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Railroad, from Harrisburg to Chambersburg, 49 miles, and the Wrightsville and Gettysburg Railroad, from Columbia to the latter place, 40 miles, are prolongations of the Columbia and Lancaster railroads. The Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad, extending from Baltimore to York, bas 20 miles of its route within this State ; from York to Wrightsville, 12 miles, it is
; merged in the last-named road. The Williamsport and Elmira Railroad, connecting the West Branch of the Susquehanna with the Tioga, and thus affording an easy exchange of the iron and coal of central Pennsylvania, for the wheat, salt, and gypsum of western New York, is in progress ; length 74 miles. 4. Cities and Towns. Philadelphia, the second city of the United States in size, is situa
ted on the west bank of the Delaware, 126 miles from the sea. The river is navigable for ships of the line up to the city. It lies 3 miles along this river, and its western limit is washed by the Schuylkill, which falls into the Delaware, about 6 miles below. The ground on which the city stands is an almost unbroken level, so that it exhibits no striking appearance as the spectator approaches it. The streets are perfectly rectangular, and Philadelphia is probably the most regular and uni
form city in the world. It is at Philadelphia Exchange.
the same time one of the most agreeable.
The climate is fine, the city remarkably clean, and abundantly supplied with the best of water. To this we may add, that the markets are among the best in the country, while the expenses of living are one fourth less than in Boston, and one third less than in New York. The streets are from 50 to 113 feet wide. The houses are mostly of brick, much darker in color than in the Eastern States, and resembling at a
short distance the common red sandstone. 00
The streets are generally paved and kept clean. The handsomest of the public
buildings in the city, and perhaps in this United States Bank.
country, is Girard College ; the main building, of white marble, is 169 feet by 111, entirely surrounded with Corinthian columns. The United States Bank, in Chestnut Street, is of white marble, with a front on the model of the Parthenon. It never fails to excite an agreeable emotion when first seen by a stranger.
The United States Mint, and Marine Asylum, the Exchange, and the Bank of Penn. sylvania, are also handsome marble edi fices. The State House is a somewhat antiquated structure, and is chiefly remarkable for containing the hall in which the Declaration of Independence was signed ; adjoining this building is a beau
tiful enclosed walk, planted with trees. The Arcade.
Other handsome public walks are Washington
utensils, furniture, works of art, costumes, &c. Skeleton of the Mastodon, in Peale's Museum. The Pennsylvania Hospital is one of the oldest
and most respectable institutions in the country ; it comprises two buildings, one of 273 feet in length; the number of patients is usually about 200. West's painting of Christ Healing the Sick, presented by the artist to the hospital, is shown in a building attached to the establishment. The institution for the blind, and that for the dumb, Will's hospital for the lame and blind, several orphans' and widows' asylums, &c., are among the charitable institutions for which Philadelphia is famed. The Philadelphia Library was established by the exertions of Dr. Franklin, and now con
tains 44,000 volumes ; the building is Academy of Natural Sciences.
ornamented with a marble statue of the founder. The American Philosophical Society have a library of 10,000 volumes, and the Hospital 5,000. The Pennsylvania University occupies an edifice originally designed for the residence of the President of the United States. The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts has a good collection of paintings, some pieces of statuary, and a library. The building which they occupy contains a circular saloon, lighted from a dome at the top, and several galleries. An exhibition of paintings is held here annually. The Academy of Natural Sciences have a fine museum
and an excellent library of 6,000 volFairmount Water-Works.
umes. A scientific journal is published
under their direction. The city and suburbs have numerous large manufactories of cotton, iron, glass, &c., besides the great variety of articles made in small establishments. In point of commerce, Philadelphia is the fourth city in the Union. The foreign commerce is considerable ; the annual value of the direct imports from foreign parts being about 12,000,000 dollars, of exports 3,600,000 ; but the inland and coasting trade is much more extensive, and is rapidly increasing. The shipping amounts to 100,000 tons. Bookselling is a flourishing branch of trade in Philadelphia, and the republication of English works is carried on largely. There are 71 periodicals, newspapers, and monthly and quarterly magazines, &c. Of the newspapers, S are daily, and one of the weekly journals is in German. The city contains 100 churches, chapels, and other
places of Worship, including 2 synagogues, 7 markets, 3 theatres, 16 banks, 18 insurance companies, a navy yard and arsenal of the United States.
