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child grows up, is so flattened that it is in a straight line with the nose, and the skull comes to a point only an inch or two through. While this pressure is on it, the eyes are said to stand out of the head like those of a mouse squeezed to death in a trap. The division of the nostrils among several tribes, is pierced, and feathers or ornaments of wood and shell are worn in them. On the coast the lip is pierced, in such a manner that the orifice looks like a second mouth. A large piece of wood or shell is worn in it. The skin is sometimes tattooed and the ears are slit. There are several

languages, some of which pervade many Indians of the Northwest Coast.

tribes. In some, the sounds are so guttural

that they resemble the clucking of a fowl. The general diseases are rheumatism, consumption, and ophthalmia. Few have good eyes, and the aged are generally blind. The great remedy in the eastern parts, is the vapor bath. The patient from this, plunges in cold water. In some tribes the teeth decay soon. The general food is fish, roots, berries, and the products of the chase. The dress is a robe of fur, or on the coast, of European manufactures. The tribes have little knowledge of spirituous liquors. Generally these Indians are thieves and pilferers. They are treacherous and re

. vengeful. Some of the principal tribes are the Shoshonees, or Snake Indians; the Chopunnish, which has several large branches under different names ; there are several other bands of the Multnoma tribe. Other tribes are the Sokulk, the Chinampum, Wallahwallah, Pishquitpah, Wahowpum, Eneshure, Eskeloot, Chilluckitequaw, Shahala, Wappatoo, Cathlamah, Skilloot, Chinnook, Clatsop, Killamuck, Wakash, and others. Of these the Chopunnish and Wallahwallah are represented as gentle and hospitable, and in these particulars there is diversity of character among the tribes. The treatment of females varies among different tribes. In some they are considered equals and treated accordingly; in others they are patient slaves to their husbands. The Spokans are honest and friendly, indulgent fathers, but despotic husbands. The people of Nootka Sound, are hardy, cruel, and warlike. But it would be tedious farther to enumerate the individual differences among tribes that have a general resemblance.

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Indians in the United States.

3,000

4,000
8,000
6,500 Osages,

600 Kansas,
4,000 Puncahs,
2,000 Kickapoos,

1. Indians East of the Mississippi.

Seminoles,
Chickasaws,

5,000 New York Indians, (Senecas, &c.),

Delawares,

1,000 Chippeways, (Michigan and Wisconsin),

5,000 Ottawas, Chippeways, and Pottawatamies,

1,500 Wyandots, (Ohio),

800 Menomonies, (Wisconsin),

600 Seminoles, (Florida),

Senecas and Shawnees,

1,800 25,100 Weas, Peorias, Kaskaskias, &c.,

600 Omawhaws,

1,200 2. Between the Mississippi and Missouri. Oloes and Missouries,

1,500 Winnebagoes,

4,500 Sacs and Foxes,

4,500

4. Indians beyond the States and Territories. loways, 1,200 | Pawnees,

6,000 Sioux, - 25,000 | Minnetaries,

2,500 Assiniboins, 3,000 Rickarees,

3,000 Pottawatamies, 2,000 Shiennes,

2,000 Crows,

4,500 3. In the Indian Territory. Blackfeet,

25,000 Choctaws, 18,000 Kiowas,

1,500 Creeks, 25,000 Camanches,

5,000 Cherokees, 26,000 Tribes West of Rocky Mountains,

50,000

28. History. The settlement and early history of each State are laid before the reader in the separate chapters. The several colonies were governed by the parent country nearly upon the same system. The attempt of the British government to tax the colonies without their consent, sowed the first seeds of that disaffection which subsequently ripened into open revolt.

In 1765 a stamp act was imposed upon the colonies, but such unequivocal marks of disapprobation were expressed throughout the country, that it was withdrawn the next year. The attempt was soon after renewed in the shape of a duty upon tea, and a number of ships laden with the article were despatched to America. The colonists were bent upon resistance to the principle of taxation, and resolved that the duties should not be levied. On the arrival of the tea at Boston, the people took possession of the ships, and threw the tea overboard. The British ministry attempted to punish the Bostonians, by shutting up their port and garrisoning the town with British troops. The exasperation of the colonists against the mother country increased ; a congress of delegates from the several colonies assembled at Philadelphia ; a determination to resist the encroachments of Britain was everywhere manifested. In this critical conjuncture, the rash precipitancy of the British commander at Boston, or his instructers in the cabinet, kindled at once the flame of open hostility, which blazed till the British doninion over her ancient colonies had for ever passed away. On the 19th of April, 1775, the British general detached a body of troops to destroy some

military stores at Concord, a few miles from Boston. The alarm was given throughout the neighborhood, and at Lexington the British were met by a small body of rustics, hastily collected, and armed with such weapons as each man could seize upon in the emergency. Here the first blood was shed. The Americans awaited the attack of the British, and a short skirmish ensued, when the Americans yielded to the superiority of numbers and retreat

ed. The British proceeded to Battle of Lexington.

