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6. Soil. In the northern parts, the soil is good, both for agriculture and grazing ; but the southern half of the State is a flat and sandy territory, sometimes marshy, but almost totally barren, or producing only shrub oaks and pines.

7. Geology, Minerals. With some inconsiderable exceptions, the whole of the great southern Plain consists of a series of horizontal deposits of clays, sand, and sandstones sometimes running into limestone, all belonging to the newer secondary or cretaceous group of geologists, and generally covered to a variable, but often considerable depth, by masses of diluvial sand and gravel. The exceptions referred to are the recent alluvial bogs or marshes, in one of which near Long Branch, an almost complete skeleton of a Mastodon was found in the natural standing posture ; and a small tertiary patch, probably a basin, on Stow Creek, in the southwestern part of Cumberland county. These tertiary beds are composed of layers of clay, containing fossil shells, chiefly Pernas, and of sand, containing oyster-shells ; the former constitute a valuable marl. The cretaceous or greensand series comprises beds of blue clay, which often contain leaves, parts of trees, lignite, amber, and other vegetable products ; a brown, coarse, ferruginous sand-stone and conglomerate crowning the tops of the low hills which are scattered over the Plain ; a yellow ferruginous sand, sometimes cemented into a soft rock and sometimes occurring as a loose sand, containing numerous casts of shells ; a yellowish fossiliferous limestone, often siliceous; and the greensand marl-beds, consisting of beds of dark clay, of the same mingled with green sand, and of the green sand almost alone in a pulverulent state. These lower beds have acquired importance from their fertilizing properties, and are extensively used with great success by the New Jersey farmers as a manure, from which circumstance they have received the name of marl-beds. A triangular space enclosed between lines drawn pretty directly from Salem to Deal and Middletown, is designated the Marl Tract, the beds here lying near the surface, and being very profitably worked in many places. The useful minerals of this section of the State, in addition to the marl, are potter's clay, pure white sands, which have long been exported from Maurice River for glass-making, copperas and alum earth, good architectural freestone, and bog-iron ore; the last is extensively worked, and the deposits, being derived by precipitation from the water which filters through the beds of ferruginous sand and clay, are constantly renewed after the lapse of a few years.

Northwest of the Great Plain lies a tract composed of the older secondary formation, and which, from the prevailing rock, has been designated the Red Sandstone Region. This rockgroup comprises a thick series of alternating red shales, sandstones, and conglomerates, resting upon which is a coarse, variegated, calcareous conglomerate, of a heterogeneous composition, consisting of pebbles of various sizes, and from different rocks. The latter in some localities furnishes a good marble resembling the Potomac breccia, and the former yields a valuable building material in its freestones. Numerous ridges and dikes of trap-rocks traverse the strata of this formation, constituting all the hills within the sandstone district. The indications of the existence of copper ore, which early attracted attention in New Jersey, and which have, at different periods, led to mining operations, occur at the junction of the red sandstone and trap; but the ore has not been found in a true vein or regular lode, and it appears to exist only in irregular strings and bunches.

The Highlands consist chiefly of gneiss, intersected by occasional dikes of sienite or greenstone traversing the strata, but the floor of the southern valleys is a blue limestone, and a red argillaceous conglomerate occurs in the northern section. Hematitic iron ore is found in connexion with the limestone, and magnetic ore is an abundant constituent of the gneiss rock; the veins of the latter are of extraordinary extent and richness; they are extensively wrought, and yield a metal of excellent quality. The rocks of the valley west of the Highlands are composed of several alternating strata of slate, argillaceous sandstones, and limestone, which, beside lime, marl, marble, freestone, and writing and roofing slates, contain zinc-ore (oxide of zinc) in great abundance, and magnetic and hematitic iron-ores. The red and gray sandstones of the Blue Mountain, and the fossiliferous limestones and calcareous sandstones west of that range, occupy the rest of the State.

9. Face of the Country. The southern half of the State is a level and sandy alluvion, and subsides from the higher regions into an unbroken plain. The middle section is hilly, and toward the north the surface grows more variegated, till it rises into mountain ridges.

