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assembled, and the inauguration of the first President took place in New York. The great fire of December 16, 1835, destroyed 430 buildings, mostly warehouses, and property to the value of about $ 18,000,000.
On Long Island, opposite to New York, stands the city of Brooklyn, a suburb of the great emporium, in whose prosperity and growth it has shared. It is pleasantly situated on a rising ground, which affords many fine prospects of the river and bay, and the deep water close along shore enables large ships to lie at the quays. Nine steamboats at four ferries keep up a cheap and constant communication with New York, and a railroad runs eastwards through the centre of the island to Hicksville, 27 miles. The population is about 25,000, and there are here a handsome city hall, 17 churches and meetinghouses, a lyceum, banks, insurance offices, &c. Among the manufacturing and mechanical establishments are a cotton mill with 5,700 spindles, 9 distilleries, 9 ropewalks, glass-works, iron-works, &c., which employ many of the inhabitants. On Wallabout or Waalboght Bay is a United States navy-yard, covering 40 acres, and comprising building-slips, magazines, the necessary store-houses and ship-houses, a naval hospital, &c. The British prison-ships, in which so many American prisoners perished, were stationed here during the revolutionary war. The success of the British arms on Brooklyn Heights, August 27, 1776, gave the enemy possession of the city of New York. To the northeast, facing the eastern side of New York, is Williamsburgh, with a population of 3,000 souls. To the south, are some small fishing villages ; and the low, sandy shores form fine beaches, which are much frequented for sea air and bathing. Coney Is., Bath, and Rockaway Beach are the most noted resorts.
Albany is the seat of government of New York, and in point of wealth, population, trade, and resources, is the second city in the State. It is situated on the west bank of the Hudson,
145 miles above New York, near the head of tide water. It was settled by the Dutch, in 1612, and is one of the oldest settlements in the United States. The first appearance of this city is not prepossessing to a stranger, but there is much taste displayed in the construction of the buildings, both public and private ; it is interesting for its busy commerce, which is aided by the junction of the Erie canal with the Hudson at this place. The capitol makes a fine appearance from a distance, being situated at the head of State street, which rises in a straight course from the river to the brow of a
hill 220 feet; this is a fine stone edifice View of Albany.
115 feet in length, 90 in width, and 50
feet high ; in the front is an Ionic portico, with columns 33 feet in height. The public square, adjoining the capitol, is adorned with beautiful walks and avenues. The City Hall is of white marble. The Academy, one of the handsomest buildings in the city, is built of stone, three stories high, and 90 feet in front. The State Hall, the Albany, Farmer's, and Mechanic's Banks, and the Museum, are also handsome edifices. The collection of the latter, is one of the best in the United States. Albany is a place of great trade, and during the session of the legislature it is much crowded with strangers. The basin, where the canal joins the Hudson, is formed by an artificial pier 80 feet in width and 4,300 feet long ; it is connected with the shore by drawbridges, and covered with stores, in which immense quantities of lumber and merchandise are deposited ; the basin contains a surface of 32 acres. The neighborhood of Albany is pleasant, and many beautiful and thriving villages are within a short distance. This city has a library of 8,000 volumes, and a population of 30,000. About 10,000 boats annually arrive and depart.
West Point, the site of old Fort Putnam, and at present the seat of the Military Academy, was the scene of the treacherous plots of Benedict Arnold, who, being in command of the American post here, agreed to surrender the fortress and the person of Washington into the hands of the British ; the traitor escaped on the detection of the plot, but Major André, the Britis': officer sent to confer with him, was seized and hanged as a spy.
Troy, on the opposite bank of the Hudson, 6 miles above Albany, is beautifully situated and regularly built on a plain between a range of hills and the shore.
The houses are chiefly of brick; the streets are kept remarkably clean, and are shaded by rows of trees on each side. Among the buildings may be noticed the Episcopal church, an elegant and tasteful Gothic structure of stone. Troy is the capital of Rensselaer coun
ty, and has a population of Burial-place of André, at Tappan.
20,000. The trade and man ufactures are extensive. Among the factories are cotton and paper mills, iron and brass founderies, tanneries and breweries, &c., and there is an arsenal of the United States in the village of West Troy.
