in every considerable town are breweries for porter and beer. Several vineyards produce tolerable wine, but not enough for more than local consumption : when, however, the rich soil and sunny climate of the West shall produce wines enough to supply the demand for them, it is probable that not only there, but in the whole country, the consumption of ardent spirits will be much diminished. From natural indications, the grape must thrive well in the West. There is no wild vine there which grows more luxuriantly than the grape,

and it is common to see vines 6 inches and more in diameter, running up and covering the tops of the highest trees. In Arkansas, and several other places, the wild grapes are delicious.

15. Diseases. These are generally bilious fevers, for the pulmonary complaints are not, compared with the same in New England, as 1 to 50. Intermittent fevers are common and troublesome, though to have the ague is in some places so common, that the patient can hardly claim the privileges of sickness. In some few places, half the people are said to have agues. Many large districts, however, are entirely free from them, and they are everywhere becoming less. The great remedies used are bark and calomel. The diseases, however, are so regular, that most families have some book of domestic medicine, to which they trust in common cases. 66 Indian Doctors” are esteemed by the more ignorant people ; these practise generally in the herbs, used or represented to be used by the Indians. They are "Faith Doctors,” also, who receive their title from the perfect confidence which they require in the patient, to some mysterious medicine.

16. "Traveling. The people of the West, like those of the East, are distinguished for their propensity to travel. Their country is intersected with navigable streams, so that the farmer's best market is at New Orleans, distant thousands of miles, and there are very few people of substance who have not been there. An Englishman resident in the West remarks, that peo

. ple here think less of a journey of 3,000 miles, than men do of 300 in England. Conceptions of space and distance are on no ordinary scale, though with respect to facility of communication, Pittsburg is as near to New Orleans as Edinburgh to London. The people are therefore well acquainted with various parts of their own section of country.

There are lines of stagecoaches, though less commodious than in the East; but generally, the traveling on land is on horseback, as the roads are too rough for comfortable motion in carriages. The traveler has an oiled cover for his hat, a portmanteau, and umbrella, and thus arpointed, even ladies travel thousands of miles. The rivers, however, are the great natural roads, and on these there is a choice of every water conveyance ever invented, and of many which have never received a name.* There are the rude, shapeless masses, that denote the

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$ 0.75

* River DistanCES IN THE West. We copy, from the

Miles. Fare. Wheeling Times, the following useful and convenient table, Westport, Ky.

20 407 12.00 showing ihe distances from each other of the places named, Louisville

20

487 12.00 and from Wheeling, with the prices of passage. It is pro- Rome, Indiana

100 587 15.00 per to observe, that these are the established rates, but that Troy

35 622 15.00 some boats charge less, the prices depending in some de- Yellow Banks, Ky.

25 647 15.00 gree upon the number of boats in port, and the abundance Evansville, Indiana

40 687 18 00 or scarcity of passengers :

Henderson, Ky:

12 699 18.00 Shawneetown, Ill.

53 752 18.00 Up the Piter.

Smithland, mouth of Cumberland 63 815 18.00
Miles. Fare.
Mouth of Ohio

66 881 20.00 Wheeling to Wellsburg, Va.

16
New Madrid, Mo.

75 956 22.00 Steubenville, Ohio

7 23 1.00 Wellsville

Memphis, Tenn.

150 1,106 25.00 20 43 1.50 Helena, Ark. Ter.

85 1,191 20.00 Beaver, Penn.

26 69 2.50 Pittsburg

307 1,498 30.00 27 96

Vicksburg, Miss.
3.00
Natchez

110 1,608 30.00
Down the River.
New Orleans, La:

300 1,908 35.00 Marietta, Ohio

82

2.50 Parkersburg, Va.

10 92

2.50

The above prices of passage include boarding. The Point Pleasant

78 170 5.00 prices of deck passage are about one fourth of these, the Galliapolis, Ohio

3 173 5.00

passengers finding themselves. Thus, to Louisville, the Guyandotte, Va.

37 210 6.00 deck passage is $3, cabin, $12; to New Orleans, deck, Portsmouth, Ohio

50 260 7.00 $ 8, cabin, $35. The deck is covered, and contains berths, Maysville, Ky.

47 307 8.00 but it is a very undesirable way of traveling. The pasRipley, Ohio

12 319 9.00 sage to Louisville is generally performed in two days and Cincinnati

46 355 10.00 a half, and to New Orleans in from eight to ten ; returnPort William, mouth of Kentucky 79 434 11.00 ing, nearly double this time. The ordinary speed of the Madison, Indiana

13 447 11.00 boats is 12 miles an hour down the river, and 6 up.