10. Natural Curiosities. The Falls of the Passaic, at Paterson, are highly picturesque. The scenery around is variegated and wild. A perpendicular wall of rock rises from the side

A of a large basin, formed by the river. Into this basin the foaming cataract pours, from a

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height of 70 feet. A road has been cut through the rock, by which the spectator may approach the spot in a favorable manner for enjoying the view.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

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1. Divisions. New Jersey has 18 counties ; Bergen, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Salem, Somerset, Sussex, Warren, Atlantic, Mercer, Passaic, and Hudson, subdivided into 120 townships.

2. Canals. The Morris Canal crosses the northern part of the State, from New York to the Pennsylvania coal region. It leaves the Hudson at Powles's Hook, opposite the city, and proceeds north and west crossing the Mountain Ridge, beyond which it turns southwesterly and extends along the base of the ridge to Easton on the Delaware, 100 miles. At several places are inclined planes, up which boats are drawn by machinery. The whole rise and fall is 1,675 feet. Aqueducts pass over Passaic and Pompton rivers. Twenty miles of the canal lead through narrow ravines, between high ridges of granite, abounding in valuable minerals. The Delaware and Raritan Canal extends from New Brunswick on the Raritan, to Bordentown on the Delaware, below Trenton, 43 miles in length. It is 7 feet deep, and 75 feet wide, at the surface, being designed for sea vessels. 3. Railroads. The Camden and Amboy Railroad is an important work on the great line

. of travel between the north and south, 61 miles in length; from South Amboy, its northern termination, steamers convey passengers to New York, through Staten Island Sound and the Kills. There is a branch of this road from Bordentown to Trenton. The New Jersey Railroad extends from Jersey City, on the Hudson, through Newark, Elizabethtown, and New Brunswick, to Trenton, 58 miles. The Paterson and Hudson Railroad branches off from the New Jersey Railroad at Bergen Hill, and runs to Paterson, 15 miles. The Morris and Esser Railroad extends from Newark through Orange and Chatham to Morristown, 20 miles. The Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad branches off from the New Jersey Railroad, at the former place, and extends to the latter, a distance of 25 miles. The Camden and Woodbury Railroad is 8 miles in length.

4. Towns. The capital is Trenton, on the Delaware, 30 miles above Philadelphia. It is a place of considerable business, and contains a State-house, 2 banks, and 6 churches. The rapids upon the Delaware, at this place, form the limit of sloop and steamboat navigation. A wooden bridge across the river, 1,100 feet long and covered with a roof, is the first on the Delaware from the sea upwards. Trenton is incorporated with city privileges, and has some thriving cotton manufactures. Population, 4,000.

Burlington, on the Delaware, 12 miles below Trenton, is beautifully situated, partly on an island united to the shore by four bridges and causeways. It has many fine buildings, and makes a very handsome appearance towards the river.

appearance towards the river. It is a port of entry, but has no foreign trade. Population, 2,600.

Bordentown, on the river between this place and Trenton, is chiefly remarkable as the residence of Joseph Bonaparte, whose elegant villa attracts the attention of travelers. Princeton, 10 miles northeast of Trenton, is a handsome village, containing the college of New Jersey. It stands on an elevated ridge, and commands a good prospect.

The city of New Brunswick is situated at the head of sloop navigation upon the Raritan. It contains a College, a Theological Seminary, and other public edifices, and has some commerce, chiefly in corn and flower. Population, 6,000.

Newark, on the west bank of the Passaic, 9 miles from New York, is one of the most flourishing towns in the State. The streets are regular, and in the centre of the place is a fine public square. The city has several banks, and many manufactories. The Passaic is here navigable for sloops of 80 tons, and 4 miles below the town falls into Newark Bay. Population, 20,000. The manufactures are various and extensive, although the establishments are on a small scale. A great number of coaches, shoes, (4,000,000 pair yearly,) hats, furniture, clothing, trunks, &c. are made here, the annual value of the manufactured products being about 8,000,000 dollars. Paterson is a large and flourishing manufacturing town, at the lower falls of the Passaic ; here are 20 cotton mills, a duck factory, several woolen and paper mills, machine factories, brass and iron founderies. The town is pleasantly situated and prettily built, and contains 12,000 inhabitants.

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Elizabethtown is the oldest place in New Jersey. It stands on a small creek flowing into Staten Island Sound, with a navigation for vessels of 20 or 30 tons.

It is a handsome town, and surrounded by a fertile country. Population, 3,450.

a Perth Amboy is situated at the bottom of a bay, where the Raritan and Staten Island Sound unite; it has a tolerable harbor, and considerable commerce.

