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The wheat harvest takes place in the beginning of June ; the maize harvest early in September.

9. Soils. In the level country generally, the soil is poor and sandy, with large, swampy tracts. The banks of some of the rivers are tolerably fertile, and there are some glades of moist land, possessing a black, fruitful soil. West of the hilly country, the soil is good, and resembles that of the States further north. The Great Dismal Swamp lies in the northeastern part of the State, and extends into Virginia. It is 30 miles in length, and 10 in breadth, and covers an extent of 150,000 acres ; the soil is marshy, and the whole tract is overgrown with pine, juniper, and cypress trees, with white and red oak in the drier parts. In the centre of it is a pond 15 miles in circuit. Many parts of the swamp are impervious to man, from the thickness of the woods and bushes. A canal is carried through it from Norfolk to Albemarle Sound. Between Albemarle and Pamlico Sound is another, called Alligator, or Little Dismal Swamp, which also has a pond in the centre ; this has been partly drained by means of a canal, and the land rendered fit for the cultivation of rice. It is estimated, that there are 2,500,000 acres of swampy land within the State, capable of being drained at a trifling cost, and fitted for the culture of cotton, tobacco, rice, and maize. These swamps have a clay bottom, over which lies a thick stratum of vegetable compost. The drained lands are found to be exceedingly fertile.

10. Geology, Minerals. The low country consists of deposits of sand and clay, similar to those of Eastern Virginia, and belonging to the same geological age; these tertiary beds are not rich in minerals, but they comprise extensive deposits of shell-marl, fossiliferous limestones, copperas, and bog-iron ore. The line dividing the flat tertiary plain from the upper country, crosses the Neuse near Smithfield, and the Cape Fear, near Averasboro, and is indicated by a ledge of micaceous rock. West of this line is a belt of mica-slates, chlorite slates, gneiss, and granites. Among the minerals of this tract are the hematitic iron ores of Nash and Johnston, formerly wrought to advantage, and the plumbago or black-lead of Wake ; soapstone, and serpentine also occur. A belt of sandstone succeeds to this primary strip, extending southwesterly from Granville quite across the State ; coal has been discovered in Orange and Chatham ; the sandstone furnishes good freestones and grindstones ; argillaceous iron ore, the usual accompaniment of coal-measures also occurs in this formation. Parallel with the freestone and coal formation, on the west, lies the great slate formation of North Carolina. It extends across the State from northeast to southwest, covering more or less of the counties of Person, Orange, Chatham, Randolph, Montgomery, Cabarrus, Anson, and Mecklenburg. Its breadth is about 20 miles. Within this district are found numerous beds of porphyry, soapstone, serpentine, greenstone, and hone or whetstone slate. Manganese, specular oxide of iron, and brown hematites occur here. The novaculite or honestone is of a superior quality, and is preferred by the mechanics to the best Turkey hones of the market. A A second belt of primary rocks extends from the slate formation nearly to the Blue Ridge, and comprises the Gold Regions of North Carolina ; most of the gold has been procured from washings, and not from the veins in the quartzose rocks ; it has been found in Guilford, Davidson, Randolph, Montgomery, Anson, Mecklenburg, Cabarrus, Rowan, Rutherford, and perhaps other counties, but we have no account of the actual quantity obtained. The famous mass which weighed 28 pounds, was found at Reed's Mines in Cabarrus, and other large lumps have been found, but they are rare. « Various marvellous stories are told respecting this rich mass; as that it had been seen by Gold Hunters at night, reflecting so brilliant a light, when they drew near to it with torches, as to terrify them and deter them from further examination.” The gold from some of these mines is remarkable for its purity, and when found is kept in goose-quills, and exchanged by weight, constituting a part of the currency of the country. Iron ore is also found in Rockingham, Stokes, Surrey, and Lincoln, and has been pretty extensively wrought ; it is chiefly the magnetic oxide. Of the mineral resources of the more western counties we know little.

11. Vegetable Productions. A great part of the country is covered with forests of pitch pine. In the plains of the Low Country, this tree is almost exclusively the natural growth of the soil. It much exceeds in height the pitch pine of the Northern States.

The tar, turpentine, and lumber afforded by this valuable tree, constitute one half the exports of the State. The moisture of the air, in the swampy regions, loads the trees with long, spongy moss, which hangs in clusters from the limbs, and gives the forest a singular appearance. The mistletoe is often found upon the trees of the interior. This State also produces several valuable medicinal

roots, as ginseng, Virginia and seneca snakeroot, &c. The rich intervals are overgrown with canes, the leaves of which continue green through the winter, and afford good fodder for cattle.