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infancy of navigation, and the light steamboat, which makes its perfection ; together with all the intermediate forms between these extremes.* The most inartificial of all water-craft, is the ark, or Kentucky flat, a huge frame of square timbers, with a roof. It is in shape a parallelogram, and lies upon the waters like a log ; it hardly feels the oar, and trusts for motion mainly to the current. It is 15 feet wide, from 50 to 80 feet long, and carries from 200 to 400 barrels. These arks are often filled with the goods and families of emigrants, and carry even the carriages and domestic animals. They are used also for shops of various kinds of goods, which are sold at the different towns, and some of them are fitted up as the workshops of artificers.

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Distances on the Upper Mississippi. From St Louis to Missouri River

18 miles. Alton, ni

6 24 Hamburg, do.

15 39 Clarksville, Mo

60 93 Louisiana, do.

12 111 Saverton, do.

23 154 Hannibal, do.

7 141 Marion city, do.

10 151 Quincy, Ill.

10 161 Lagrange, Mo.

12 173 Tully, do

181 Warsaw. Ill., near Fort Edward

20 201 Mouth of De Moines River, Mo.

2 203 Keokuk, Iowa

204 Commerce, III., head of De Moines rapids 18

222 Appanoose, do., opposite Fort Madison

10 232 Burlington, Iowa

20 252 Yellow Banks, II.

15 207 New Boston, III., opposite mouth Iowa River 15 22 Iowa, near mouth of Pine River

35

317 Rockport, III., mouth of Rock River

10 327 Montevideo, lowa, opposite Rockport Senasepo, Iowa

4 331 Stevenson, M.

5 336 Dynport, Iowa, opposite Stevenson Rock Island, III., foot of rapids

1

337 Canaan, do. head of R. I. rapids

18 335 New Philadelphia, Iowa

40 395 Savanna, III.

20 415 Smithville, do.

10 423 Belleview, Iowa

431 Fever River, Ill.

437 Galena

445 Du Buque, Iowa

30 475 Cassville, Wisconsin Territory

30 505 Prairie La Porte

8 513 Prairie du Chien

22 535 Falls of St. Anthony, about

205 800 Price of passage the same as on the Ohio River, viz. about $3 per hundred miles, for long distances, and 4 to 5 cents per mile for short ones. Deck passengers, about $1 per hundred miles. The usual speed of the boats is

miles an hour up stream, and 10 down.

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Down the Rirer. Wesley city

3 miles. 30 houses. Pekin

7 10 10 Copperas creek

W. 20 30 Liverpool

W. 10 40 6 houses. Ilavana

e. 10 50 30 Chodes' landing

W. 18 68 3 Mouth of Sangamon

e. 10 78 Erie

W. 7 85 5 houses. Beardstown

e. 2 87 Lagrange

W. 10 97 10 houses. Meredosia

e. 10 107 30 Naples

6 113 Phillips' Ferry

4 117 Portland

W. 3 120 3 houses. Augusta

W,

3 123 15 Montezuma

W. 5 128 20 New Bedford

W. 2 130 6
Bridgeport

e.
10 140

S 10
Newport

w.S

? 5 Columbiana

w.

66

W.

33 55{ county seat of

Towns on the Illinois Rircr, with their Distances from Pe. oria. W stands for west side ; E. for east side.

Up the River. Detroit

6 miles. 4 houses. Rome

W. 12 18 25 Allentowr

19 3 Chillicothe

W.

2 30 Lacon

12 Henry

12 45 5 houses. Webster

53 5 Hennepin

57

S pop. 700; co. e

seat Putnam. Enterprise

W 12 69 4 houses. Peru

W.

71 Rockwell

74 16 houses. Utica

W.

79 7 Ottawa, mo. Fox River 11

66

e. 10 150 6
Guilford

W. 12 162 10
Camden, mo. Illinois 18 180 5
Grafton, mi.

2 182 40
Portage de Sioux, Mo. 7 189 50
Randolph, Il.

1 190 7 Alton, Ill.

8 198

pop. 3,625. Missouri River

202
Chippeway, mo. Wood R. 2 204 5 houses.
St. Louis, Mo.

16 220

pop. 16,207. The price of passage from St. Louis to Peoria is 85 for cabin, $ 2.50 for deck. From Peru or Ottawa, $3 for ca. bin, $ 1.50 for deck. Way passages are much higher in proportion.

