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ginia, a distance of about 30 miles, with an average breadth of 6, and an area of nearly 200 square miles. The coal lies in a trough between Dan's and Savage Mountains, and occurs in numerous beds, alternating in the lowest portion of the deposit with slates, shales, bands of iron ore, and slate clay, and in the upper parts with strata of shale, sandstone, and limestone. Beyond the Back Bone is the Youghiogany or Yohagany coal-field, where there are coal-seams 20 feet thick. The iron ore beds in some instances alternate with the coal strata, and the ores belong to the argillaceous carbonate, and red and brown hematites.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Divisions. Maryland has 20 counties,* and in common language is considered as comprising 2 great divisions, separated by the Chesapeake, viz. the Eastern Shore, and the Western Shore.

Population at different periods.

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2. Canals. The Port Deposit Canal is 10 miles in length, passing along the Susquehanna. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is designed to unite the Potomac at Washington, with the Ohio at Pittsburg. It will be 340 miles long, and 60 feet wide. Its course is along the northern bank of the Potomac, and it is nearly completed to Cumberland, 185 miles.

3. Railroads. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is designed to extend from Baltimore to Wheeling, 360 miles. A mile and a half from the city is the Carrollton Viaduct, 312 feet in

length, and 40 feet high, built of granite, with an arch of 80

a stream running into the Patapsco. Two other viaducts are in the same neighborhood, one of which is 375 feet long, and crosses the Patapsco on 4 arches. When this great work is finished, the whole distance from Baltimore to Wheeling will be traveled in 20 hours. The Carrollton

viaduct is shown in the annexed Carrollton Viaduct.

cut. A branch of this road

extends to Washington, 32 miles, and a viaduct across the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, connects the main line with the Winchester Railroad. The work is now nearly completed as far as Williamsport. The Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, 93 miles in length, extends within this State, from Baltimore to Havre de Grace, where the Susquehanna is crossed by a steam ferry-boat, and thence to Delaware towards Wilmington, a distance of 53 miles. The Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad extends from Baltimore up the Great Falls of Gunpowder, and down the Codorus to York, in Pennsylvania, 60 miles, whence it is continued to Columbia by the York and Wrightsville Railroad, 13 miles. The Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, 20 miles, is in progress.

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Prince George s
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Washington,

4. Cities and Towns. Baltzmore, upon the Patapsco, 14 miles from the Chesapeake, is a large city, and the chief commercial mart for all the country upon the bay and its waters. It is finely situated, and regularly built, chiefly of brick; the public buildings and monuments indicate by their splendor a high degree of wealth and enterprise in the inhabitants. The Catholic Cathedral is an edifice in the Ionic style, 190

feet long and 177 wide, surmountView of Baltimore.

ed by a dome and cross, which rise to the height of 127 feet. It has some fine paintings, and the largest church organ in the United States, containing 6,000 pipes. The Merchants’ Exchange is 255 feet in front, and contains a hall, 86 feet in length, lighted from a dome, 90 feet above the floor. St. Paul's church, the Unitarian church, the Court-house and the Union bank are also elegant buildings.

Two splendid public monuments particularly attract the attention of strangers. The Washington Monument consists of a base 50 feet

square and 23 feet high, supportBattle Monument.

ing a column, 20 feet in diameter

at the base, and diminishing to 14 feet at the top ; on the summit rests a colossal statue of Washington, at a height of 163 feet from the ground. The Battle Monument commemorates the defeat of the British, in their attack on the city, in September, 1814 ; it is 55 feet high. Both of these monuments are of white marble. There are several handsome public fountains, which furnish a copious supply of pure water. The trade of Baltimore is great, and it may be considered

the best flour market in the world. In commerce it is the third city in the United States. The harbor is good, although vessels larger than 200 tons, cannot ascend below the lower suburb, called Fell's Point ; this is separated from the city by a small stream, over which there are several bridges. The shipping of Baltimore amounts to above 60,000 tons. There are, within 20 miles of the city, above 60 flour mills, one of which has ground 32,000 barrels in a year ; within the same space, there are also numerous cotton manufactories, and various others of cloth, powder, paper, iron, copper, glass, steam-engines, chemicals, tobacco, &c.

Baltimore has 2 colleges, 60 churches, 2 theatres, hospital, city hall, &c. It was founded in 1730, but for 20 years it could boast of no more than 25 houses and 2 vessels. Since the Revolution, however, it has grown with astonishing rapidity, and now contains 100,000 inhabitants. The neighborhood is pleasant, and the land rises in successive elevations, affording variegated and extensive prospects.