12. Mineral Springs. There are thermal saline springs in Buncombe county, called the Warm Springs. The water is limpid, and gives out nitrogen gas. It contains muriates and sulphates of lime and magnesia. Chronic rheumatism and paralysis are among the diseases cured by drinking the water and bathing in it.

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2. Towns. Raleigh, the seat of government, is situated on the Neuse, near the centre of the State. It is regularly laid out, with some handsome buildings, but it is not a thriving place. Population, 2,000. The State-house at this place was destroyed by fire, in 1831. This disaster was accompanied with the further and irreparable loss of Canova's admired statue of Washington; but a handsome capitol of granite has been erected in the place of the former building.

Newbern is the largest town in the State. It stands on the Neuse, 30 miles above Pamlico Sound. Vessels from the sea ascend to this place, and it has a considerable trade in exporting timber, grain, and tar. This town has a theatre, and was once the seat of government. Population, 4,000.

Fayetteville, on Cape Fear River, at the head of boat navigation, has a trade in grain, flour, tobacco, and naval stores. Fayetteville contains a United States Arsenal of construction. Population, 3,000.

Wilmington, on Cape Fear River, 34 miles from the sea, is a commercial town, and the port for the trade of Fayetteville. In commerce, it is the first town in the State ; but its harbor is not commodious for large vessels, being, like most others on this coast, barred with sand. The railroad to the Roanoke adds to the business and importance of Wilmington. Population, 4,000.

Charlotte, in the interior, is a growing and prosperous town, with 2,000 inhabitants. Here is a branch of the United States mint, for the coinage of gold. Salisbury, in the same region, has about 1,300 inhabitants.

3. Agriculture. The industry is almost wholly agricultural. The great diversity of climate between the eastern lowlands and the western high country, causes a corresponding diversity in the produce; the former yielding cotton, rice, and indigo ; and the latter, Indian corn, wheat, hemp, and tobacco. The cotton crop does not exceed 30,000 bales. The mountainous districts are more generally appropriated to grazing, and large herds of cattle and horses are raised.

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Angon
Ashe
Beaufort
Bertie
Bladen
Brunswick
Buncombe
Burke
Cabarrus
Camden
Carteret
Caswell
Chatham
Chowan
Columbus
Craven
Cumberland

Currituck
Davidson
Davie
Duplin
Edgecombe
Franklin
Gates
Granville
Greene
Guilford
Halifax
Haywood
Hertford
Hyde
Iredell
Johnston
Jones

Lenoir
Lincoln
Macon
Martin
Mecklenburg
Montgomery
Moore
Nash
New Hanover
Northampton
Onslow
Orange
Pasquotank
Perquimans
Person
Pitt

Randolph
Richmond
Robeson
Rockingham
Rowan
Rutherford
Sampson
Stokes
Surry
Tyrrell
Wake
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Wilkes
Yancey

4. Manufactures. Manufactures can hardly be said to exist, except in the shape of household industry; but during the last few years, several large cotton-mills have been erected, and carried on successfully, and there are a few paper-mills in the State.

5. Commerce. The dangers of the coast, and the want of good harbors, as well as the deficiency in channels of transportation, carry a great proportion of the trade of North Carolina to Virginia, South Carolina, and Tennessee, and we have no means of estimating its amount. The pine forests of North Carolina, which cover nearly the whole of the eastern part of the State, yield not only much lumber for exportation, but also nearly all the resinous matter used in ship-building in this country. The resinous products are turpentine, scrapings, spirits of turpentine, rosin, tar, and pitch; turpentine is merely the sap of the tree, obtained by making an incision in the bark; the turpentine flows out in drops, which fall into a box placed to receive them ; the incisions are generally made about the middle of March, and the flow of turpentine usually ceases about the end of October ; the boxes are emptied 5 or 6 times in the course of the year ; on an average, 40 trees will yield a barrel of turpentine, and about a third of that amount of scrapings, or that part of the sap which becomes hard before it reaches the box. Oil or spirits of turpentine is made by distillation, during which process, the oil comes over, and leaves a residuum called rosin. Tar is made by burning billets of pine under a heavy covering of turf or earth ; a slow combustion without flame is thus caused, and the tar which exudes is collected, by means of a trench, into a cavity dug in the ground for the purpose. The tar of the north of Europe is preferred in Europe to that of the United States, as it is much cleaner, better packed, and made from trees recently felled. Pitch is obtained from tar, by boiling it down to dryness. The lumber furnished by this vast forest, includes ship-timber, shingles, staves, &c.

