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crossings of the Mississippi and the length of the bridges required, pp. 224-225.

E 14. Report of Lieutenant A. J. Donelson, corps of engineers, of his survey of the Missouri to Ft. Cnion and of his reconnaissance of the country in the vicinity of Ft. Cnion, pp. 231-217.

E 15. Survey of the upper Missouri by Lieutenant C. Grover, pp. 247-249.

E 16. Report of Lieutenant Saxton of his trip in a keel-boat from Fort Benton to Ft. Leavenworth and of the navigability of the Missouri River by steamer, pp. 249-250.

F 17. Report of the route of Lieutenant R. Saxton from the Columbia Valley to Ft. Owen and thence to Ft. Benton, pp. 251-269.

He speaks of the region as being rich in agricultural and mineral resources, abounding in timber and all other materials necessary for the construction of a railroad.

F 18. Report of Lieutenant A. J. Donelson as to railroad practicability from Fort Benton across the plain of the Columbia to Wallah Wallah, pp. 269-273.

H 27-84. Itineraries of the routes, pp. 352-389.

J 39. Report of Mr. George Gibbs to Captain G. B. McClellan on the Indian tribes of the Territory of Washington, pp. 402-434.

He remarks upon the great difference in the geographic features of eastern and western Washington Territory and states that the "inhabitants differ not less than the geographic features. He names the tribes of each section, giving the modes of life, habits and characteristics of each. From the Yakimas he learned the legends connected with Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams. A visit to the Clallam tribe revealed the influence of the whites in giving names to the families of distinction.

“The head chief of the Clallams was Lachka-nam, or Lord Nelson, but has abdicated in favor of S'Haiak, King George. Most of the principal men of the tribe have received names either from the English or 'the Bostons ;' and the genealogical tree of the royal family presents as miscellaneous an assemblage of characters as a masked ball in carnival. Thus, two of King George's brothers are the Duke of York and General Gaines. His cousin is Tom Benton; and his sons by Queen Victoria are General Jackson and Thomas Jefferson. The queen is daughter to the Duke of Clarence, and sister to Generals Scott and Taylor; as also to Mary Ella Coffin, the wife of John C. Calhoun. The Duke of York's wife is Jenny Lind; a brother of the Duke of Clarence is John Adams; and Calhoun's sons are James K. Polk, General Lane and Patrick Henry. King George's sister is the daughter of the late Flattery Jack. All of them have papers certifying to these and various other items of information which they exhibit with great satisfaction.”

J 40. Indian tribes of eastern Washington by Lieutenant John Mullan, pp. 437-441.

J 41. Indian tribes of the Blackfoot nation by Mr. James Doty, pp. 441-446.

J 42. Visit to the Piegan camps at Cypress Mountain by J. M. Stanley, pp. 446-449.

A. Reconnaissance of the country lying upon Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, by George Gibbs, pp. 465-473.

B. Geology of Washington Territory by George Gibbs, pp. 473-486.

C. Final report of Lieutenant Grover on his survey of the Missouri, from thence to the dalles of the Columbia, pp. 488-515.

For a complete list of the papers accompanying Stevens' report the reader is referred to the table of contents, p. v, preceding the report.

Upon the completion of the preliminary report which was made as soon as the governor had satifactorily solved the questions of mountain snows and climates, Stevens reported to the Secretary of War urging further examinations of the mountain passes. Hazard Stevens in his biography of the governor throws some interesting light on the attitude of Davis in regard to the northern route. The following facts are quoted from Vols. I and II of the biography:

“Davis sent a curt order to Governor Stevens to disband the winter parties and bring his operations to a close. Acknowledging the receipt of the order, Feb. 18, Stevens declared that it should be promptly obeyed but made a plea for the continuation of the surveys. He called the attention of the department to the peculiar circumstances of the exploration which necessitated the exceeding of the appropriation. The field was totally new, rendering it impossible to form an estimate. Much work of reconnaissance had to be done, which had previously been done for all other routes, before a direction could be given to the railroad examinations and estimates proper. Unforeseen expenses in the way of presents had to be incurred to conciliate the Indian tribes and an investigation of the question of snow was a vital and fundamental one, essential to making any reliable report at all. Stevens took the course which he believed Congress and the department would have taken under the circumstances. The Secretary's order arrived too late to frustrate the governor's thoroughgoing measures for determining the snow question. Subsequent experience has fully confirmed the report which minimizes the muchfeared obstacles to the operation of a railroad through the mountains. Stevens decided to hasten to Washington to prevent the discontinuance of the exploration. The confidence of the legislature of Washington Territory is shown in the passage of a joint resolution that 'no disadvantage would result to the Territory should the governor visit Washington, if, in his judgment the interests of the Northern Pacific Railroad survey could thereby be promoted.'.... On June 80, 1854, he submitted his report to the department, the first report of all the routes, although it covered the greatest field, and was by far the most comprehensive and exhaustive. Secretary Davis, recognizing that in his measures for prosecuting the survey General Stevens was actuated solely by zeal for the public service, submitted an estimate to cover the deficiency, which was duly appropriated by Congress. Secretary Davis was astonished and deeply disappointed at the results of the survey and was of the opinion that the accounts bearing upon the agricultural resources of the Northwest were overdrawn. In his report to Congress transmitting the surveys of the several routes, he took great pains to belittle the results of Governor Stevens' labors and disparage the Northern route. An extreme Southerner, 'he had set his heart upon the Southern route, and hoped to secure its adoption as the national route, in order to aggrandize his own section. He put a stop to further work on the Northern route, prevented any more appropriations for it, and kept up his fight against it. Nevertheless, Stevens continued the work of exploration, survey and observation despite privation of funds. His office in the capacity of superintendent of Indian affairs taking him into nearly all parts of the Territory ,enabled him to take advantage of every opportunity to increase his general knowledge of the country.”