The city of Hudson, on the east side of the river, 27 miles below Albany, stands on a plain rising from the river, where the banks are 50 or 60 feet in height ; this plain terminates on the east at the foot of an elevation which rises several hundred feet, overlooking the river and country for many miles round. Hudson is one of the most important places on the river, and is at present increasing in business and wealth ; it is regularly built, with streets at right angles. From a beautiful promenade in the upper part of the town, a delightful prospect is presented of the river and the Catskill Mountains; the opposite bank of the Hudson is charmingly diversified with villages, farms, and country seats. Population, 6,000.
Poughkeepsie, on the east bank of the Hudson, 75 miles above New York, stands half a mile from the river, and is a pleasant town, laid out in the form of a cross. The buildings and grounds display much elegance and taste. The shore is bold and rocky, but there are good landing-places for steamboats. There are two fine hotels in the town, and it is a place of considerable trade. Population, 6,300. Both Poughkeepsie and the city of Hudson have several ships in the whale fishery. Newburgh, on the west side, 84 miles below Albany, makes a fine
. appearance from its situation on the slope of a hill close to the river. Many of its houses are handsome. Population, 5,000. Lansingburg, three miles from Troy, is principally built on a single street parallel with the river. A high hill rises abruptly behind the town, on which is seen the celebrated diamond rock, emitting in the rays of the sun a brilliant lustre. This town has a bank, five churches, and an academy. Population, 3,000.
Catskill, on the creek, and near the mountains of that name, is a thriving village, and is increasing by the resort thither of travelers and people of fashion, who go to enjoy the sublime mountain scenery of the neighborhood. Population, 2,500. Schenectady, 15 miles from Albany, on the Mohawk, is a town of considerable antiquity, and was burnt by the French and Indians in 1690. Before the settlement of the country by the Europeans, this place was the head-quarters of the powerful tribe of the Mohawks. Union College is situated here ; and at the west end of the town, a handsome bridge, 997 feet in length, crosses the river. Population, 6,300. Saratoga and Ballston are villages of about 2,000 inhabitants each, but thronged in summer with crowds of fashionable visiters and invalids, who deem the mineral waters equally efficacious in curing disease and ennui.
Plattsburgh, on Lake Champlain, is a place of some trade, and memorable as a military post, and the scene of a victory over the British feet and army, in September, 1814. A monument to the British naval commander, who fell in the battle, stands in the churchyard of Plattsburgh. Population, 2,000. T'iconderoga, a spot famous in the early wars of this country, is on Lake Champlain, at the outlet of Lake George. The old fortress, now in ruins, stands on a lofty point projecting into the lake. The stone walls which remain, show it to have been
, a place of great strength. A subterraneous passage may still be seen, leading from the lake to the fortress; through this, the Americans under Colonel Allen entered, and took the place by surprise, in 1775. The old French lines in the neighborhood are still discernible,
as are also the remains of other fortifications of the British and Americans, upon the eminences in the vicinity. The town of Ticonderoga contains 2,000 inhabitants, and a mine of iron. Sackett's Harbor became during the late war an important naval station ; it contains an extensive range of stone barracks, and other objects of military importance. Population, 2,000.
The village of Niskayuna, a few miles from Albany, deserves notice as the residence of the Shakers, a sect of whom we have already given some account.
This village exhibits a striking spectacle Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga.
of neatness and beauty, standing on a
beautiful level, and laid out with perfect regularity. The village embraces about 2,000 acres, and is divided into four farms. The fields are marked by fences in right lines, and built of the most substantial materials. Everything displays the utmost order, neatness, and thrift. The people are about 300 in number, and cultivate garden stuffs, seeds, &c., for sale ; and the wares of various sorts which they manufacture, are remarkable for their finished and workmanlike execution. They dress in the usual Quaker drab. Their association is based upon a perfect community of property.