5. Agriculture. In the southern parts, owing to the barren soil, the business of cultivation is not in a very thriving state. In the northern and middle parts, considerable attention is paid to the rearing of garden stuffs, and fruit, for the markets of New York and Philadelphia. The farmers also raise wheat, rye, maize, buckwheat, pulse, potatoes, &c. These portions of the State abound in orchards ; the finest cider is made in the neighborhood of Newark. Cattle are also extensively raised for exportation.

6. Manufactures. Although the industry of the people is chiefly devoted to agriculture, the northeastern section contains some flourishing manufacturing towns, and various branches of manufacturing industry employ many of the inhabitants in other quarters. The following official return gives but a partial view of the extent and variety of the manufacturing establishments in 1830 ; for the mines and quarries, the potteries, the workshops for the making of hats, boots, and shoes, carriages, saddles and harness, furniture, &c. are not taken into the account.

Manufacturing Establishments in 1830. 857 runs of stone in grist mills.

45 cotton factories. 655 saw-mills.

25 woolen 72 fulling

6 calico print-works.

13 glass works. 13 rolling and slitting mills.

358 cider distilleries. 17 oil mills.

11 grain 28 furnaces.

135 carding machines. 108 forge fires.

2,876 tan vats. The annual value of the iron manufactures in 1930 was estimated at about 1,000,000 dollars, including 1,670 tons of pig-iron, 5,615 tons of castings, and 3,000 tons of bar-iron ; that of cottons at 2,000,000 ; of woolens at 250,000 ; of glass 500,000, but all these and other branches have been much extended since that time.

7. Commerce. The direct foreign commerce of New Jersey is inconsiderable in amount, most of the transactions taking place in New York and Philadelphia ; an active coasting trade is carried on from the numerous small rivers, which generally admit small sea vessels some distance into the interior; of the actual amount of this trade we have no estimates. The shipping owned in the State in 1936 amounted to 50,513 tons, exclusive of the river and canal craft.

8. Fisheries. On the eastern coast, in the neighborhood of Staten Island, are abundant oyster beds, which are highly profitable to that part of the State ; but the most productive source of income is the shad fishery upon the Atlantic coast and in the Delaware, which employs a great part of the population of the southern counties. The fishery is carried on by many separate establishments, which employ laborers upon wages. Most of the fish are sold in the market of Philadelphia. When the spring floods are later than ordinary, the shad are most abundant in the bays and inlets of the seacoast.

9. Government. The legislature consists of a Council and House of Assembly, the members of which are chosen annually. The Council consists of one member from each county, and the Assembly, of three from each county. The Governor is chosen by the legislature annually. Voters must be resident one year, and have paid a tax. The constitution was established in 1776. New Jersey sends 6 members to Congress.

10. Religion. The Presbyterians have 100 churches ; the Reformed Dutch church, 40; the Baptists, 30 ; and the Episcopalians, 30 ministers. There are many Methodists and Quakers, and some Congregationalists.

11. Education. The College of New Jeresy or Nassau Hall, at Princeton, was founded in 1733. It has a President, 13 professors, and 2 tutors. The library contains 8,000 vols. There is also at the same place a Theological Seminary established by the Presbyterians. This last has a spacious stone building with five professors, and 120 students. Rutgers College, at New Brunswick, has 100 students. The State has a school fund, yielding an annual income of 22,000 dollars.

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Total.

12. Population.

Total.
Slaves.

Slates 1790, 169,954 11,423 1820,

257,409 7,557 1800, 195,125 12,422 | 1830,

300,266 2,254 1810,

226,861 10,861 13. History. New Jersey was first settled by the Dutch in 1624. The Swedes, in 1638, purchased the land along the Delaware from the Indians ; and in 1640, the English began a settlement within these limits at Elsingburg on the Delaware, but were soon driven away by the Swedes and Dutch. The Swedes built a fort at Elsinburg, and retained possession till 1655, when the Dutch of New York took all their posts, and sent the Swedes back to Europe. The English, in 1664, after reducing New York, turned their arms against these settlements, which immediately submitted. The Duke of York made a grant of the country to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, and the territory was named New Jersey in compliment to the latter, who had been governor of the isle of Jersey. The seat of government was established at Elizabethtown. The Dutch soon afterwards reconquered the whole country, but subsequently gave it up. In 1676, the territory was divided into East and West Jersey. In 1702, the proprietors surrendered both divisions to the crown, and they were formed into a single government by Queen Anne. They were ruled by one Governor, but continued to choose two assemblies. In 1738, two governors were again appointed. In 1776, the present constitution established the consolidation of the two governments.

