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peration the sheet anchor was dropped. Fortunately it held until a line was made fast to the opposite shore and the Hope warped off. This narrow escape leads Ingraham into a lengthy soliloquy upon their probable fate had they suffered shipwreck on that wild and unknown shore.

He realized that if he were to obtain furs he must create a demand for something new and bizarre. He had thought long and hard during the two days since his arrival. He noticed an Indian woman wearing an iron necklet. This gave him the necessary idea; he would produce a new fashion. The forge was immediately set up, and the smith commence the manufacture of iron collars. These were fabricated from iron rods of about half an inch in thickness. Three pieces were neatly twisted together into a circle of sufficient diameter to encircle the neck. They were nicely polished and weighed from five to seven pounds. As a side-line to suit other tastes bracelets were made in the same manner.

The new fashion took by storm both the beaux and the belles of Cloak Bay. Fashionable articles are proverbially expensive. This latest fad cost three prime sea otter skins: a prime skin in the trade was one that reached from a man's chin to his feet and was usually worth in China about forty dollars.

While the Hope lay at Cloak Bay a large war canoe arrived from across Dixon Entrance. Cow importuned Ingraham not to trade with these people, because they were, as he said, bad; but the shrewd Yankee trader was far more interested in their peltry than their morals. However, to please Cow who wished a monopoly of the new fashion, and perhaps also for selfish reasons (for the collars were difficult to make), Ingraham kept them concealed. He obtained almost all the strangers' furs, even to the cutsarks that they wore in exchange for blue jackets and trousers.14 No wonder that Marchand a month later found them in "the jackets, great coats, trousers, and other garments in use in our countries and some even wearing a hat, stockings, and shoes.” 15 But in an unlucky moment the strange chief descried one of these collars. The evil was done. Three fine skins remained, and these he absolutely refused to barter except for a collar—and a collar he got, greatly to the vexation of Cow. Ingraham was constantly urged to take the strangers' furs by force, “but this,” he says, “I did not attend to, as they traded fair and behaved well." This guarded statement gives colour to the charge that force was sometimes used by the maritime traders in their transaction with the natives, and may cast light upon later incidents.


13 See a description of similar collars in Alexander Mackenzie, Voyages, etc. Cadell, 1801 ), p. 234.

14 Mackenzie, Voyages, p. 333. 18 Voyage of Marchand, 1, 439.

Early in the morning of July 15 the Indians informed him that they had seen a ship in the offing. Fearing it might be Spanish, and remembering the seizure of Meares' vessels, Ingraham, after sending a boat to reconnoitre, prepared to slip through Cox Strait to the eastward if his fears should prove true. By the time the boat obtained a view of the open sea no sail was in sight, though he learned later that a Spanish vessel had been in the vicinity. Its identity is undetermined. It is thought to have been one of Malaspina's squadron; but he was not in that latitude until three weeks later.16 There

may however be some confusion in the dates. The following day the brig Hancock, of Boston, Captain Crowell, was seen standing to the eastward through Dixon Entrance.

Ingraham examined one of the native forts, which in imitation of Dixon he calls a Hippah. It seems to be the same fort as that described by Marchand.17 It was on a high rock, accessible upon one side only and there secured by palisades so arranged that if the enemy carried the outermost, the defenders, retreating to higher points behind other palisades, could assail them with stones of which a large supply lay ready to hand. On the flat top of the rock were the frames of numerous houses. Doubtless says

Ingraham, the whole tribe in time of war retreated to this citadel, but how they were supplied with water he could not discover. His Curiosity was also arrested by a strange rock, near the shore, exactly like the hull of a ship. Upon scaling it, he found a “mamaloose Island"-a burial place of the chiefs. The boxes containing the remains were carved in the neatest manner, decorated with sea otter teeth, and enclosed in houses before which stood totem poles. His only remark is the practical one that: “Should any more of the royal family die soon they must find some new repository or dislodge some from this to give place, for it will not admit any more."

One morning Ingraham discovered that the cook, a negro whom he had in compassion for his starving condition, taken on at the Cape Verde Islands was missing. Uncertain whether Cow was privy to this exploit and for a time at a loss whether to use


16 Alessandro Malaspina, Vinje politico- cientifico alrededor del mundo por las corbetas Descubierta y Atrevida al mando de los capitanes de navio D. Alejandro Malaspina y Don Jose de Bustamante y Guerra desde 1789 a 1794, publicado con una introduccion por Don Pedro de Novo y Colson. (Madrid, Impr. de la viud e hijos Abienso, 1885.) p. 181.

17 Voyage of Marchand, 1, 395. 18 Dixon, Voyage, pp. 176-181.

force or persuasion, he finally adopted the latter course, principally as he confesses, because “I had not bought all their skins, and by a quarrel with them, detaining their chief, etc., would no doubt put an end to all traffic for the present, if not for the ensuing year which I depended much on." He promised Cow a handsome reward for the capture of the cook. In an hour the chief returned with the deserter and was rewarded for his trouble; "likewise,” adds Ingraham, enigmatically, “the cook for the trouble he had given me.”

Having obtained about three hundred sea otter skins and completely cleared the village of the least particle of fur, Ingraham sailed on July 19 through Cox Strait or Parry Passage, and shaped his course eastward. Virago Sound was visited, but though there was at least one Indian village on its shores, yet as it appeared deserted, he resumed his voyage along the northern shore of the islands. The next day, rounding Rose Point, which he most appropriately named Sandy Point, he followed the easterly coast of Queen Charlotte Islands, southward.

