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not, we have deep sympathy with those who look and long for some deliverance from the manifold forms of materialism in which men think and act we have deep sympathy with those who can see a greater good than the systems of Utilitarian philosophy can offer them-wherein the summum bonum seems to be, as regards the social systems, masses of humanity acted upon by a statistical machinery, which is to be worked with unerring precision, and produce unvarying results; and, as regards the Church, a corporation, having a marketable commodity, which is only to be valued according to the given amount of morality which it produces. For something better and higher than this, poor humanity has longed and sighed for ages. Whether in the agony of the suffering, the cry of the oppressed, the dream of the recluse, or the vision of the thoughtful and prophetic, it be comes evident, in many forms of expression, that there is a capacity in man which no condition of things has yet filled-a place in the mind and heart for the realization of an estate which has often been the subject of idealistic vision, but never of experience in fact. He who looks back upon the world's past history, from the heights which Christian intelligence has enabled him to attain, will seek in vain for any one spot upon which the eye may rest with unalloyed pleasure. It is to the leading of holy hope that he must again commit himself, in pursuing his onward journey, lest he sink by the way. To that consolation, which she alone can give him-to an unshaken confidence in the true promises of God-must he trust for the fulfilment of those aspirations after something better than what he has, which can fill the hearts of the good and wise-which do not arise from discontent with what is, but from an intelligent perception of what ought to be. This excellency is not to be found in the past-it is not to be found in the present—but it shall be revealed in the future. It is not to be met with in separation--it is not exclusively in the Greek--it is not in the Anglican-least of all is it in the Romish Church; but it shall be found in the day when the purposes of God in Christ Jesus are complete-when the Church, the body of Christ, shall be "edified"-when all her members shall have "come in the unity of the faith and of knowledge of the Son of God into a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature (or age) of the fulness of Christ"-when the "new song shall be sung before the throne," and the whole creation, delivered from its condition of bondage, shall "rejoice together before the Lord, when He cometh to judge the earth, for with righteousness shall He judge the world, and the people with equity."

It is to "the hasting of this day" that the Church is ex

horted. Rome walks the earth as though it had arrived, calling herself queen and mistress of the world, and, in her mad assumption, daily falsifies the prayers she utters, "Thy kingdom come." There is in the English Church, whatever her faults may be, a vital energy of truth which cannot be found in the Romish: a power of Christian strength, and a freedom in its exercise, which do not exist in the shackles of Roman bondage. Much there may be to grieve over and mourn for, but much to lay hold of and rejoice in. The Tractarians, in going back to Rome, have fallen behind their age: they have made no advance--they have entered no higher region of truth-they have, on the contrary, shut themselves up in a section of the Church, where their powers of spiritual vision will be more limited then ever. They have exchanged, for a certain show of order and a meagre spiritual diet, the power of gazing over the broad expanse of the spiritual heavens, and breathing its healthful air. Many would say, and we believe them to be right, that they have become the slaves of an idolatrous and heretical system. They owe their fall, as we believe, amongst other causes, to that exaggerated admiration of a fictitious past, which is perverting the perception of so many able men, and an allowed ignorance of what Rome really is.

Many have thought that there is a great prospect of good for the Church at large in this secession. It is asserted that the spirit of honest investigation, and scrupulous conscientiousness, which these men carry with them into the bosom of Rome, must work a happy result. It is argued that, sooner or later, they will be led to resist the duplicity of Romish policy; that they will endeavour, in course, to maintain the integrity of that interpretation of Romish doctrine which they now hold; and that, in so doing, they must come into antagonism with the authorized practices of the Romish Church. It is said that Rome will surely listen to these men in the expression of their conscientious scruples, and that, thus, a door would be open to the admission of that truth, which, wherever it enters, cleanses and vivifies. This is a delusion dangerous to the amiable men who entertain it: for Rome cannot tolerate, and will not hear, the slightest whisper against her authority. It is necessary to her existence that she maintain her infallibility; and it is necessary to her infallibility that she stand by all that is believed and done on the warrant of her authority, however false in doctrine and monstrous in practice; and those whose excess of tolerance for her errors leads them to any other estimate of her real standing are in danger of so near an approach to her heresy, through sheer want of watchfulness, as