*“In the spring, 100 boats have been numbered, that landed in one day at the mouth of the bayou at Madrid. I have strolled to the point, on a spring evening, and seen them arriving in fleets. The boisterous gayety of the hands, the congratulations, the moving picture of life on board the boats, in the numerous animals, large and small

, which they carry, their different loads, the evidence of the increasing agriculture of the country above, and more than all, the immense distances which they have already come, and those which they still have to go, afforded me copious sources of meditation. They have come from regions thousands of miles apart; they have floated to a common point of union. The surfaces of the boals cover some acres. Dunghill fowls are fluttering over the roofs, as an invariable appendage. The chanticleer raises his piercing note; the swine utter their cries; the cattle low; ihe horses trample, as in their stables. There are boats fitted on purpose, and loaded entirely with turkeys, that, having little else to do, gobble most furiously. The hands travel about from boat to boat, make inquiries and acquaintances, and form alliances to yield mutual assistance to each other, on their descent from this to New Orleans. After an hour or two is passed in this way, they spring on shore to raise the wind in town.

" About midnight, the uproar is all hushed. The fleet unites once more at Natchez or at New Orleans, and, although they live on the same river, they may, perhaps, never meet each other again on the earth. Next morning, at the first dawn, the bugles sound. Everything in and about the boats, that has life, is in motion. The boats, in half an hour, are all under way. In a little while, they have all disappeared, and nothing is seen, as before they came,

seat La Salle. Chicago, by land

80 170

W.

W

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pop. 300.

W.

90 90{

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Sometimes, also, they are used as museums of wax figures, and other shows. There are also keel-boats and barges, which are light and well-built ; skiffs, that will carry from 2 persons to 5 tons, “ dug-outs,” or pirogues, made of hollowed logs, and other vessels, for which language has no name, and the sea no parallel. There are a few small boats that are moved by a crank, turned by a single man. These are on the principle of steamboats. Since the use of steamboats, numbers of the other craft have disappeared, and the number of river boatmen has been diminished by many thousands.

The great thoroughfares are thronged with singular assemblages of travelers. Many are miserably poor, but others, more like the patriarchs, with herds and slaves. On land, they often sleep in their wagons, or tents, and cook for themselves ; and on the rivers they get provisions plentifully from the shore. The steamboats are good hotels, and the traveler is hard to please, who is not delighted in going in them, down the Mississippi or Ohio. The course is often too swift to enjoy perfectly the beauty of the banks, and the scene is so constantly shifting, that it is with a feeling of regret, that one is carried so swiftly by the opening rivers, forests, farms, and towns. The explosions in steamboats are the least of the dangers in traveling in them, at the West; though they are the chief perils in the Eastern States.

. The navigation

The navigation of the Mississippi has many obstructions and dangers, against which caution is of no avail. The channels and banks are constantly shifting, and the stream contains many huge trees, partly imbedded in the mud. A boat often strikes upon these, and is so shattered, that it fills instantly with water, which sometimes comes in so fast that all the passengers cannot escape.

The boats, however, have a snag-room, or bulwark, 10 or 15 seet before the bows, which is a complete defence. The expenses in the steamboats are not great, and the upper deck is fitted to carry emigrants, or passengers, who find their own bedding and food. To such, the fare from New Orleans to St. Louis, is but 8 dollars. The roads are seldom good, and after rains they are exceedingly slippery, from the clayey nature of the soil. The inns are but such as may be supported in a new country, where more travelers desire shelter than luxury. In the large towns they are well conducted, but in small villages and remote places, if the most fastidious traveler finds a single bed, he is indebted for it to chance, and not to custom. *

