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the early newspapers of the State better than all public libraries of the State combined.

The manuscripts include more than one thousand documents, letters and papers covering many phases of the history of Washington from the thirties to the seventies. The wealth of this material is illustrated by the documents relating to the history of the Hudson's Bay Company. Here is the original plan of incorporation of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company together with many other documents relating to this subsidiary of the Hudson's Bay Company. Practically every important official of the company is represented with at least one autograph letter relating to the company's business. These names include, George Simpson, Behrens, McLean, Anderson, Tolmie, Bernier, McKinlay, Stuart, Finlayson, Mackenzie, Grahame, Kittson, Sinclair, P. Fraser, Ermatinger and John Work. There are twelve letters each by McTavish, P. S. Ogden and Governor Douglass, and over twenty-five letters by Dr. John McLoughlin.

Of books, there are about one thousand miscellaneous volumes bearing on the history of the Oregon country. The collection is particularly strong in overland voyages and travels. Here are to be found standard editions of Carver, Simpson, Franchere, Irving, Ross, Cox, Kelley, Hastings, George Wilkes, Catlin, Farnham, DeSmet, Mofras and numerous other Oregon classics. Of pamphlets there are many of extreme rarity and value. A pamphlet is a form of literature often overlooked by collectors. It occupies a field half way between a bound volume and a manuscript. Its value for history is not lessened because the publisher has failed to provide a binding. For lack of covers it is much more likely to become scarce than bound volumes, a fact which librarians and bibliographers always bear in mind. Mr. Bagley is particularly to be commended for having rescued many such fugitive items.

Other features of the collection are sets of Oregon and Washington laws and legislative journals; Seattle ordinances, charters and early printed documents; directories of Seattle, 1876 to date with other early Pacific Coast directories; a collection of maps and charts; early University of Washington records; some twenty large scrap books of newspaper clippings, mounted bill heads, receipts, bills of sale, accounts, business and legal papers of pioneer days; and fifteen bound volumes of transcripts and documents.

It is fitting that the Bagley collection should be acquired by the University of Washington as Mr. Bagley is the son of Reverend Daniel Bagley, known as the Father of the University and for whom one of the principal university buildings is named. The University also ac

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quires in the collection its own early financial records covering the years 1861-65, when Daniel Bagley was President of the Board of University Commissioners, together with the first class books of its first President, Asa Mercer.

Mr. Bagley has long recognized the University as a logical place for the deposit of his books and documents, but the capital involved grew to a point where he felt unable to donate the collection. The University has now paid a sum based upon an appraisal of what the material might be expected to bring in the New York market. intrinsic value to the State of Washington cannot be reckoned, but it may fairly be placed at many times the amount paid. The University owes to Mr. Bagley a debt that can only be paid in gratitude and recognition of his lasting service to the state.

The Northwest History materials of the University of Washington Library as augmented by the Bagley collection now offer excellent opportunities for graduate study and research in history and allied fields. The document section enriched by the Wallace and Bagley manuscripts will furnish much material suitable for publication in the Washington Historical Quarterly. The acquisition of this collection emphasizes once more the need of a new library building where present and future collections can be safeguarded and where adequate accommodations can be furnished to the students for whom this material is held in trust.

CHARLES W. Smith.

*The Wallace and other manuscripts from the library of the late Thomas Prosch were presented to the University Library by Edith Prosch in 1917. See Washington Historical Quar. terly 8:159, April, 1917.

Just a hundred years ago, at 2 o'clock in the morning of May 8, 1819, there passed out of life the greatest of the chiefs of Hawaii “from chaos until now," — the man who by dint of forty years' valor in war, patience in waiting, and skill in statecraft, made out of a weltering anarchy of contending alii the Hawaiian monarchy which, largely through his own influence extended beyond his decease, held together through three-quarters of a century of weaker rule.

America has become in these last years the heir to Kamehameha's kingdom; it is well that she should be also the guardian of his fame. It need be in no condescending spirit, for there will never be another like the first Kamehameha. Partly because the old days of mingled savagery and chivalry in Hawaii, when la haute noblesse fought like the demigods of Homer, are gone forever; partly also, alas, because the race itself is a vanishing one, weakened by the inrush of the white man's vices, since the day that Cook burst through the veil of protective isolation, and hustled along the way of the strenuous life which has been as fatal as the wars of old.

Kamehameha's statue still stands before the Legislative Building in Honolulu, a building once more euphoniously entitled Aliiolani Hale, but my own mind travels back rapidly over a space of thirty years as I think of the stalwart native whom the artist chose as his model for the figure of bronze. His name was Kaopuiki, and I have more than once made the voyage with him by whaleboat from Lahaina to the island of Lanai or vice versa. On days when the surf was high and the passage into the lagoon dangerous, it was a sight to see Kaopuiki stand erect in the bow of the boat, motionlessly awaiting the proper second at which to give the signal to the rowers. It was then I seemed to see Kamehameha himself as he had been in the flesh. Nay, more, I seemed then to glimpse the spirit which watched and waited and commanded the circumstances of his age till the last great battle had been won at the Nunanu Pali and the Eight Islands entered upon the period of prosperous unity.