The city is supplied with water by means of the Fair Mount water works, where the Schuylkill is dammed and the water of the river raised into reservoirs holding nearly 25,000,000 gallons. From these the water is conveyed by pipes, amounting in their aggregate length to 100 miles, through Philadelphia and the suburbs. The daily consumption is 4,000,000 gallons. These works cost nearly half a million dollars. There is a bridge over the Schuylkill below the water works ; the Delaware has no
bridge below Trenton ; the upper Upper Ferry Bridge, Philadelphia.
ferry bridge, over the Schuylkill, with an arch of 324 feet span, was lately destroyed by fire.
The Eastern Penitentiary, or State prison, is without the city, to the northwest. It stands on an elevated spot, and is the largest building in the United States, occupying an area of 10 acres. Its front is built of large blocks of granite, with towers at the angles and along the walls.
The principal front is 670 feet in length. The Almshouse, a huge pile, on the western bank of the Schuylkill has accommodations for 4,000 inmates. The County prison, to the south of the city, consists of a centre building, in the Gothic castellated style, with 400 cells, and other buildings of freestone in the Egyptian style for debtors, &c.
Philadelphia was founded by William Penn, in 1682, and chartered by him in 1701 ; but the charter under which it is now governed was granted in 1796. The government consists of a mayor, 2 councils, and a board of Aldermen ; the coun
cils are elected by a popular vote ; the Eastern Penitentiary.
mayor is elected annually by the councils,
and the aldermen are appointed by the governor of the State. Population of the city and suburbs, 200,000.
Pittsburg, in the western part of the State, is the next in importance to Philadelphia. It stands upon a point of land at the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, which here take the name of Ohio. It is built on a regular plan, upon the slope of an eminence, and a level plain at its foot. It is finely situated for trade, and enjoys a communication by steamboats with all the great towns on the Ohio and Mississippi ; but it is most distinguished for its large and flourishing manufactures of glass, iron, woolen, and cotton. The surrounding country is exceedingly rich in bituminous coal, which is delivered at the houses for three cents the bushel. The constant use of this fuel causes a perpetual cloud of black smoke to hang over the place. The suburbs, Birmingham and Alleghany, lie on the opposite sides of the 2 rivers, and communicate with the city by bridges. A person in Pittsburg, who has been in England, would imagine from the dingy aspect of the houses, which are blackened with smoke ; from the constant smell of burning coal, and streams of smoke which are ascending from the furnaces in every direction, that he was in one of the great manufacturing towns of that country. The coal is chiefly obtained from the southern side of the Monongahela ; the pits are at an elevation of 2 or 300 feet from the river. They enter the earth horizontally, and some
of them extend 500 yards. The coal is drawn out in little cars by men or norses, and carried in heavy wagons to the town. A man will get out about 85 bushels of coal in a day. Some of the manufacturing establishments are situated on the margin of the river ; and the coal,
which is obtained from the bank above, slides down a wooden trough into the building where it is to be used.
There are here 130 steam en gines, 30 iron founderies and rolling mills, 10 cotton factories, and as many glass works and lanneries, in all, 300 manufacturing establishments, the value of whose annual products exceeds 12,000,000 dollars.
There are several handsome buildings in the city, but its gen eral appearance is disagreeable.
At the point where the 2 rivers View of Pittsburg.
unite, a crowd of steamboats may be seen, which are occupied in plying between Pittsburg and various towns below. The mag. azine of Fort Du Quesne, built here at the first settlement of the country, was remaining in an entire state in the autumn of 1831, when a sketch, from which the annexed engraving was taken, was made by the author ; but there are now no remains of the old French works. A fine aqueduct, belonging to the Pennsylvania canal, crosses from the town to the northern bank of the Alleghany river.
Large quantities of wheat and other produce come down the
Monongahela to Pittsburg, from Ruins of the Magazine at Fort Duquesne.
the fine lands which lie along the borders of that river. Immense timber rafts, some of them one fourth of a mile in length, may be often seen floating down the Alleghany. Population of Pittsburg and suburbs, 40,000.
Harrisburg is the seat of government, and is situated on the Susquehanna, near the eastern skirt of the mountainous region. Its plan is regular, and the site level. The State-house occupies an elevation overlooking the town, and is a large and elegant building. Population, 5,000.
