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every care was taken to insure that no unauthorized communication with the shore took place. Five days were occupied in this work, and then with a strong but favorable wind the Hope sailed from Port Stanley. On January 17, while off Cape Horn, the French ship Necker from Dunkirk to the Peruvian coast was encountered. The sea being calm Ingraham accepted an invitation to dine on board, where he was regaled with roast pork, which calls forth from him ecomiums equaling those of Lamb's foolish Chinese boy. As the vessels were bound in the same direction and travelled at about the same rate it was arranged that they should sail in company around Cape Horn.

For eighteen days the two vessels journeyed together, but in the afternoon of February 4, when north of the western entrance to the Strait of Magellan, they separated in a fierce gale that lasted more than thirty-eight hours. The heavy weather still continuing Ingraham determined instead of making for either Mas Afuera or Juan Fernandez to steer for the Marquesas. Only water for seventy days now remained, for since leaving the Falkland Islands almost two months had elapsed, during the greater part of which the little vessel had been continually drenched in the buffetting of the gales. He says: "Remaining very long at sea is often the occasion of disheartening seamen and thereby bringing on sickness, whereas only the sight of land, even if no refreshments are procured from it, has often a wonderful effect; it awakens them from a kind of lethargy occasioned by the sameness of viewing nothing but sky and water".

Three months after his departure from the Falkland Islands Ingraham anchored in the Bay of Madre de Dios in the Marquesas. The islanders first encountered were very shy; it was quite impossible to induce them to come upon the Hope. “ Finally only one ventured on board, an old man whose hair and beard were perfectly white. He trembled exceedingly at first and would fain have left us again. However in a little while be became reconciled.” Then, as by magic, the natives lost all reserve and swarmed around the vessel in such numbers that Ingraham ordered up the boarding nettings. Despite every precaution they made their way on board and, with the inveterate propensity for stealing of which Captain Cook so frequently speaks, they pilfered on every hand. Troublesome and mischievous in the last degree, Ingraham who in the meantime had obtained water and fresh provisions, determined to rid himself of these islanders and sailed to the westward.

Late that afternoon (April 21, 1791) two islands appeared under his lee. Startled by the discovery he bore away towards them and soon two others appeared upon the horizon. The next day three more were seen. Feeling, confident that these were no part of the Marquesas group and that they had never been seen by Europeans, he named them after Washington and other prominent Americans. Two months later some of these islands were seen by Marchand of the French ship Solide, who named them Iles de la Revolution; in June 1792 Hergest of H. M. S. Daedalus, the store ship of Vancouver's expedition fell in with them ;t and in March 1793 Roberts of the Jefferson also saw them and named them Washington's Islands. Each of these several persons thought himself the discoverer of these New Marquesas, which are now regarded as a part of the Marquesas group.

But Ingraham was in search of furs, not on a voyage of discovery. He hastened towards the Sandwich Islands. On May 17 only five casks of water remained; early on the morning of the 20th, Ingraham was delighted to see the snow-capped summit of Mauna Loa appear above the western horizon. At Owyhee (Hawaii) he met Tianna, so frequently mentioned by Meares, with whom he had been acquainted during the voyage of the Columbia. Ingraham fills page after page of his journal with the circumstances which led him to believe that Tianna, as a result of the seizure of the Fair American, cherished a desire of emulating that undertaking, by capturing the Hope. Hogs, fowls, potatoes, plantains, taro, and sugar cane were obtained as the vessel skirted the shores of Owyhee, Mowee (Maui), and Atooi (Kauai).

Finally on June 1 the Hope emerged from the channel between Atooi and Oneehow (Nehauai), and the course was set for the Northwest Coast of America. The journal notes all the petty incidents of the passage, the weather, the birds seen, and the day by day happenings. On June 27 the ocean changed from its deep blue to soundings colour, and on the next day the western coast of Queen Charlotte Islands, or Washington's Island, as Captain Gray had named them in 1788,' was seen; but it was not until late in the afternoon of June 29 that the Hope anchored “in a snug cove" within a "fine sound,” which he called Magee's Sound. Ingraham gives the latitude of this harbour 52° 22'. The exact location of this sound is unknown, and it cannot be recognized on the existing maps. Strange as it may appear though this voyage occurred over one hundred and twenty years ago, the only information we have upon some parts of the western coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands is contained in Ingraham's Journal.s

2 See also Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1793, iii, 20-24.

3 C. P. Claret Fleurier, Voyage round the world performed during the years 1790, 1791 and 1792, by Etienne Marchand (London, Longman, 1861), I, 239; ii, 103, 270.

4 George Vancouver, Voyage of discovery to the north Pacific ocean and round the world. etc. (Lond. Stockdale, 1801), ill, 152 et seq.

5 Voyage dans les Etats unis l'Anerique, falt en 1796 et 1797, por La Rochefoncauld -Liancourt, Paris, Du Pont An., VII 1799, 8 vols. 8 mo., Vol III. pp. 19 et seq.

6 Vancouver, Voyage, iii, 229 et seq. ; Archibald Campbell, Voyage round the world, etc. (Edin, Constable, 1816), p. 135.

Nearly six months had elapsed since the Hope had been careened at the Falkland Islands and her bottom was again very foul with marine growth; moreover the vessel was leaking badly. The spot was suitable for effecting the repairs; there was a fine beach, plenty of wood and water, and no Indians to annoy. The little brigantine was immediately laid on shore, cleaned, and graved. It was discovered that the leak was between the lower part of the sternpost and the keel; the latter, not having been properly secured with the usual dovetails and clamps, had started a half an inch and allowed much water to enter. This discovery was most opportune, as the keel not being fastened must have continued to work loose and in the end would certainly have spelled destruction. As it was a few hours work of the smith made the two parts strong and water-tight.