Concord, and effected the de

struction of the stores ; but in the mean time the inhabitants had collected and began to annoy them by a scattering fire from behind the walls and houses. They commenced a retreat, but at every step the number of their assailants increased ; a running fire was poured in upon them from behind stone walls and fences, and their retreat would have become a rout, but for the timely arrival of a reinforcement frorn Boston. With this assistance they were enabled to reach Boston in safety, after suffering a heavy loss.

The news of this battle ran through the country like an electric shock. Throughout the New England States the people rushed to arms ; in three days the roads were covered with people marching upon Boston, and at the end of a week the town was invested by an army of 20,000 men. From the heights of the capital, the British commander might espy a line of watch-fires stretching completely around him on the land side, and shutting him up within the narrow limits of the peninsula of Boston.

This great body of men, who thus rushed from their farms and firesides to blockade the capital, consisted of a heterogeneous mass, ill-armed, ignorant of tactics, unused to discipline, and untried in war ; but impressed with the justice of their cause, and full of ardor to avenge the slaughter of their countrymen. The British soldiers, trained to discipline and skill, and renowned for bravery, looked with scorn upon the Americans ; their contempt for their new enemies derived additional strength from the language of the ministerial party in Parliament, who asserted, with the coolest arrogance, that the Americans were a pack of cowards, that would never dare face a British soldier in the field. The correctness of this estimation was soon put to the test. On the night of the 16th of June, the Americans took possession of the heights of Charlestown, and a body of 1,500 threw up an entrenchment on the southern part of Bunker's Hill, commanding the northern part of Boston, and a great portion of the harbor. The dawn of day discovered this to the British, and a heavy cannonade was begun upon the works from the British ships and batteries. This producing no effect, the British general despatched a body of 3,000 men, comprising the flower of his army, to carry the heights by storm. About

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noon this army crossed the river in boats, and fornied for the attack. The heights of Boston, the house-tops and steeples were crowded with gazing multitudes awaiting with breathless anxiety the issue of the contest. Charlestown was now set on fire by the British, and its wide mass of wooden houses were quickly wrapped in one great flame, while the British, in order of battle, marched slowly up the height, supported by a heavy fire of their artillery. The Americans awaited their approach, tiil within point blank shot, when they at once poured in upon them so deadly a fire, that whole ranks were mowed down, the line of the British became disordered, and they retreated hastily to the shore. They rallied and returned to the charge, but again a most furious and destructive fire forced them to retreat. Such was the carnage, that nearly every officer around General Howe, the British commander, was killed, and the General was left almost alone on the side of the hill. At this critical conjuncture a reinforcement arrived from Boston, and a third time the British advanced to the attack, the soldiers being driven to the charge at the sword's point, by their officers. The ammunition of the Americans was now exhausted, yet they received the assailants with the butt-ends of their muskets ; after a short conflict they retreated, and left the British in possession of the heights. More than one-third of the British were either killed or wounded.

This obstinate and bloody struggle was equivalent in its effects to a decisive victory in favor of the Americans. The firmness and conduct which their raw levies had exhibited against regular troops, gave them the highest confidence. No further attempt was made by the British to penetrate into the country, and they remained as closely blockaded as before. All hope of reconciliation was now cast aside. T'he Congress organized a body of forces for the defence of the country, and placed Washington at the head. The new general pressed the siege of Boston, and in the spring of 1776 drove the British from the place.

On the 4th of July, 1776, Congress declared the American States free and independent. In the summer of the same year, the British, with a powerful army, attacked New York. Washington attempted to defend it, but the disastrous battle of Long Island threw the city into their power. He retreated into New Jersey, and the end of the year beheld him with a handful of half-clad, starving men, retreating before a victorious foe. The fate of the country appeared to be decided, but the fortitude and enterprise of Washington turned the tide of war against the enemy. The victories of Trenton and Princeton revived the drooping spirits of the Americans, gave them confidence in their leader, and brought an efficient army under his banners.

In 1777, Philadelphia fell into the hands of the British, and an army of 10,000 men under General Burgoyne invaded the country from Canada. The march of this General was, at first, highly successful; all the strong posts on his route were captured, and a panic spread through the country at his approach. But at Bennington the militia cut off a detachment of his army, and this victory inspirited the people ; bodies of militia gathered around him ; the battle of Stillwater arrested his march ; his retreat was cut off ; a fruitless attempt was made by the British from New York to relieve him, and he surrendered his army to General Gates, at Saratoga, October 17th, 1777.