Reading, upon the Schuylkill, is a manufacturing and trading town, peopled in a great measure by Germans. It is particularly distinguished for the manufacture of hats. The town is regular, and its business is thriving. The Union canal commences in this neighborhood. Population, 8,000.
Lancaster, on a branch of the Susquehanna, is also chiefly inhabited by Germans. It has considerable manufactures, and there was formerly a college established here. It is regarded as one of the handsomest towns in the Middle States. The surrounding country is celebrated for the excellence of its soil, and its high state of cultivation. The farms are generally large, and managed with great skill. Population, 10,000.
. Bethlehem, the principal settlement of the Moravians, stands on the Lehigh, and occupies a fine situation rising from the river, which is here crossed by a bridge. The town is closely
built upon three streets, and contains a large Gothic church of stone, and a female seminary. The grave-yard, in the neighborhood is very neatly laid out with alleys and rows of trees.
Nazareth is another Moravian town, 10 miles from Bethlehem, and is the spot at which these people first settled in this country.
Easton, on the Delaware, at the mouth of the Lehighı, is a handsome town, regularly laid out around an open square.
Three canals, which unite at this point, secure to the place a fourishing trade, and Easton is one of the best four markets in the country. The neighbor. hood is highly picturesque, and there are bridges across the Delaware and Lehigh ; the latter is a chain bridge. Population, 5,000.
Honesdale and Carbondale, in the northeastern corner of the State, with 2,000 inhabitants each ; Wilkesbarre, in the charming valley of Wyoming, on the North Branch of the Susquehanna, with 3,000 inhabitants ; and Pottsville, near the source of the Schuylkill, with 3,500, are the principal towns in the coal region. York, in the southern part of the State, west of the Susquehanna, is a busy and prosperous town, with 5,000 inhabitants. Chambersburg and Carlisle, in this region, are also thriving towns, with considerable manufactures.
In the northwest, Erie, on the lake of the same name, is the only good lake harbor in Pennsylvania ; its trade is rapidly growing in importance. Population, 3,000.
A few miles below Pittsburg, on the west bank of the Ohio, is the village of Economy, inhabited by the sect of Harmonists, under the direction of the celebrated Rapp. This village is neatly built with broad, rectangular streets, and handsome frame houses, although some of the primitive log cabins of the settlement still remain. The inhabitants are Germans, about 800 in number, and emigrated to America in 1805. They first settled in this State, but afterwards removed to Indiana, and finally returned and established themselves at this spot. They have a large woolen and cotton manufactory, with steam machinery, occupying several four
story buildings of brick, besides breweries, Village of Economy.
distilleries, tanyards, and various other works. They have also a handsome church, and a large edifice containing a hall for concerts, a museum of natural curiosities, a collection of minerals, a mathematical school, a library, and a school for drawing. All their property is nominally held in common.*
Their establishment is very flourishing, and their trade with the neighborhood extensive. Marriage is not permitted among them. The village has a beautiful appearance as the voyager is descending the river in a steamboat. The buildings are scattered along the bank of the river, and in the rear of the town is a lofty hill covered with vineyards ; on the top of it is a handsome building for the preserving of grapes, the making of wine, &c.
Beaver City, at the mouth of the Beaver Creek, is a growing manufacturing place, with a boundless power furnished by the falls in the river. Population, 5,000. Brownsville is a
. prosperous village on the Monongahela, with 2,000 inhabitants.
Several of the places which we have described are very handsome, but most of the inferior towns and villages in this State are destitute of the neatness, taste, and cheerful aspect which belong to those of New England. Many of the houses consist of wooden frames, filled in with brick and mortar, and many others are built of squared logs, laid one upon another. They are often marked with an utter neglect of cleanliness, and the inhabitants, who may be seen in the streets, and at the doors and windows, have an appearance befitting their dwellings. Many of these villages are occupied by emigrants from Ireland, Holland, and various parts of Germany. In some places, a large part of the inhabitants can speak no other than their native language.
5. Agriculture. East of the mountains, and especially in the neighborhood of Philadelphia,
* Mr. Rapp, the head of this society, was a German late nominally belonging to the settlement. In religion, peasant, who commenced ils formation at Wirtemberg the people are Lutherans, with the addition of some peabout the year 1780. He died in 1834, and his son appears culiar doctrines. now to be the legal proprietor of all the lands and real es