Annapolis, on the western shore of the Chesapeake, below Baltimore, is the seat of government. It has a harbor formed by the river Severn, and is a handsome and regular city, with streets diverging from a common centre, occupied by the capitol, a large and handsome edifice, containing the State library, of 10,000 volumes. It is not, however, a place of any trade. Population, 3,000.

The city of Frederick, near the centre of the State, is pleasantly situated and regularly built. It has a considerable trade in flour and grain. Population, 6,000. Hagerstown, in the northern part, is a place of some trade, with a fertile and productive country around it. Pop

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ulation, 3,500. Williamsport and Cumberland are small but flourishing villages on the Potomac, in the western part of the State.

5. Agriculture. Agriculture is the principal occupation of the inhabitants. Indian corn and wheat are the agricultural staples of the Eastern Shore, but the latter, under the present system of cultivation, is so precarious a resource, that the former may be said to be the most important product. The same articles, with tobacco, are the staples of the western section, and on the newly cleared lands of the mountainous district, where the cultivation of tobacco has lately been commenced, the bright leaf staple is produced. The fine tracts in this district, called the Glades, are broad, moist valleys, forming productive meadows and luxuriant pastures. Of 34,105 hogshearls of tobacco inspected in Baltimore in 1836, 24,930 were of the produce of the State ; the flour inspected in the same city that year, amounted to 516,600 barrels and 21,333 half-barrels, together with 1,405 hogsheads and 4,301 barrels of Indian meal, and 4,807 barrels of rye flour. Rice and cotton have been raised in the southern counties, but only in small quantities, and the palma christi or castor-oil bean is found to thrive.

6. Manufactures. The manufactures of Maryland are various and pretty extensive, though less so than in the more northern States ; our information in respect to the amount and value of the products is extremely meagre and unsatisfactory, but they include cotton and woolen goods, iron ware, sheet copper, leather, pottery, and stone ware, paper, gunpowder, glass, chemicals, &c. The number of cotton-mills is about 30, with upwards of 60,000 spindles, producing annually 1,500,000 pounds of yarn, and 10,000,000 yards of cloth. There are some woolen factories, producing broadcloths, cassimeres, satinets, carpets, &c. There are annually produced in the State 1,200,000 pounds of Epsom salt, made from the magnesian earth associated with serpentine ; chrome yellow, of the value of 50,000 dollars ; 50,000 pounds of blue vitriol from the black earth of the Monocacy valley, which is a mixture of sulphuret of copper, iron ore, and manganese; red and yellow ochre, of the value of 2,000 dollars ; copperas, of the value of 6,000 dollars ; 75,000 dollars worth of alum, and 50,000 dollars worth of fire-brick. Pottery, stone ware, and glazed ware are exported, and other branches of manufacturing and mechanical industry are successfully prosecuted.

7. Commerce. Fisheries. The herring, shad, and oyster fisheries are actively carried on, and yield valuable returns, constituting an important article of trade as well as of home consumption. There were inspected in Baltimore in 1835, 40,711 barrels and 908 half barrels of herrings, 5,505 barrels and 287 half barrels of shad, and 1,662 half barrels of mackerel. The commerce of Maryland is extensive, and her ports serve as the outlets of large tracts of productive country in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the Western States, whose consumption is also in part supplied through the same channels. The direct imports from foreign countries amount to 6,000,000 dollars ; the exports to 4,500,000, and the coasting trade, consisting in the exchange of northern manufactures and foreign articles imported directly into northern ports, for the agricultural produce of this and the neighboring States, is also extensive. The shipping owned in the State amounts to 110,000 tons. Lumber, marble, granite, feathers, clipper-built vessels, &c., are to be added to the list of exports.

8. Government. The legislature consists of a Senate and House of Delegates. The senators are chosen for 6 years, by electors, who are chosen by the counties and the city of Balti

The delegates are elected annually. The Governor is chosen by the people for three years. Suffrage is universal. Maryland sends 8 representatives to Congress.

9. Religion. The Roman Catholics are numerous in this State, and they have an archbishop, who is the metropolitan of the United States ; their churches amount to 60. The Episcopalians have 60 preachers ; the Presbyterians 25; the Baptists 20; the German Reformed 9. There are also Methodists, Unitarians, Swedenborgians, Lutherans, Friends, &c.

10. Education. The University of Maryland grew out of a medical college at Baltimore, and received its charter in 1812. It has 11 instructers.

It has 11 instructers. St. Mary's College at Baltimore, is a Catholic institution, founded in 1799 ; it has 25 instructers, 200 students, and a library of 12,000 volumes. The college at Mount St. Mary, near Emmittsburg, is also a Catholic institution, and was founded in 1830. It has 25 instructers, 130 students, and a library of 7,000 volumes. St. John's College, at Annapolis, was founded in 1784 ; it has 7 instructers, 100 students, and a library of 2,100 volumes.