By the help of this important success, Franklin negociated a treaty of alliance with France, in February, 1778. The British evacuated Philadelphia the same year. In 1779, the seat of active war was transferred to the Southern States. The Carolinas fell into the hands of the British, and various battles were fought with alternate success. In 1781, Lord Cornwallis with an army of 10,000 men, after traversing Carolina and Virginia, took post at Yorktown, on the Chesapeake, where he was besieged by the Americans and French under Washington, and at length surrendered on the 10th of October, 1781.

This event was decisive as to the fate of the war. The British government had now lost all hopes of reducing the Americans to obedience, and in 1783, Great Britain by a treaty acknowledged the independence of the States.

After the restoration of peace, the States remained as they had been during the war, united by a slight confederation, without any efficient general government. But this state of things not being found conducive to the prosperity of the country at large, a new form of government was resolved upon. A convention from the several States assembled, and after much deliberation, formed the present constitution, which was established and went into operation in 1789. Since this period the country has seen no change in its political institutions. New territories have been acquired, wars and factions have disturbed our domestic tranquillity, but the union of the States has, to the present moment, survived every struggle.

Population of each State according to five Official Enumerations.

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$ 79,855.599

16,178,222

Tonnage of the United States at several Periods.

Navigation in 1838.

Value of Domestic Articles.
Enrolled and Licensed.

Exported in American vessels,
Total

in Foreign vessels,
Registered. Coasting. Fisheries. Total. Tonnage.

Value of Foreign Articles. 1789, 123,893 68,607 9,062 77,669 201,562 || Exported in American vessels, 1800, 669,921272,492 30,079 302,571 972,492

in Foreign vessels, 1830, 576,475 516,978 98,323 615,301 1,191,776 1834, 750,026| 744,198 | 111,925 856,123 1,606,149 American shipping entered, 1836, 897,774 873,023 111,305 984,328 1,882,102

cleared, 1838, 822,591 910,003 131,102 1,041,105 1,994,798 Foreign shipping entered,

cleared,

9,964,200 2,488,595

Tons. 1,302,974 1,408,761

592,110 604,166

Value of Exports of Home Produce for several years.

1830.
1832.
1834.
1836.

1838. Dolls.

Dolls. Dolls. Dolls. Dolls. Produce of the Sea, (Fish, Oil,)

1,725,270 2,558,538 2,071,493 2,666,058 3,175,576 of the Forest, (Furs, Ashes. Naval Stores, Lumber,) 4,192,047 4,347,794 4,457,997 5,361,740 5,200,499 “ of AGRICULTURE, (Beef, Pork, Wheat, Cotton, Tobacco,) 46,977,332 49,416,183 67,380,787 91,625 924 78,194,437 of MANUFACTURES,

6,258,131) 6,461,774 6,648,393 6,453,266 8,875,538 Value of some leading Articles Imported in 1838. Cotton goods,

$ 6,5.99,330 Value of some leading Articles of Export in 1838.

Woolen goods,

6,967,530 Silk goods,

9,812,338 Cotton,

$ 61,556,811
Linen,

3,583,540 Tobacco,

7,392,029
Iron and Steel,

7,418,504 Rice,

1,721,819
Sugar,

7,586,825 Flour,

3,603,299
Teas,

3,497,156 Fish,

819,003
Wines,

2,318,202 Furs,

636,945
Molasses,

3,865,285 Lumber,

3,116,196
Coffee,

7,640,217 Manufactures,

8,875,538
Salt,

1,028,418

1,698,433 nessee.

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The following exhibits the total value of the Imports and - 25 in South America and Mexico, including Brazil, – Exports of the States which were most deeply engaged in 35 in Germany,45 in Turkey and Africa,-- 10 in Spain, the foreign trade during the year 1838 :

20 in Prussia, — and the remainder elsewhere. Imports into. Exports from. The value of cotton manufactures in England, is believ.

ed to be annually about 170,000,000 of dollars,—in France, Massachusetts, 13,300,925 $ 9,104,862

70,000,000, — in the United States, 50,000,000. New York, 68,453,206 23,008,471

The capital employed in manufacturing by machinery, is Pennsylvania, 9,360,731 3,477,151

estimated in England, at 200,000,000 of dollars,- in France Maryland,

5,701,869 4,524,575 at 120,000,000,– in the United States, at 110,000,000. Virginia, 577,142 3,986,228

The consuinption in manufactures of raw cotton in all South Carolina, 2,318,791 11,042,070

Europe, in 1803, was estimated at only 60,000,000 of Georgia, 776,068 8,803,830

pounds. The whole consumption in Europe, in 1830, was Alabama, 524,548 9,688,244

about 387,000,000 of pounds. In 1838, it is believed to Louisiana,

9,496,808 31,502,248 be nearly 500,000,000 of pounds. The following table exhibits the relative importance of Union to grow cotton to any considerable extent. In 1791,

South Carolina and Georgia were the first States in the our trade during 1838, with the following countries :

Imports from. Exports to.