6. Canals and Railroads. Little has hitherto been done in this State towards extending the facilities for transportation, although the most important productions are of a bulky nature, requiring cheap and easy modes of conveyance, and the character of the country offers many advantages for canalisation. The Dismal Swamp Canal lies partly in this State, and the Northwest Canal, a branch of that work, is wholly within its limits; much of the trade of the northeastern counties takes this channel. The Clubfoot and Harlow Canal is a short work extending from the Neuse to the harbor of Beaufort, and there are several short cuts round falls or shoals in the Roanoke, Tar, Cape Fear, and Yadkin. The Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad, terminating at Weldon, the Petersburg and Roanoke Railroad, terminating at Blakely, and the Greensville Railroad, extending from Bellfield, in Virginia, to Gaston, are Virginia works, and tend to divert the trade of the northern counties to the Virginia marts. The Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad extends from the former place, by Wanesboro, and near Nashville and Enfield, through Halifax, to Weldon, 170 miles. A line of steamboats from Wilmington to Charleston, 150 miles, is connected with this route, which thus forms a link in the great chain of works from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico. The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, from the capital to the Roanoke, is 85 miles long.

7. Government. The legislature is styled the General Assembly, and consists of a Senate of 50, and a House of Commons of 120 members. The Governor is chosen biennially by the people. Voters for senators must be freeholders. The clergy are excluded from the legislature. The State sends 13 representatives to Congress.

8. Religion. No person who denies the being of a God, or the truth of the Christian religion, or the divine authority of the Old and New Testament, or who holds religious principles incompatible with the freedom or safety of the State, can hold any office or place of trust or profit in the civil department, within the State. The Methodists number upwards of 20,000 communicants ; the Baptists, nearly the same number ; and the Presbyterians, 11,000. The less numerous sects are the Episcopalians, who have 1 bishop and 20 ministers; the Lutherans, with 40 societies and 2,000 communicants; the Moravians, or United Brethren, with 4 congregations ; some Roman Catholics, Friends, &c.

9. Education. The University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, was founded in 1791. It has 9 instructers, and 140 students. Its libraries have about 5,000 volumes. Davidson College, in Mecklenburg county, was founded in 1837. The State has a literary fund, but its income has not yet been applied to the purposes of education.

10. History. This State was visited by persons sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584, who landed and traded with the natives at Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds. The next year, a settlement was attempted on the island of Roanoke, in Albemarle Sound, but after two or three

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years, it was abandoned, and this part of the country was for a long time neglected. The first permanent settlements were made by the fugitives and seceders from Virginia, who, between 1640 and 1650, fled beyond the limits of that State to avoid religious persecution. A patent for the territory had been previously granted by Charles the First, but no effectual use had been made of it. After the above settlement, the patent was transferred (1663) to Lord Clarendon and some others, and a government was organized. The constitution, subsequently formed for the colony, is a remarkable document in American history, for it was the work of the celebrated John Locke. The chief magistrate was called the Palatine, and there was a

. hereditary nobility, with the titles of Landgrave and Cazique. The legislature was called a parliament. This constitution was found upon trial to be ill adapted to the character of the people, and it was abolished in 1693. A government similar to those of the other American colonies, succeeded it. This colony had been connected with that of South Carolina, till 1729, when they were separated, and the government of both was assumed by the King. This continued till the breaking out of the Revolution. The present constitution was established in 1776, but was revised and modified in 1835.

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1. Boundaries and Extent. This State is bounded N. by North Carolina ; E. by the ocean ; S. and W. by Georgia. It extends from 320 to 35° 8' N. lat. and from 78° 24' to 83° 30' W. long., being 270 miles long and 125 broad, and containing 33,000 square miles.

2. Rivers. The Great Pedee rises in North Carolina, where it is called the Yadkin, and flows to the sea through the eastern part of this State ; it has a sloop navigation of 130 miles. The Santee is formed by the union of the Wateree and Congaree, which rise also in North Carolina. It is navigable about the same distance as the preceding. The Edisto has a boat navigation for 100 miles, and the Savannah washes the whole southwestern limit of the State. All the rivers of South Carolina flow through a level country, and their waters are generally sluggish and shallow.

3. Islands. The southern part of the coast is skirted by a range of islands, separated from the main land by narrow channels, which afford a steamboat navigation. These islands, like the neighboring continent, are low and flat, but are covered with forests of live oak, pine, and palmettoes. Before the cultivation of cotton, many of them were the haunts of alligators, and their thick woods and rank weeds rendered them impenetrable to man. At present, they are under cultivation, and well inhabited ; and as the voyager glides by their shores in a steamboat, he is enchanted with the prospect of their lively verdure, interspersed with thick clumps of palmettoes, and flowering groves of orange trees. The live oak, which is so called on account of its being an evergreen, is a noble tree, with a trunk sometimes 12 feet girth ; its long branches are spread horizontally, and festoons of moss hang from them almost sweeping the ground. The laurel is here seen covered with large, white blossoms, shaped like a lily, and a foot in circumference. The long sandy beaches, which border these islands toward the sea, are covered with thousands of water fowl.