11. History. Maryland was first settled by Catholics. That sect being persecuted in England, Lord Baltimore, one of its members, formed a plan to remove to America. He visited and explored the country, and returned to England, where he died while making prepa

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rations for the emigration. His son obtained the grant of the territory designed for his father, and gave it the name of Maryland, in honor of Henrietta Maria, the Queen of Charles the First. He appointed his brother, Leonard Calvert, governor of the colony, who set sail in 1633, with 200 settlers, principally Catholics. They purchased land of the Indians, and formed a settlement at St. Mary's, on the Potomac. The colony was increased by refugees from Virginia, and the other neighboring territories, who were attracted by the toleration here given to all religions, and it began to flourish, but was soon disturbed by Indian wars and rebellions. The Catholics were tolerant to other sects, but soon found themselves outnumbered, and became subject to the persecution which they had fled from at home. These troubles, however, were allayed at the restoration of Charles the Second, in 1660. At the revolution of 1688. the charter of the colony was set aside, and the government assumed by the crown ; but in 1716, the proprietor was restored to his rights. At the beginning of the American Revolution, the authority fell into the hands of the people. The existing constitution was formed in 1776, but was modified in 1833.

CHAPTER XVII. GENERAL VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.

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1. Boundaries and Extent. The seven States next to be described, viz. Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, are known by the general designation of the Southern States. Their boundaries, including the Territory of Florida, may be described, in general terms, as the Potomac, the Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi, the Sabine, and the State of Tenessee ; lying between 250 and 40° 30' N. lat., and extending from 750 to 94° 30' W. lon., with an area of 412,000 square miles, and a population of 5,000,000, comprising 2,000,000 slaves.

2. Mountains. The mountainous parts lie chiefly in the north, and these are mostly in Virginia. South of Virginia, the mountains form the northwestern limit of these States, and disappear in the northern part of Alabama.

3. Rivers. Most of the rivers flow through a level country. Their currents are sluggish, and their mouths generally barred with sand. With the exception of the streams in the western part of Virginia, which flow westward into the upper portion of the Missisippi valley, all the rivers of the Southern States flow southerly or easterly into the Atlantic, or Gulf of Mexico. They mostly have their origin in the elevated region of the Appalachian Mountains.

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4. Bays, Sounds, &c. The largest are in the northern part of this region. Chesapeake Bay is the deepest and most convenient for navigation in the country. Southward of Pamlico Sound, there are no large bays on the Atlantic ; the coast is uniform to the Gulf of Mexico. The largest navigable bay in this quarter, is that of Mobile. The lakes of Louisiana are shallow, and little available for the purposes of navigation.

5. Shores and Capes. Every part of the coast is low and flat, without a single lofty headland, to warn the navigator of his approach to the land. The capes of North Carolina do not project far into the sea, but they are beset with shoals, and are the most dangerous spots upon our coast, south of Nantucket.' The peninsula of East Florida may be considered as an immense cape, and much the largest in the United States. The Mississippi has formed at its mouth, by the mud brought down in its waters, a cape 40 miles in extent, the extreme point of which is called the Balize, through which the river passes into the Gulf of Mexico.

6. Climate. In the northern and mountainous parts, the climate is temperate and healthy ; but the far greater portion of this territory may be characterized as subjected to a climate, hot, moist, and insalubrious.

7. Soil. Some of the richest soils in our country are in the Southern States. Almost all the good lands are alluvial; their peculiarities are elsewhere described. The poor soils are commonly sandy, and these tracts occupy the greatest portion of the surface.

8. Minerals. Over so great a tract, the minerals are, of course, various ; yet there is less diversity than might be expected, on account of the great uniformity of the geological formations. Coal, iron, lime, and salt abound in different districts; good marble, granite, freestone, slate, and valuable clay's also occur ; but little attention has hitherto been paid to these sources of wealth. Gold is found from the Potomac to the sources of the Alabama, in the hilly district at the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge. Some mines have been worked, but the precious metal has been chiefly obtained from washings, or deposit mines, having been transported from its native beds by running water. In some cases, large returns have been made for the labor and capital employed; but in many, great losses have been sustained. Some large lumps of virgin ore have been found here, one of which weighed 28 pounds. Some of the gold has been sent to the mint and coined, some has been manufactured, and some, either cast into small plates or put up in quills in a state of dust, passes current in the gold region, instead of the coin of the country.

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