The final report of Stevens was submitted to the newly appointed Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, in February, 1859. This report, published by order of Congress in two large quarto volumes, as Parts I and II, Vol. XII., contains over eight hundred pages, with tables of meteorological and barometric observations, plates, lithographs and woodcuts. Part I partakes of the nature of a general report following the preliminary report of 1854 as given in Vol. I, pp. 73-154. He gives a most interesting account of his work among the Indians in 1855 and states that he occupied his entire time in negotiating treaties, in gaining the good will of the tribes to give them absolute and entire confidence in the government. The treaty operations taking him through Washington Territory to the waters of the Missouri enabled him to thoroughly examine the mountain portion of the railroad route.

Part I, chapters I-X, are devoted to the narrative of 1858 and give every species of information bearing upon the question of railroad practicability—the passes of the several mountain ranges, the geography and meteorology of the whole intermediate region from St. Paul to the Pacific, the character of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers as avenues of trade and transportation, the snows, and rains of the route, and especially of the mountain passes.

Chapters XI and XII, pp. 196-225, contains the narrative of 1855, and give the itinerary of the expedition from Walla Walla to Fort Benton and return to Olympia.

In chapters XIII and XIV Stevens gives a geographical memoir. The following are a number of significant facts brought out in this part of the report—that the line of the 47th parallel is central to the vast region of the temperate zone, extending from the water line of the Great Lakes to the shores of the western ocean; that north of this is an area which, in similar latitudes in Eastern Europe and in Asia, is habitable, productive and at the moment increasing in population; the region is intersected by the only streams flowing either side of the watershed of the continent of which any considerable use could be made for purposes of navigation.

Chapter XV, pp. 261-306, includes a valuable report on the hydrography of the coast and the navigable rivers of Washington Territory by Dr. J. G. Kohl. The second part of the report gives a most instructive account of the origin of some of the geographical names within the Territory.

Chapters XVI, XVIII, pp. 307-358, cover reports on the meteorology of the route with tables of mean tempratures, between the mouth of the St. Lawrence and Puget Sound; reports on the peculiar features for which provision must be made, tunnels, facilities in fuel, etc.

Accompanying the reports of Part I are seventy fine lithographs of scenes along the route from St. Paul to the Coast, two maps, and one sheet of general profiles.

Parts II and III of Volume XII form a separate volume and include the zoological and botanical reports, the authors and paginations of which are given as follows:

Report No. 1 on botany by Dr. J. G. Cooper, pp. 18-89.

Catalogue of plants collected east of the Rocky Mountains, compiled by Asa Gray, pp. 40-49.

Report No. 3, pp. 55-71, is of special interest to Northwest students, since it deals with the botany of Washington Territory and gives a catalogue of plants collected therein. Dr. Cooper speaks of the remarkable variety of botanical and zoological regions, each distinguished by more or less peculiar forms of life. He describes the great forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees, the plains of the Columbia and the salt and fresh water regions. A botanical index is found on pages 73-76.

Part III of Vol. XII, embodies the information collected by the expedition in the department of natural history and includes Reports Nos. 1-7, on Insects, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Mollusca and Crustacea. Accompanying the reports are many beautiful engravings made by competent artists within the Smitsonian Institution.

The first volume designated as Part I was entirely the work of Stevens, with the exception of the meteorological tables and the paper on the hyrography of Washington Territory. Governor Stevens expected to devote a year to the praparation of the final report but the work was interrupted by the Indian Wars and his duties as congressional delegate from Washington Territory. His biographer, Hazard Stevens, relates how the governor overcame the difficulties, completing the report in a few months, a task which only a man of his remarkable mental powers could have accomplished. “He dictated the whole report. Every morning an expert stenographer came at six; and the governor, walking up and down in the dining room, dictated to him for one or two hours before breakfast. The reporter then took his notes, wrote them out, and had the manuscript ready for the governor's revision at the next sitting.” The report so clearly and graphically written was a convincing answer to the criticisms of Jefferson Davis. Stevens appealed to Davis for aid “on the ground that the valuable data in his final report ought to be published for the benefit of the country.” Davis was magnanimous enough to grant his request. The subsequent development of the country along the northern route has borne out the views recorded by Stevens in his reports. Furthermore, his work was so thorough that there was little necessity for preliminary surveys when, ten years later, the project of a railroad assumed definite form.

In addition to the reports in Vols. I and XII, the students will find further material on the Northwest in Vols. II, III, VI and VIII-XI. A brief outline regarding the nature of the reports with their paginations is as follows:

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