but the regular current of the river. In passing down the * The following is Mr. Flint's description of one of the Mississippi, we often see a number of boats lashed, and various perils that sometimes beset the traveler on the floating together. I was once on board a fleet of 8, that western waters. He was in a boat, accompanied only by were in this way moving together. It was a considerable his wife and small children. walk, to travel over the roofs of this floating town. On “ We arrived opposite to the second Chickasaw bluff on board of one boat they were killing swine. In another, the 26th of November. The country on the shore rethey had apples, cider, nuts, and dried fruit. One of the ceives and deserves the emphatic name of “wilderness.' boats was a retail, or dram-shop. It seems, that the object At 10 in the morning we perceived indications of a severe in lashing so many boats, had been to barter, and obtain approaching storm. The air was oppressively sultry. supplies. These confederacies often commence in a frolic, Brassy clouds were visible upon all quarters of the sky. and end in a quarrel, in which case, the aggrieved party Distant thunder was heard. We were on a wide sand. dissolves the partnership by unlashing, and managing his bar, far from any house. Opposite to is was a vast cyown boat in his own way. While this fleet of boats is press swamp. At this period, and in this place, Mrs. F. floating separately, but each carried by the same curient, was taken in travail. My children, wrapped in blankets, nearly at the same rate, visits take place from boat to boat laid themselves down on the sand-bar. I secured the boat in skiffs. While I was at New Dladrid, a large tinner's in every possible way, against ite danger of being driven establish:nent floated there in a boat. In it all the differ- by the storm into the river. Atll o'clock the storm burst ent articles of tin-ware were manufactured and sold by upon us in all its fury. Mrs. F. bad been salivated during wholesale and retail. There were large apartments, where her fever and had not yet been able to leave her couch. I the different branches of the art were carried on in this was alone with her in this dreadful situation. Hail, and floating manufactory. When they have mended all the wind, and thunder, and rain in torrents, poured in upon tin, and vended all that they could sell, in one place, they us. I was in terror, lest the wind would drive my boat, frated on to another. A still in re extraordinary manu- notwithstanding all her fastenings, into the river. No imfactory, we were told, was floating down the Ohio, and agination can reach what I endured. The only alleviatshortly expected at New Madrid. Aboard this was man- ing circumstance was her perfect tranquillity. She knew ufactured 'axes, scythes, and all other iron tools of this that the hour of sorrow, and expected that of death, had descrip'ion, and in it horses were shod. In short, it was

She was so perfectly calm, spoke with such trana complete blacksmith's shop, of a higher order, and qnil assurance about the future, and about the dear ones, it is said, that they jestingly talked of having a trip- that were at this moment · biding the pelting of the pitihammer worked by a borse-power, on board.

I have fre. less storm,' on the sand-bar, that I became myself calm. quently seen a dry goods shop in a boat, with its articles A little after 12, the wind burst in the roof of my boat, very handsomely arranged on shelves. Nor would the and let in the glare of the lightning, and the torrents of delicate hands of the vender, have disgraced the spruce rain upon my poor wife. I could really have expostulated clerk behind our city counters. It is now common to see with the elements in the language of the poor old Lear. fat boats worked by a bucket wheel, and a horse power, I had wrapped my wife in blankets, ready to be carried to after the fashion of steamboat movement. Indeed, every the shelter of the forest, in case of the driving of my boat spring brings forth new contrivances of this sort, the re- into the river. About 4 o'clock the fury of the storm besult of the farmer's meditations over his winter's fire." gan to subside. At 5, the sun in his descending glory Flint's Residence.

burst from the dark masses of the receding clouds. At 11

come.

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17. Character, Manners, 8c. The character of the Western States is mixed, but the predominant traits are those of Virginia, and of New England. Kentucky was settled from Virginia and North Carolina, while Ohio is a scion of New England. These two States have in turn sent their population further west. But there is much sectional character, much of the openness and boldness of the men and their descendants who contested every inch of territory with savages, whose houses were garrisons, and who fought at the threshold for their hearths and altars. The Kentucky character pervades, more or less, all the Western States, and it is a creditable, though a peculiar mark. To estimate the sons, we must describe the fathers, and many of the early settlers yet alive. The “Big Knives," as the first hunters were called by the Indians, from their swords, had too little fear of danger to shrink from a forest so stained with massacres, that it was called the “ Dark and Bloody Ground.” This was the appalling name of Kentucky. Beautiful as it now is, it was more so in its uncultivated state, when the " wilderness blossomed as the rose.” It was a forest solitude, unrivalled on earth. It was shaded with trees that had no parallel eastward of the mountains, and under them the tall grass supplied food for innumerable herds of buffalo and deer. It was a grand natural park, where nations came to take their game. Everything in this wonderful country was found to be on a scale of magnificence. The trees were giants of the vegetable creation ; the caves extended under navigable rivers, to the extent of eastern counties ; and bones of the mammoth lay strewed around the springs, indicating a new and wonderful aspect of animal life. This lonely paradise of woods, waters, and flowers, to which every animal that was in Eden seemed gathered, was the hunting-ground, not the abode, of savages.

