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Contributing Editors CLARENCE B. Bagley, Seattle W. D. LYMAN, Walla Walla T.C. ELLIOTT, Walla Walla
H. B. McElroy, Olympia FRANK A. GOLDER, Pullmar
Edward McMahon, Seattle WILLIAM S. Lewis, Spokane
O. B. SPERLIN, Tacoma
F. W. HOWAY
The Voyage of the Hope: 1790-1792. ..... WILLIAM S. LEWIS
Francis Heron, Fur Trader: Other Herons C. B. BAGLEY
Death of E. O, S. Scholefield...... VICTOR J. FARRAR
Pioneer and Historical Societles of Wash
ington EDMOND S. MEANY ....... Origin of Washington Geographle Names. DOCUMENTS—The Visqually Journal, Edited by Vietor J. Farrar...... BOOK REVIEWS NEWS DEPARTMENT
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
Entered as second-class matter, November 13, 1906, at the Postoffice at
Seattle, Washington, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894
The Washington University
State Historical Society
Officers and Board of Trustees
CLARENCE B. BAGLEY, President
JUDGE JOHN P. Hoyt, Vice-President
JUDGE ROGER S. GREENE, Treasurer
PROFESSOR EDMOND S. MEANY, Secretary
Seattle DEPARTMENT or PRINTING, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
THE VOYAGE OF THE HOPE: 1790- 1792
As is well-known the maritime fur trade on the Northwest Coast of America had its origin in the accidental discovery by Captain Cook's sailors that the furs which they had obtained at Nootka in exchange for the veriest trifles were of great value in the eyes of the Chinese. Naturally the earliest of these traders came from India and China. At that time the monopolies of the South Sea and East India companies closed the Pacific Ocean against British enterprise. Some British vessels, like the King George and the Queen Charlotte, the Princess Royal and the Prince of Wales, operated under licenses from these companies; other British vessels, like the Imperial Eagle, the Felice, and the Iphigenia, took refuge under the flags of Austria or Portugal; while doubtless, numerous others, like Meares' Nootka, simply disregarded the monopolies altogether. So the trade went on from 1785 until 1788.
In September of the latter year appeared at Nootka a new flag—that of the United States of America. This first American venture consisted of the Columbia and the Washington, commanded by captains Gray and Kendrick. After about a year spent on the coast the Columbia sailed for China with the furs collected by both vessels, and thence to her home port, Boston, where she arrived August 10, 1790. Though the voyage had proved a great disappointment, financially, yet other enterprising Boston merchants determined to essay another venture.
The vessel they selected was the Hope, a brigantine of seventy tons and slightly built. In command they placed Joseph Ingraham, who had been mate of the Columbia. This move angered the owners of that vessel, who seemed to think that as they had introduced Ingraham to the fur trade they had some vested right in his services. The incomplete record of this voyage, commonly known as Ingraham's Journal, exists in manuscript in the Congressional Library in Washington. A copy is in the Archives of the Province of British Columbian Victoria ; and it is by the kind permission of the Archivist that I am permitted to use it in the preparation of this summary.
The Hope sailed from Boston September 16, 1790. Poor Ingraham, who had only enjoyed five weeks in civilization after an absence of three years, found himself once more bound for the Northwest Coast and facing an absence of at least three years.
The Hope's course was as usual by way of the Cape Verd and the Falkland Islands. Bonavista, one of the former, was sighted October 31, and on the following day the Hope cast anchor in Porto Praya Bay, St. Iago (Sao Thiago), famous as having been pillaged by Drake in 1585. There lying at anchor was a large ship from Liverpool bound to the African coast for a cargo of slaves for the West Indies. Ingraham dined on board and was surprised and disgusted that at the conclusion of the meal the first toast drunk was to "The Land of Liberty."
After remaining four days to obtain wood, water, and fresh provisions the Hope shook out her sails for the long run to Cape Horn. The little vessel, not being coppered, soon became foul, and twice on the voyage to the Falklands it was found necessary to clean off the grass, which was of such length as to greatly retard her speed. On Christmas day one of the crew fell overboard. Much delay was experienced in bringing the ship to and launching the yawl which had been lashed down owing to a heavy gale. The lad was wearing heavy boots, but had the presence of mind to draw his knife and cut them off, "and what was very singular," says Ingraham, “in such a situation that he should be careful to return his knife to his pocket again." By the time the boat reached him he had been so long in the water that he was almost exhausted.
On January 4, 1791 the Falkland Islands were sighted just west of Falkland Strait. Having no chart of the Islands, the Hope after a narrow escape from shipwreck on a sunken reef, anchored on January 8 at the entrance to Bahia de la Soledad, the Acarron Bay of the French, the Port Stanley of the British. Here Ingraham found a small Spanish settlement, and, after considerable delay, obtained permission to enter the harbour to careen his vessels and obtain necessaries. All his actions were very jealously watched by the Spaniards; a corporal and two soldiers were placed on board to see that the harsh port regulations were strictly observed; and
1 Froude, English Scamon in the Sixteenth Century, London, Longman (1895), p. 184.