The preceding towns lie in the eastern part of the State. We come now to the multitude of towns, which the more recent settlement of the western parts, and the opening of the great canal, have caused to spring up in the wilderness, as if by enchantment. The city of Utica, on the south bank of the Mohawk, 94 miles west of Albany, occupies the site of Old Fort Schuyler, where a garrison was kept before the Revolution, but as a town, it is little more than
а 30 years old. It has risen with astonishing rapidity, and now contains 10,000 inhabitants, and numerous literary, benevolent, and religious institutions. It is one of the most important of the western towns, and is situated at the junction of the river, the great canal, and the Chenango canal. The great western line of railroad, now (1840) completed from Albany to Auburn, also passes through the city. It is regularly built, the streets are broad, straight, and commodious, and the buildings generally handsome; among them are 20 churches and a State lunatic asylum. The lands around are well cultivated, and exhibit a succession of beautiful farms and country seats. Its trade by the numerous avenues above mentioned, is extensive, and its manufactures, already important in value, and comprising iron and brass, leather, machinery, &c., are rapidly increasing. The thriving village of Rome stands at the junction of the Erie Canal with the Mohawk and the Black River Canal. Population, 2,000. The site is interesting, as that of old Fort Stanwix, noted in the old French wars, and of Fort Schuyler, during the Revolution. Further on, we come to Syracuse, a large and flourishing village, at the junction of the Oswego and Erie canals, chiefly remarkable for its great salt works. Population, 5,000 ; or, including the village of Salina, which is becoming merged into it, by the rapid growth of the two places, 7,000.
A little further west, is Auburn, on the outlet of Lake Owasco, which furnishes numerous mill-seats, already partially occupied by the busy wheels of mechanics. Here is also a State
a Prison with 600 cells. Population, 5,000. '
Seneca Falls, on the outlet of Seneca Lake, is one of the most thriving villages in the State, and has about 3,500 inhabitants. At the southern extremity of Cayuga Lake, is the picturesque and pleasant village of Ithaca, connected withi the Susquehanna by a railroad ; its trade and mechanical industry are in a prosperous condition, and the population is 5,000. In the same region is Elmira, on the Tioga, but connected with lake Seneca, and thus with the great artery of the State, by a canal. Population, 2,500. North of the Erie canal and the junction of the Oswego branch with Lake Ontario, stands Oswego, the most important town on the American shore of the lake. It has a commodious artificial harbor formed by long piers running out into the lake, and the river affords numerous millseats. Population 5,000. Geneva, an elegant village, occupies a fine situation upon Seneca Lake, and extends a mile along its western bank, affording a most enchanting view of that beau tiful sheet of water. The houses are remarkably neat and handsome. Among the public
buildings are a college, an academy, 4 churches, and a bank. Population, 3,000. A constant breeze from the lake, and an uncommon richness in the scenery of the shores, render this neighborhood a delightful residence in summer. Canandaigua is 15 miles from Geneva, near the outlet of Canandaigua lake. The principal street is two miles in length, running along the ridge of a hill, and handsomely planted with trees. A square in the centre of the village contains a court-house ; the Episcopal church in the main street is one of the most elegant buildings in the State. In the neighborhood are numbers of delightful villas and beautiful gardens and orchards. This village is a place of considerable trade, and steamboats ply upon the lake here, as well as upon that of Seneca. Population, 2,000.
The city of Rochester, on the Genesee River, is a place of great trade and opulence, and of astonishingly rapid growth. It was founded in 1812, and is the fourth town in the State in point of numbers ; it is one of the emporiums of the western parts. It stands upon the great canal, 7 miles from Lake Ontario, with a ship navigation by way of Genesee River to within two miles of the town, thus having a water communication with New York, Quebec, and the great lakes. A railroad to Attica, 50 miles in length, attests the enterprise and wealth of the city ; the streets are spacious and well laid out, and the buildings are neat, and some of them elegant. Within the limits of the city are 22 large flour-mills, built of stone, which grind 600,000 barrels of four annually. Some of these mills are on a scale of magnitude not equalled elsewhere in the world. One of them covers more than 4 acres, and all of them are considered unrivalled in the perfection of their machinery. Here are also cotton and woolen manufactories, saw-mills which turn out 9,000,000 feet of lumber in a year, machine-shops, and other mills. The Genesee falls are in the northern part of the city, and the water power which the river affords here, is immense.
There are three bridges across the Genesee at this place ; the canal aqueduct deserves particular notice. The canal strikes the river in the south part of Rochester, and after following the eastern bank for half a mile, crosses the river in the centre of the town in an aqueduct built upon 11 arches of hewn stone, 804 feet in length; the structure is no less worthy of admiration for its strength, than its architectural beauty. From the observatory at the summit of the arcade, may be seen in a clear day the waters of Lake Ontario, like a strip of blue cloud on the verge of the horizon. Population of Rochester, 18,000.