The night of the 22d, was spent under sail in Hecate Strait, as no anchorage could be found. It appears that, though unaware of the fact, the Hope was, during the night very near the ship Columbia, for Hoskins Narrative says, 19 that during that night the watch on the Columbia, hearing "sounds as of chopping wood, hung out lanthorns,” and at daylight the Hope was seen to northward. Ingraham immediately hoisted the French flag at the fore-top-gallant mast-head and fired two guns, the pre-arranged signal with his friend Haswell, the matę of the Columbia. When the vessels came within speaking distance they saluted with cheers. Personal friends but commercial enemies. Ingraham went on board the ship, his former home for three years, and by the kindness of Haswell, received letters from Boston friends. This was in breach of owners' orders. "For," says Ingraham, "these gentlemen, filled with envy and malice against all who meant to share with them this valuable trade, gave orders that no letters should be borne out in this ship to any one on board the Hope, by which Mr. Crafts my second officer was deprived of the pleasure of hearing from his friends, and the letters intended for him by this ship were afterwards sent out in the Hancock, Captain Crowell, whom, as will hereafter appear we met at the Sandwich Islands, but the person the letters were for, was then no more." Two hours later they separated, the Columbia for the continental shore; the Hope for the southern end of Queen Charlotte Islands.

19 The Narrative of a Voyage to the North West Coast of America and China on Trade and Discoveries, performed in the ship Cod:unha Rediviva, 1790, 1291, 1792 and 1793, hy John Hoskius. Manuscript in library of Massachusetts Historical Society; copr in archives of Province of British Columbia, pp. 63-4.

Ucah, the chief of Skincuttle Inlet, had been aboard the Columbia but seeing nothing to tempt his fickle fancy, visited the Hope. There also he was obdurate until shown the iron collars, when he immediately changed his mind and disposed of his skins. Knowing that the Columbia, the Hancock, the Eleanor, and, perhaps, other vessels were all trading in the vicinity, Ingraham resolved to try the Alaskan coast in the hope of finding virgin fields; but the weather continuing very boisterous, he abandoned that purpose and sailed for the mainland. On July 27, in latitude 52° 15' he saw a large bay with an opening that had the appearance of a good harbour. About five o'clock the following day, he succeeded in entering it; finding it uninhabited, he, in token of his feelings, conferred upon it the name Bay of Disappointment. This bay is difficult to identify, but is, perhaps, a portion of Laredo Sound. Though almost a week had elapsed without obtaining any sea otter skins, Ingraham kept his smith occupied in making the iron collars. Every man having any ability with a needle was engaged in fashioning garments of blue cloth,20 with bright buttons conspicuously set to catch the fancy of the natives.

Owing to the competition of the other vessels his future movements caused him much anxiety. He would have tried a cruise to the west coast of Vancouver Island, had not fear of the Spaniards deterred him. Fate again decided the question for him. A fair wind bore him toward Queen Charlotte Islands once more. From Houston Stewart Channel a canoe came out as he sailed northward, but having now determined to revisit l'cah's village in Skincuttle Inlet, he did not slacken his speed. Night had settled down on July 31 before he came to anchor in this inlet. Sublimely grand and awful was the dreary spot, its gloom increased by the deep shadow's cast by the surrounding mountains. The primeval silence, broken only by hollow surges beating upon the rocky shore and the sportive ganıbollings of the monsters of the deep, inspired him with reverential awe, and led to serious trains of reflection in which he indulges at some length. At dawn he fired a gun to announce his arrival. Whilst awaiting the natives the crew were employed in obtaining wood, for the supply being plentiful, the cook, he says burned it "without mercy.” About noon Ucah, the chief, came out to the Hope, on his neck the iron collar, shining and bright, bearing evidence of having been carefully scoured and polished. He was shown the garments with their array of fancy buttons; but whilst admiring them, he plainly indicated that only the iron collars would be acceptable in trade; though the clothes were of ten times greater intrinsic value. Ucah was insistent to obtain the gift of a cold chisel as a preliminary to any dealings with his people. However he met his match. The present was promised, delivery being deferred until the completion of the trade. Two small and indifferent fur garments (cutsarks) were offered for an iron collar; but Ingraham refused, being determined to keep the price up, inasmuch as five of them constituted a good day's work for the smith. Ultimately he obtained these skins for a saucepan, an article of greater utility, but not so fashionable. Ingraham having in three days' trade obtained their whole stock of furs, resumed his voyage northward. Ucah solicited him to remain, saying he "would go and fight for skins which he would bring and sell to us, but his success was too precarious to trust to.” This statement also throws light upon methods of trade.

20 Mackenzie, royages, p 335,

At noon on August 4 Ingraham entered Juan Perez Sound, at the solicitation of Kanskeeni, the chief, who represented that his tribe had many sea otter skins. After reaching anchorage only one skin and a piece, which were alleged to be all they had, were offered and a collar demanded in exchange. Ingraham, highly incensed, detained the chief a prisoner until the tribe produced their whole wealth-twenty-five skins—for which, he says, he paid them to their satisfaction. We do not know the Indian version. evidence of good will, he informs us, that the Indians forced him to accept a present of some halibut, and on leaving them they sang the song of friendship. This whole incident might readily be given a totally different aspect.

The Hope continued her cruise northward. From Laskik Bay four canoes came out, whose occupants were dressed in jackets, trousers, and bed gowns, obtained from Captain Douglas. They desired him to enter, but it being late in the evening, he thought it wiser to spend the night under sail. It blew a perfect hurricane and the little brigantine lay to under double-reefed mainsail. The tide and the wind acting in opposition raised a frightful tide-rip, the water dashing and foaming in such a fearful manner that it was necessary to get the guns and the forge below decks and to lash down the boats. This was Ingraham's first experience with such a sea in so restricted a channel. The gale died down at daybreak and under the guidance of the natives he anchored at

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