2,000,000 of pounds were grown in the Union, -1} mil.

lion of which grew in South Carolina, and 15 million in Great Britain and dependencies, $49,051,181 $58,843,392 Georgia. France and dependencies, 18,087,149 16,252,413

In 1801, 40,000,000 was the crop of the United States, Spain and dependencies,

15,971,394 7,684,006

- of which 20 million grew in South Carolina, 10 in Netherlands and dependencies, 2,436,166 3,772,206

Georgia, 5 in Virginia, 4 in North Carolina, and 1 in TenChina,

4,764,536 Mexico,

3,500,709 2,164,097

In 1811, the crop of the United States had reached Texas,

165,7181 1,247,880

80 million, - of which, 40 grew in South Carolina, 20 in

Georgia, 8 in Virginia, 7 in North Carolina, 3 in TennesEstimated Annual Value of Manufactures (1839–40). see, and 2 in Louisiana. Aggregate Value,

$ 350,000,000 In 1821, 170,000,000 of pounds were growing in the Cotton Manufactures,

50,000,000 Union, - as follows: 50 million in South Carolina, 45 in Woolen

70,000,000 Georgia, 20 in Tennessee, 20 in Alabama, 12 in Virginia, Leather

40,000,000

10 in North Carolina 10 in Louisiana, and 10 in MississipLinen,

6,000,000 pi.

15,000,000 In 1828, the whole crop of the Union was 348.1 millions. Glass,

5,000,000 Of this, Georgia grew 75 million, South Carolina 70, TenPaper,

6,000,000 nessee, 45, Alabama 45, Louisiana 38, Mississippi 20, VirSoap and Candles,

10,000,000 ginja 25, North Carolina 18, Florida 2, and Arkansas 11 Spirits,

5,000,000 of a million.

10,000,000 In 1833, the crop of the Union had increased to 4373 Iron,

50,000,000 millions. Of this, 88 million grew in Georgia, 73 in South

Carolina, 70 in Mississippi, 65 in Alabama, 55 in LouisiaCotton Crop. The entire growth of Cotton in the world, na, 50 in Tennessee, 15 in Florida, 13 in Virginia, 10 in

is 1,000,000,000 pounds North Carolina, and three quarters in Arkansas.
Of this 550 million are The next year (1834) the crop had increased to 4754
supposed to be grown in millions, and was grown as follows : 85 in Mississippi, 85
the United States, - 30 in Alabama, 75 in Georgia, 654 in South Carolina, 62 in
in Brazil, -8 in the West Louisiana, 45 in Tennessee, 20 in Florida, 18 in Virginia,
Indies, -27 in Egypt, – 91 in North Carolina, and one half in Arkansas.
36 in the west of Africa, Thus it will be seen, from 1791 lo 1826, South Carolina
- 190 in the west of was the most abundant cotton growing State in the Union.
Asia, -35 in Mexico and In 1826 Georgia took the lead, and held it till 1834, when
South America, except Alabama and Mississippi took the front rank. At this
Brazil, – and 14 else- time, Mississippi is perhaps the most extensive cotton
where.

growing State in the Union. South Carolina and AlabaThus, at 10 cents per ma are next. North Alabama is beginning to deteriorate pound, a price below

as a cotton country : while the worn lands in Middle Tenwhich'it has rarely ever nessee are thought to improve for this culture, - maturi. fallen, this crop is worth ty, the vital desideratum, not being so easily allowed in

$ 100,000,000. For the the rank luxuriance of the fresher soils. Cotton Plant.

last 50 years, however, When it is remembered, that the first cotton plant in the the value (though often fluctuating suddenly and widely) United States, was raised in 1787, surely our readers will has averaged 191. At this price, the present growth of find reason for surprise at the wonderful increase that has the world is worth $ 192,500,000.

accrued in a little more than 50 years! Bold, indeed, Of this, about 350 millions of pounds are consumed and must be the man, who would venture to predict the wealth, manufactured in England, - about 150 million in the greatness, and power, likely to become our national attriUnited States, - 80 in France, -250 in China and India, butes, through the agency of Cotton.

Revenue of the United States.

Hats, Caps, &c. .

.

Cabinet ware,

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Total.

Customs.

Internal Revenue and Direct Taxes.

Lands.

Loans.

1791, 1800, 1810, 1815, 1820, 1830, 1835, 1838, 1840,

10,210,026 12,451,184 12,144,206 50,961,237 20,881,493 24,844,116 35,430,087

4,399,473
9,080,932
8,583,309
7,232,942
15,005,612
21,922,391
19,391,310

1,552,620
6,840,762

443
696,549
1,287,959
1,635,871
2,329,356
14,757,601

5,791,112 5,074,646 2,759,992 35,264,321 3,040,824

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