The first explorers were lost in admiration, and their reports were received like the accounts of the New World, in Spain. Before this, the country had not, indeed, been fully discovered. The navigators had entered inlets and bays, and the settlers were on the line of coast. The true discoverers, the bold Argonauts to these Hesperides, were Finley and Boone. These were men of rude nurture but of high poetic feeling, yet cool, circumspect, and the bravest of the brave. They were no misanthropes, though they had a passion for the solitude of the forest. They “ loved not man the less, but nature more.” Their May of life was in the waving woods, and danger was a cheap price for their favorite pursuit.

These adventurers were more daring than Cortez or Pizarro, for they went singly to invade nations. Harrod, one of the settlers, became so much attached to sylvan life, that, long afterwards, when the country was studded with villages, and bending with harvests, when he had wealth and honors, and a happy family around him, he used to stray away for weeks in the distant forest. A tree looked to him like friend, and the forest seemed to be his home. He died as he had lived ; from his last excursion he returned not, and the time and manner of his death are alike mysterious. Had he thus disappeared in ancient Greece, we should have had in Ovid the account of his metamorphosis or transformation to some noble tree. Boone, also, died in his forest ; he retired before the wave of emigration, and required a wilderness to himself. He was dislodged like a hunted deer, from one covert to another. He died in old age, far from men, and his body was found in the attitude of shooting; he was sitting, resting his rifle on a log, and bending his eye along the barrel. Boone was an extraordinary man. He was a hunter fit to stand by Nimrod, “ and give direction.” He was a patriot, but in his conception, the civil compact was an association of hupters, in which the authority belonged to the most steady of heart, hand, and eye. Roads and canals, agriculture and manufactures, formed no part of his Utopia ; and he was never so happy as when most distant from all trace of them. But Kentucky, the child of his affections, became a changeling, and he left it for more solitary regions.

in the evening, Mrs. F. was safely delivered of a female aid and sympathy, and left alone with God. We deposited infant, and, notwithstanding all, did well. The babe, the body of our lost babe, - laid in a small trunk for a from preceding circumstances, was feeble and sickly, and coffin, – in a grave amid the rushes, there to await the I saw could not gurvive. At midnight, we had raised a resurrection of the dead. The prayer made on the occa: blazing fire. The children came into the boat. Supper sion by the father, with the children for concourse and was prepared, and we surely must have been ungrateful mourners, if not eloquent, was, to us, at least, deeply afpot to have sung a hymn of deliverance. There can be fecting. The grave is on a high bank, opposite to the but one trial more for me, that can surpass the agony of second Chickasaw bluff, and I have since passed the rude that day, and there can never be on this earth, a happier memorial which we raised on the spot; and I passed it, period than those midnight hours. The babe stayed with carrying to you my miserable and exhausted frame, with us but a day and a half, and expired. The children, poor little hope of renovation, and in the hourly expectation things, laid it deeply to heart, and raised a loud lament. of depositing my own bones on the banks of the MissisWe were, as I have remarked, far away from all human sippi.”

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The peculiar character of the West partakes of that of Kentucky, though there is hardly any exact standard.

All European nations have sent emigrants, and there are separate communities of foreigners. In general, all the heterogeneous inhabitants mingle together with amity, and are becoming gradually incorporated into one mass. Society is nearer to its elements than in older communities, and the distinction of classes is slight. All are mutually dependent. There is a deep foundation for independent feeling ; men grow up in the pursuits of agriculture, and form their own characters, receiving less of the impress of society than in New England. Brought up to depend upon themselves, they are prompt to decide and to act. They feel in their state of society, the equality which everything renders practical, and the laborer is as bold in his bearing, and as independent in his feelings, as the merchant or the land-holder. Few but the traveling emigrants are miserably poor, and many of these are entirely destitute. * The traveler in the Western States will form his opinion of the people somewhat from those with whom he associates in the steamboats. He will perhaps find them too much given to “rude mirth,” but he will estimate highly a spirit of civility, and mutual accommodation.