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1. Boundaries and Extent. The northwestern corner of Pennsylvania is washed by Lake Erie ; the State of New York forms its northern boundary ; the river Delaware separating it from New York and New Jersey, bounds it on the east. A small portion of Delaware, with Maryland and Virginia, bound it on the south ; and a long, narrow strip of Virginia with Ohio forms its western boundary. Its shape is almost a perfect parallelogram ; three of its sides being marked by parallels of latitude and a meridian. It lies between 390 43' and 42° 15'

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north lat. ; and between 74o and 80° 40' west long. It is 307 miles long and 160 broad, and contains 47,000 square miles.

2. Mountains. The Appalachian chain here spreads to its widest limits, and covers with its various ranges more than one half of the State. The greatest width of the chain equals 200 miles. It consists of parallel ridges sometimes little distant from each other, and at other times with valleys 20 or 30 miles broad lying between them. The range nearest the coast is called the South Mountain, and is a continuation of the Blue Ridge of Virginia. This, however, is hardly a distinct ridge, but only an irregular series of rocky, broken eminences, sometimes disappearing altogether, and at others spreading out several miles in breadth. These eminences lie 150 or 200 miles from the sea, and their height does not exceed 1,200 feet above the surrounding country. Beyond these are the Kittatinny or Blue Mountains, which extend from Maryland to New Jersey across the Susquehanna and Delaware. Further westward are the ridges bearing the names of the Sideling Hills, Ragged Mountains, Great Warrior Mountain, East Will's Mountain till we come to the Alleghany Ridge, the highest range, and from which this whole chain has in common language received the name of the Alleghany Mountains. The highest summits are between 3 and 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. West of the Alleghany are the Laurel and Chestnut Ridges. These mountains are in general covered with thick forests. The Laurel Mountains are overgrown on their eastern front with the tree from which they are named. The wide valleys between the great ridges are filled with a multitude of hills confusedly scattered up and down. The tops of the ridges sometimes exhibit loog ranges of table land, 2 or 3 miles broad; some of them are steep on one side, and extend with a long slope on the other. These mountains are traversed by the great stream of the Susquehanna and the head waters of the Ohio.

3. Valleys. The valleys of the Susquehanna and its branches are remarkably irregular. These streams traverse the whole width of the Appalachian chain of mountains, sometimes flowing in wide valleys between parallel ranges, for 50 or 60 miles in a pretty direct course, and at other times breaking through the mountain ridges. The valleys between the different ranges of the great chain extending throughout the whole State, are often 20 or 30 miles in width, with a hilly or broken surface.

4. Rivers. The Delaware washes the eastern limit of the State, and is navigable for ships from the sea to Philadelphia. It receives the Lehigh at Easton, which flows 75 miles in a southeasterly course, nearly half of it being navigable. Nearer the sea, and 6 miles below Philadelphia, it receives the Schuylkill, which flows also southeasterly 130 miles ; it is navigable for boats 90 miles, but at Philadelphia it is crossed by a daru belonging to the waterworks, and there are falls 5 miles above. The Susquehanna rises from two sources; the eastern branch has its origin in Otsego Lake, in New York; the western branch rises in the most ele

vated region of Pennsylvania, in the western part of the Appalachian mountains ; it passes through the great Alle

: ghany ridge, and the others which lie east of it, and unites with the east branch at Northumberland. The river then flows southeast into Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the longest river of the eastern and central States, and is a mile and a quarter wide at its mouth; but it is much obstructed by falls and rapids, which sometimes occur in a continual series for 50 miles together. That part of its course near the mouth affords the fewest advantages for navigation.

This river abounds with fish, and vast Head-waters of the Juniata.

quantities of salmon and shad are yearly

taken in its waters. The Juniata, a branch from the west, which traverses the mountainous country, is a winding stream with broken and rocky banks, and the scenery along its shores is very picturesque. This river rises in the Alleghany mountains, and enters the Susquehanna 11 miles above Harrisburg ; being 180 miles long, and part of it navigable for boats.

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