4. Harbors. Like those of North Carolina, the harbors of this State are generally bad. That of Charleston is obstructed at the entrance by a dangerous sand-bar ; that of Georgetown will only admit small craft. The harbor of Beaufort, or Port Royal, is the best in the State, but is little frequented. 5. Shores. The whole seacoast is low and level, with long sandy beaches, and without any

. prominent headlands.

6. Climate. The climate is hot, moist, and unhealthy. In summer the heat of the day continues with little abatement through the night, and a comfortable sleep is a blessing not always to be enjoyed. Fevers, generated by the influence of a hot air upon a moist soil, are common. The summer continues from 7 to 8 months, or from March to November. In winter, there are often frosts which kill the tender plants, and the orange trees; but they seldom continue longer than three or four days, or penetrate the earth deeper than two inches. In the lower parts of the State there is seldom any snow. In the northwestern parı, the land is mountainous, and the climate generally salubrious, with a drier air, and a colder winter.

7. Soil. In this particular, this State resembles North Carolina. The western part has a lofty and broken surface, but the whole of the State, toward the sea, is flat and swampy. The high land and much of the low country, are seruile, but there are some parts of a different character, denominated Pine Barrens. The soil is divided by the planters into 1. the tide swamp, and 2. inland swamp, which are best adapted to the cultivation of rice and hemp ; 3. high river swamp, or second low grounds, favorable to the growth of hemp, corn, and indigo ; 4. salt marsh; 5. oak and hickory bigh land, which is highly fertile, and yields corn, cotton, and inaigo ; and 6. pine barren, which, though the least productive, is the most healthy soil of the low country:

A portion of the last is considered as a necessary appendage to every swamp plantation, for erecting the dwelling-house of the planter. The hilly portion consists of a comparatively small tract, in the northwestern extremity.

8. Minerals. Veins of gold exist in this State, and it is probable that the metal is abundant ; but mines have not yet been extensively worked.

9. Vegetable Productions. The indigenous vegetation of this State combines the productions of the temperate and tropical regions, comprising the oaks and palms, pines and hickory. The palmetto or cabbage-palm attains the height of from 40 to 50 feet, and yields a substance which is eaten as a salad, and resembles the cabbage in taste.

10. Face of the Country. The coast for 100 miles from the ocean, is covered with forests of pitch pine, with swampy tracts here and there. Beyond this, is a parallel belt of territory, called the Middle Country, consisting of low sand hills, resembling the waves of an agitated sea. This tract occasionally presents an oasis of verdure, or a few straggling pine trees, and sometimes a field of maize or potatoes. The middle country is bounded by another belt of land called the Ridge, where the country rises by a steep and sudden elevation, and afterwards continues gradually to ascend. Beyond, the surface exhibits a beautiful alternation of hill and dale, interspersed with extensive forests, and watered by pleasant streams.

There are a few lofty mountains in the western part.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. Divisions and Population. South Carolina is divided into 29 districts. In the low country the slaves exceed the whites three to one, that section containing only about one fifth of the whites with half of the black population.

Population at Different Periods.

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2. Canals. The Santee Canal connects that river with Cooper River, which runs into Charleston harbor ; it is 22 miles long, 35 feet broad at the surface, and 4 feet deep. It has 9 locks, overcoming 68 feet of ascent from Cooper River to the summit level, and 4 locks with 35 feet descent to the Santee. The cost of this canal was 650,667 dollars. It was finished in 1802. The Wateree Canals pass around the falls upon that river, above Camden. There are canals upon Broad and Saluda rivers, which, in connexion with the rivers below, and the Santee Canal, constitute an inland navigation, 150 miles, from Charleston to Cambridge, in the western part of the State.

3. Railroads. The Charleston and Augusta Railroad extends from Charleston to Hamburg, on the Savannah, opposite Augusta. ”Length, 135 miles. The Charleston and Cincinnati Railroad is a great projected work, 600 miles in length. The portion of it in South Carolina is in progress, and extends through Columbia to the northwestern section of the State.

Abbeville Anderson Barnwell Beaufort Charleston Chester Chesterfield Colleton

Darlington
Edgefield
Fairfield
Georgetown
Greenville
Horry
Kershaw

Lancaster
Laurens
Lexington
Marion
Marlborough
Newberry
Orangeburg

Pickens
Richland
Spartanburg
Sumter
Union
Williamsburg
York.

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