shall precipitate them into the pitfall which she prepares, where the depths of her apostacy are covered and hidden by a show of truth. An able letter has recently appeared in The Tablet, bearing internal evidence of being written by one in authority, in which it is distinctly declared that Rome is unchanged and unchangeable-that what she has always been, she is and will continue to be. In this letter conciliation and concession in anywise are treated as utter impossibilities, and the contest between her and her adversaries is spoken of as one between positive. truth, in all its completeness, and positive error, in all its extent. Full well we know it-Rome altered or alterable! The very idea is one of the most chimerical of the many chimeras of the day. Give her but space, power, and opportunity, and what she was in the darkest days of her cruel policy-what she was in the plenitude of her rule and tyranny-that will she be again. The late quarrel between the university and the clergy in France (though we have no abstract sympathy with the philosophes), has brought to light authorized doctrines and teachings, the nature of which ought to make every honest man within her communion hang down his head for shame. Young priests, prepared for the confessional, by a course of instruction wherein the mind and heart must be continually defiled, made to pass years of spiritual and fleshly torture in learning secrets of a wretched obscenity, unknown even to hoary libertines, and then sent forth with all this miserable furniture of the imagination to deal with guileless girls and modest women; bishops, who write these books of wickedness, and publish them for the use of their young clergy; heresies concerning the virgin; heresies concerning the saints; relic worship; gross superstition, and positive idolatry; and not one jot to be condemned, nor to be conceded, nor to be amended, lest the infallibility of the Romish Church become questionable! Truly, Rome is what she always was. She still, in the paintings of the Sala Borgia, the ante-hall of the Sistine Chapel, honours the policy of Hildebrand, and rejoices in the massacre of St. Bartholomew'sday. She, still, by her narrow legislation, crushes all commercial enterprize in her states. She still pursues the same cruel rule with any who offend her; and of late, the continental powers have been compelled to interfere to soften her severities in the legations. She is still what she ever was-narrow and dark; exclusive and uncatholic; uncompromising and intolerant, with all that wears the aspect of intellectual, civil, or religious liberty. Her state, a singular compound of the ecclesiastical with the regal!-her prince-cardinals, at once prelates, and ministers of police and finance !-her priests, polítical agents!

-her professed humility and positive pomp!-her claim to be God's holy ambassador upon earth-and her cuirassiers, are as monstrous an anomaly in the social condition of nations as they are a libel on the purity of Scriptural truth. Look at her in her daily practice, collecting, from the houses of the poor, week by week, the scanty pittance, that masses may be said for them when they are dead: listen to all the horrid doctrine which she teaches about purgatory: strive to learn the secrets of that alchemy by which she is ever able to extract the liard from suffering poverty; and ask her how it is that, whilst the rich man's relatives find comfort in the conviction that his departed soul is speedily delivered from purgatory, because of the many masses that are said, the kindred of the poor have no such consolation, deriving but little hope from the love of that Church, which will not pray the soul out of torment that is not paid for. Rome is what she ever was-she will always be what she is: and it becomes the English Church to know that the contest must be between positive truth and positive error-God's word and the devil's lie. No such delusion has befallen these days as the looking to Rome for truth; and no one has yielded to this delusion, in the slightest degree, without hurt and damage to his soul.

ART. V.-The Doctrine of Imposition of Hands; or, Confirmation the Ordained and Ordinary Means for Conveying the Gift of the Holy Ghost. By JOHN FRERE, M.A., Rector of Cottenham, in the diocese of Ely. London: Rivingtons.

1845.

THE author of this little treatise very candidly avows, at the outset of his work, that, upon receiving it from a learned friend who had been requested to peruse it, and whose opinion, as he admits, was entitled to the highest respect, it was not unaccompanied with disapproval as to certain points, and this to such an extent as to make him desirous to revise it. This intention was not, however, carried into effect, as he feared that in doing so he should damage his main argument; and hence it appears as it was originally written with the addition only of some preliminary observations, calculated to obviate misapprehension. We wish that he had acted otherwise, as it is not in his power to plead inadvertence to the points objected to, nor in ours to support the doctrine promulgated by him. We can only say that his opinions are expressed in elegant and temperate language, and that they appear to have been published with the best intention: more

we cannot say, consistently with our reverence for the Church of England, and our firm conviction of the wisdom of the course that has been adopted by her with regard to the subject treated of by him.

The object of the treatise is to prove that confirmation is the ordinary and effectual means for conveying the promised gift of the Holy Ghost by imposition of the bishop's hands with prayer (p. 9). The objections to the argument are, that the doctrine of baptismal regeneration seemed to be, in some places, almost obscured by the prominence given to this position, and that by it the author claimed for the rite of confirmation almost the place and dignity of a sacrament, while the connexion between that rite and baptism was not sufficiently set forth (p. iii.) He disclaims, however, any intention of denying the truth of baptismal regeneration, declaring that, when he maintains that the Holy Ghost is given in confirmation and not in holy baptism, he means by that term, "not the regenerating power or vivifying germ of the spiritual life, by virtue of which, being born again, we become children of grace; but the Holy Ghost, as promised by our blessed Lord to his disciples, and sent down from heaven, according to that promise, on the day of Pentecost, when their faith had reached some degree of establishment" (pp. vii. viii.); and he justifies the poverty of his allusions to the connexion between confirmation and baptism by the assertion, that that connexion is sufficiently known from the teaching of the Church; while a more important view of confirmation appeared to be kept in abeyance, which he would gladly advance to its proper place (p. v.)

It has been observed by an eminent prelate (Archbishop Whately), that, "as our Church repeatedly and earnestly inculcates, as a fundamental principle, that nothing is to be insisted on as an essential point of faith that is not taught in Scripture, any member of our Church, who should make essentials of points confessedly not found in Scripture, and who should consequently make it a point of necessary faith to believe that these are essentials, must unavoidably be pronouncing condemnation, either on himself or on the very Church he belongs to, and whose claims he is professing to fortify;" and it would have been well if our author had reflected on this truth, before he determined on publication. For, not only are his views unsupported by the offices of the Church, but such of his arguments as he has drawn from Scripture will be found, upon examination, to be nothing worth; and he comes, therefore, within the compass of the observation which we have quoted.

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