Lockport is a flourishing place on the canal, 65 miles beyond Rochester. It stands on the Mountain Ridge, and the canal here rises 60 feet by 5 locks, which exhibit the most stupendous and imposing works in its whole course. Above the locks, the canal flows in a bed cut for three miles out of the solid rock, 20 feet in depth. In 1821, there were but two houses at this place; it is now an important town, with numerous manufactories, a flourishing trade, and 5,000 inhabitants. Buffalo is a beautiful and thriving city at the junction of the canal with Lake Erie. It of the lake commerce, and its harbor is as thronged with steamboats and all manner of water craft, as its streets are with travelers, emigrants, and men of business. It is one of the most active and bustling places in the country, and is rapidly growing in importance. In 1820 it3 population was 2,100, at present it is 20,000, inclusive of Black Rock, which is connected with it by a railroad, and contains the great western basin of the Erie Canal. The number of arrivals of lake vessels, in a single year, has amounted to 1,800, and upwards of 5,000 boats have cleared on the canal in the same period. There is no other important town on the lake, but the harbors of Dunkirk and Portland have been improved by artificial works, and are beginning to be seats of trade.
stands upon a long hill, rising with a gentle acclivity from the shore. The streets are wide and regular, and there are three handsome public squares. The harbor of Buffalo is furnished with a lighthouse at the entrance, and has been much improved by art ; a pier 80 rods in width now prevents the sand of the lake from barring up its mouth. Two small rivers unite their waters in the harbor, and afford great convenience for landing and shipping goods, while a
number of basins and lateral ca99
nals communicating with the great canal, afford every facility
for the commencement of the Lighthouse at Buffalo.
long course of inland navigation. Buffalo is the grand emporium
5. Agriculture. Three fourths of the inhabitants of New York are engaged in agriculture, but not more than one fourth of the land is under cultivation. In 1810, the State government made provision for the formation of County Societies, for the promotion of agriculture and household manufactures. A general board of Agriculture was organized, consisting of delegates from the county societies. This board have published various memoirs relating to husbandry, and the county societies expend annually a large amount in premiums. Wheat is the most important article of culture. Maize, rye, barley, oats, flax, hemp, &c. also receive attention.
The great wheat district of the State commences in the valley of the Mohawk above the primitive spur at Little Falls. This district, comprehending the central portions of Oneida County, extends westward to the lakes, and is bounded northward by the north ridge of the valley and by Lake Ontario, and southward by a line verging southwest from Utica to the mouth of the Cattaraugus Creek at Lake Erie. This is the garden of the State, including the rich Seneca Vale and the far-famed Genesee Country. Portions of this district are sandy, and in others the rock rises too near the surface, whilst others are not abundantly watered ; but taken as a whole it is not surpassed by any district of equal extent in the United States. Here artificial manures are rarely used, and indeed rarely needed. In the newly cleared lands, the richness of the mould and of the sub-soil is all that the farmer requires ; in tracts long cleared, deep ploughing, blending the mould and the soil, preserves the former, and turns up the latter to disintegrate, and thus to yield its calcareous matter.
Amount and Value of Improved Lands and Live Stock in 1825 and 1835.
6. Commerce. The admirable situation of this State for commerce may be perceived by casting the eye on the map. The internal trade is assisted by the great lakes which form its northern boundary, and by the canals which open a communication with them through the centre of the country.
The commerce of New York is, therefore, on a great scale, as, beside supplying her own wants from abroad, and exporting her surplus produce, she imports a large share of the foreign articles consumed in most of the Atlantic and Western States, and her great commercial emporium is the outlet of much of their surplus produce. The value of imports constitutes about three fifths of that of the whole country, and her foreign exports are about one fourth of the whole exports ; the former amounts to about 80,000,000, the latter to 25,000,000 annually ; the shipping exceeds 450,000 tons. The internal river and canal trade, and the coasting trade, both with the north and the south, are of much greater value. The lake commerce on Lakes Champlain, Ontario, and Erie, with Montreal and Quebec, Vermont, Upper Canada, Michigan, and the west in general, is very extensive, and rapidly increasing. The number of vessels on Lake Erie, which in 1817 was 25, now exceeds 400, including about 40 steamers and several ships.
7. Manufactures. There are numerous incorporated manufacturing companies in this State, and their condition in general, is highly prosperous. Their establishments are distributed
, throughout the whole territory, and are chiefly occupied in the manufacture of woolen and cot