It would take far too long to give any sketch, even in outline, of the life of the great Pacific chieftain, but I may be permitted to draw attention to the outstanding events, and then to say something briefly of those qualities which made him great in peace as well as in war, in defeat as well as in victory, in constructive work even more than overcoming almost unexampled difficulties.

Somewhere between 1736 and 1740, probably nearer the former than the latter date, in the month of Ikuiwa, or November, a great storm was raging on the Kohala coast in the island of Hawaii. Out of the heart of that storm, like the babe Arthur borne to the feet of Merlin, came the child who was to bear through life the name of Kamehameha, "the lonely one." Like Arthur, too, his parentage was the subject of scandal and dispute, most taking him for the son of Keoua, while others were disposed to regard him as the child of that grim old savage, Kahekili, moi (or king) of Maui. Certainly the latter took uncommon interest in the child's fate, sending two high chiefs from Maui to act as nurses or guardians.

Yet this interest was consistent with a life-long antagonism, for Kahekili fought the schemes of Kamehameha till the "black kapa covered him” in death. So the boy, inured to the harsher sports and the warrior's training, grew up to take a part in the inter-island and other civil campaigns, and had early experience of the challenges and risks of destiny.

There was for many years little prospect that either he or any other chief would become supreme monarch of the archipelago, and Kamehameha himself had more than the usual share of defeats and rebuffs. Into these contests, monotonous, bitter and even sordid, came the startling incidents connected with the arrival and stay of Captain Cook, terminating in the murder at Kealakekua Bay in 1779. Kamehameha was in no wise responsible for the tragedy, but, during 1778 and 1779, he got out of his acquaintance with the English navigator much that was useful for the future.

Then, with the departure of the ships, came the resumption of civil war, and after the death of Kalaniopuu, Kamehameha was prominent enough to attract the predictions of the prophets and the allegiance of some of the strongest of the chiefs. These latter forced the chief from his retirement at Halawa to head an insurrection against Kiwalao, who had succeeded his father Kalaniopuu as moi of Hawaii. However, the death of Kiwalao only complicated the situation, since it turned the civil duel into a bitter triangular conflict between Kamehameha, Keoua and Keawemauhili. Even while this struggle was raging uncertainly, there were also wars with Kahekili in Maui, in which the latter was aided by the forces of Oahu and Kauai. Certainly, nothing at this date looked less likely than that Kamehameha would emerge at last victorious over all his foes. Yet in time his patience no less than his valor found its vindication. As guardian of the famous war-god, Kaili, “the lonely one" gained a terrible prestige. Presently, too, he succeeded in acquiring at least a chip of the no less dreaded poison goddess of Molokai. Then came the episode when

the forces of his rival Keoua, marching across the lava plains near Kilauea, were slain by the fumes of the volcano; from that moment it was blazed far and wide that Pele, the volcano goddess, was on the side of Kamehameha. Not less potent for his fortunes was his matrimonial alliance with the high chieftess Keopuolani of the line of the dead King Kiwalao. Marriage to the fickle and versatile Kaahu

. manu had already brought him excitement as well as fame; the marriage to Keopuolani allied him to the bluest blood in the archipelago. To these elements of fortune we must add the employment of the kidnapped English sailors, Young and Davis, whose services as gunners, shipbuilders and counsellors demand the heartiest recognition. Nor should one be silent with respect to the influence of Vancouver, who on his three visits to the islands gave Kamehameha counsel, which, it is true, he did not always follow, but was nevertheless of the highest value.

So gradually the obstacles in his upward climb gave way, until the struggle narrowed itself to the war between Kamehameha, lord of Hawaii and Kalanikapule, lord of Oahu and Maui. It was in the spring of 1795 that the “Great Armada" of the Hawaiian alii reached Oahu from Maui, and then up the Nunanu Valley the host of veterans marched till they encountered the troops of Kalanikapule at the Pali. The battle was decisive, and when the terrible carnage of that April day ceased it was clear that the last outposts of opposition had been conquered and that henceforth Kamehameha might replace the sword by the scepter.

The years from 1795 to 1819 were, however, no less strenuous and remarkable than those which preceded. Time would fail to tell of all that the conqueror achieved, of his administration of the conquered districts, of the creation and collection of the taxes, of the choice of men for governors and administrators of varying degree, of the repairing of the ravages of war by the making of fish-ponds and taro-patches, of the many settlements of disputes between foreign sailors and the natives, of the resistance to the aggressions of the Russians, of the diplomacy by means of which the island of Kauai was finally incorporated into the Union, and the like.

Kamehameha had already foreseen, in Vancouver's time, the difficulty of preserving his kingdom permanently from embroilments with foreign powers, and had for this reason been ready to accept the protectorate of Great Britain. But he never flinched from the responsibilities his conquest had imposed upon bim, and after Vancouver's time he made no overtures to the foreigner.

Now and then there drifted to his realm rumors of the new

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