The boatmen, who, to the number of many thousands, were found on the rivers, have nearly disappeared since the general use of steamboats. They were a riotous, depraved, and depraving class; and though the practice of gouging was never in use ainong them, or in the West, yet

; they were so bad in all things, that they could gain no defence from any charge, by appealing to their general character. Many of the pioneers of civilization are rude and unprincipled ; but a desperate course of life, and the dangers of the frontiers, have left few of those reckless people in the Western States. Many there are, who live in the distant territories, by hunt

Mr. Flint gives the following descriptions; and simi- rouse. The children saw the boat sink, before he had half lar sufferings are but too common.

crossed the passage. The man was drowned. These for. " I found in Cincinnati great numbers of emigrants, lorn beings were left without any other covering than most of them from the North. They were but too often their scanty and ragged dress, for he had taken his last wretchedly furnished with money, and the comforts al- blanket with him. They had neither fire nor shelter, and most indispensable to a long journey. It seemed to have no other food than uncooked pork and corn. It snowed been their impression, that if once they could arrive at the fast and the night closed over them in this situation. The land of milk and honey, supplies would come of course. elder was a girl of six years, but remarkably shrewd and The autumn had been unusually sickly. The emigrants acute for her age. The next was a girl of four, and the had endured great exposure in arriving here. Families youngest a boy of two. It was affecting to hear her dewere crowded into a single, and often in a small and un- scribe her desolation of heart, as she set herself to exacomfortable apartment. Many suffered, died, and were mine her resources. She made them creep together and buried by charity. Numerous instances of unrecorded draw their bare feet under her clothes. She covered them suffering, of the most exquisite degree, and with every with leaves and branches, and thus they passed the first agonizing circumstance, occurred. The parties were of night. In the morning the younger child wept bitterly ten friendless, moneyless, orphans, infants, widows in a with cold and hunger. The pork she cut into small pieces strange land, in a large town as humane as might be ex- and made them chew corn with these pieces. She then pected, but to which, unfortunately, such scenes of suffer- persuaded them to run about by setting them the example. ing had become so frequent and familiar, as to have lost Then she made them return to chewing corn and pork. It their natural tendency to produce sympathy and commise- should seem as if Providence had a special eye to these ration. The first house which I entered in this town was poor children, for in the course of the day some Indians a house, into one room of which was crowded a numer. landed on the island, found them, and, as they were comous family from Maine. The husband and father was dy- ing up to New Madrid, took them with them." ing, and expired while I was there. The wife was sick in the same bed, and, either from terror or exhaustion, ut- † “ The terms of the navigation are as novel as are the tered not a word during the whole scene. Three children forms of the boats. You hear of the danger of riffles,' were sick of fevers. If you add, that they were in the meaning, probably, ripples, and planters, and sawyers, and house of a poor man, and had spent their last dollar, you points, and bends and shoots, a corruption, I suppose, of can fill out the picture of their misery. It is gloomy to ihe French chute. You hear the boatmen extolling their reflect, that the cheering results of the settlement of our prowess in pushing a pole, and you learn the received new States and Territories, are not obtained without num- opinion, that a 'Kentuck’ is the best man at a pole, and berless accompaniments of wretchedness like this.” a Frenchman at an oar. A firm push of the iron-pointed

" I will record in this place another narrative, that im- pole on a fixed log, is termed a "reverend set. You are pressed me deeply. It was a fair sample of the cases of told when you embark, to bring your 'plunder ' aboard, extreme misery and desolation, that is often witnessed you hear about moving fernenst' the stream; and you on this river. In the Sunday School at New Madrid we gradually become acquainted with a vocabulary of this received three children, who were introduced under the sort. The manners of the boatmen are as strange as their following circumstances. A man was descending the language. Their peculiar way of life has given origin not river with these three children in his pirogue. He and his only to an appropriate dialect, but to new modes of enjoychildren had landed on a desert island, on a bitter, snowy ment, riot and fighting. Almost every boat, while it lies evening in December. There were but two houses, which in the harbor, has one or more fiddles on board, to which were at a little prairie opposite the island, within a great you often see the boatmen dancing. There is no wonder distance. He wanted more whisky, although he had al- ihat the way of life which the boatmen lead, in turn exready been drinking it too freely. Against the persuasions tremely indolent and extremely laborious ; for days togethof his children he left them, to cross over in his pirogue to er requiring little or no effort, and attended with no danthese houses, and renew his supply. The wind blew high, ger, and then, on a sudden, laborious and hazardous, beand the river was sough. Nothing would dissuade him yond Atlantic navigation ; generally plentiful as respects from this dangerous attempt. He told them he should re- food, and always so as regards whisky, should always have turn to them that night, left them in tears, and exposed seductions, that prove irresistible to the young people that to the pitiless pelting of the storm, and started for his ca- live near the banks of the river."

43

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