The anniversary of the Declaration of Independence occurred while the Hope lay in Magee Sound. Ingraham says: “I caused a hog of 70 lbs weight to be roasted whole, on which we all dined on shore. I with my officers and seamen drank the President's health, and made the forest ring with three cheers; after which every one returned to their several employments as we could not spare the time to sit long after dinner."

So enraptured was he with this sound that he left attached to the branch of a tree a bottle containing the information that he had discovered and named it; that he had left a boar and two sows in the hope that they might increase and be of use to future visitors; and desiring that these animals be not molested until they had multiplied. Gray of the Columbia was the first to show the Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands how to cultivate the potato. Thus to the credit of the Americans are the introduction of domestic animals and vegetables in those islands. Ingraham dilates upon the facilities of this sound for repairing or building a vessel or for winter quarters. Nevertheless so far his journal shows he never saw the place again.

7 Robert Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World on Board the Ship Columbia Rediviva and Sloop Washington in 1787-9," resume in lubert Howe Bancroft. Hixlcy of the North. weat Coast (San Francisco, 1886), 1, 718. Manuscript copy in archives. Rritish (olumbia.

8 Pacifo Coast Pilot, Alaska, Part 1, Government Printing Omce (1883), p. 51.

On the morning of July 7 the fast was cast off and the Hope towed out of the sound, ready to begin the trading. Ingraham was undecided whether to proceed to the northward or the southward. Cape St. James lay only about sixty or seventy miles in the latter direction and Ingraham knew that on the east coast of Queen Charlotte Islands the Washington had in 1788 reaped a rich harvest, obtaining at one village, Kioo-sta, three hundred sea otter skins at the rate of one chisel each. Yet he thought the west coast also offered great opportunities; so far as he knew no one but Dixon had been there, and that some three years before. In this dilemna he left the solution to fate. A breeze from the south decided the question. The Hope sailed northward with a fair wind, but very cautiously, for the weather was thick. Occasionally the fog lifted giving vague views of points and rocks and then settled down, blotting out everything as in the days of Juan Perez,

Pursuing his course northward Ingraham discovered a large bay in latitude 53° 16', which he named Port Ingraham. This bay has not been identified, but it may be the Skelu Inlet of our present maps; in which event the island at its entrance

supposed to be Dixon's Hippah Island, is Ingraham's Young Frederick's Island, though Dixon gives its latitude as 53° 16'.' Here he spent the night of July 8, his anchor in sixty-four fathoms and a line from the stern to a tree. Two days later the Hope was abreast of a large opening which had the appearance of a good harbour. As they edged in towards the shore a canoe approached them, its occupants singing a song of welcome "by no means disagreeable to the ear.”

Ingraham observed that the women wore that strange fancy in feminine adornment, the labret or staie, which had excited the disgust of Jaun Perez's friars seventeen years earlier, and which had caused Haswell to denominate the inhabitants of the islands as "Loblips.” “Most of the women," to quote the Journal, "have a piece of wood in their under lip which resembles a small shelf, when the mouth is shut; or it may be lapped up against the tip of the nose which may occasionally serve to keep the wind out of their mouths. When it falls down it entirely covers the chin and exposes the teeth of the lower jaw. Upon the whole it seems as


9 Jobn T. Walhran, British Columbia Coast Names (Ottawa, 1909), P. 192: George Dixon, Voyage Round the World, etc. (Lond. Goulding, 179), p. 205 :

strange a fancy as was ever adopted by the human species and however consonant with their own ideas of beauty was to me a most shocking sight."

Another canoe came off and offered to pilot the Hope to the village, saying that many skins of the sea otter could be there obtained. Though Ingraham does not seem to recognize the spot there is no doubt that this harbour, which was at the western end of Cox Strait or Parry Passage, was that called by Dixon Cloak Bay where that trader obtained sea otter skins in such numbers that he could scarce keep count of them, purchasing over three hundred in less than half an hour.10 The chief of the tribe now appeared and was recognized by two seamen whom Ingraham had taken on board at the Sandwich Islands, as Cow, whose principal village was at Meares Bay or Titanee, at the entrance to Cox Strait.

Despite their large promises Ingraham saw only a few skins and those of small value. Good skins were, in fact, exhibited, but when he endeavored to obtain them he found the price exorbitant. He displayed to the chief his trading goods, but "on the whole he did not seem much enamored with them, saying they had plenty of such things, which they had obtained from Captain Douglas of the Grace and Captain Bennett of the Gustavus." This was unpleasant news, and in Ingraham's language "seemed to indicate that we were the day after the fair." This impression was deepened when on going ashore he found many of the natives wearing new blue jackets and trousers. However to induce him to remain, Cow promised, as he did to Marchand a few weeks later, that if he would wait a day or two the whole tribe would go out hunting and procure fresh skins. 11

In the interval Ingraham examined the Indian village. He was especially attracted by the totem poles and gives one of the earliest descriptions of these heraldic columns. He mentions two that were forty feet in height and carved in a very curious manner with representations of men, frogs, and birds. The entrance to the chief's house was through the mouth of one of these grotesque figures. Near the village he saw a rude sort of amphitheatre that seemed, as he thought, intended for exhibitions of dancing and boxing.

A heavy gale sprang up, on the morning of July 11, from the westward with strong squalls. The kedge anchor came home and the vessel drove within twenty yards of a ledge of rock. In des


10 Dixon, Voyage, pp. 201-202, 11 Voyage of Marchand, I, 397. 12 Compare Voyage of Marchand, i, 401.

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