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engineers; Dr. John Evans, geologist; Drs. George Suckley and J. G. Cooper, surgeons and naturalists; J. M. Stanley, artist. Professor Baird of the Smithsonian Institute was placed in charge of the zoological and botanical collections, and of preparing the outfits and instructions for field work.

The historian, Mr. Smalley, gives a concise statement of Stevens' plans. "Governor Stevens determined that the exploration should be conducted in two divisions, operating respectively from the Mississippi River and Puget Sound; and that a depot of provisions should be established by a third party at the St. Mary's village, at the western base of the Rocky Mountains, to facilitate the winter operations of the exploration, and enable the exploring parties to continue in the field the longest practicable period; and that all the parties should be organized in a military manner for self-protection, and to force their way through whatever difficulties might be encountered."

The narrative of the expedition and the results of the survey, together with instructions to the members of the party are recorded by Gov. Stevens in volumes I and XII (the latter in two parts). In the first pages are found statements of the Acts of Congress authorizing the surveys and explorations, and the resolutions of Congress authorizing the printing of the reports. Pages 3-30 are devoted to the report of the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, who summarizes the most important facts set forth in the reports of the engineers of the various routes. Pages 31-33 contain tabulations of the different routes as to lengths, ascents and descents, and distances from the eastern termini. Then follows an examination of the various reports by A. A. Humphreys, Captain of Topographical Engineers, and Lieutenant G, K. Warren, together with tabulations of the various routes, chapters I-V, pp. 39-108. Chapter I, pp. 39-56, deals with the report of Gov. Stevens on the northern route. Pages 109-111 contain notes by Lieut. G. K. Warren compiled from reports of the topographical engineers on the route via San Antonio to El Paso. The memoranda on railways in different parts of the country, pp. 115-130, were prepared in the office of the Pacific railroad surveys by George B. McClellan, corps of engineers. A list of the principal railroad tunnels of the world is also given with data as to their cost and construction. Pages 130-134 contain a short report upon the cost of transporting troops and supplies to California, Oregon and New Mexico by Major General Thomas S. Jessup, Quartermaster General of the United States Army.

The numerous reports of the exploration for a route near the 47th and 49th parallels fill Parts I and II of the remainder of secure any action looking to the survey or the opening of any particular route, but it was feasible to throw together all the suggested routes and obtain an appropriation of money to survey them all. This was done and provision was made for the surveys in a section of the Regular Army Appropriation Bill approved March 1, 1853. The Secretary of War was authorized under the direction of the President of the C'nited States to employ such portion of the corps of topographical engineers and such other persons as he deemed necessary to make surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for å railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The Secretary of War, Davis, had full charge of the organization of the expeditions and the selection of the routes. Early in the spring of 1853, he put five separate expeditions in the field to explore the country adjacent to the proposed routes, the first near the 32d parallel, the second near the 35th parallel, the third near the 38th and 39th parallels, the fourth near the 41st and 42nd parallels and the fifth near the 47th and 49th parallels.

Of the five explorations that of the northern route is of most vital interest to students of Northwest history. The survey for this continental line was the one lying near the 47th and 49th parallels and was in charge of Isaac I. Stevens, an experienced engineer and army officer who had served in the Mexican war. The story of his remarkable achievements in the organization of the expedition is best told by his son and biographer, Hazard Stevens. "Early in the year of 1853, Major Stevens, who for a number of years had held a position in the Coast Survey Office, applied for the governorship of Washington Territory, to which was attached ex-officio, the superintendency of Indian affairs, and also for the charge of the exploration of the Northern route. He set forth his views in such a convincing manner that within four days his proposal to lead the expedition and all his suggestions were adopted. ... With characteristic energy Stevens organized, outfitted and started in the field an expedition for the survey of two thousand miles of wilderness, accomplishing the momentous task within two months. In obtaining assistants a delicate question arose as to the placing of army officers under the command of a civilian, a thing almost without precedent in military usage. However, Stevens found no difficulty in securing the voluntary service of as many able officers as he needed. There is probably no similar instance in our history where twelve army officers came under the command of a civilian." Among those assigned to the survey were Captain George B. McClellan, Lieutenants C. Grover, J. Mullan, A. J. Donelson and R. S. Saxton, army officers; A. W. Tinkham and Fred W. Lander, civil

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engineers; Dr. John Evans, geologist; Drs. George Suckley and J. G. Cooper, surgeons and naturalists; J. M. Stanley, artist. Professor Baird of the Smithsonian Institute was placed in charge of the zoological and botanical collections, and of preparing the outfits and instructions for field work.

The historian, Mr. Smalley, gives a concise statement of Stevens' plans. “Governor Stevens determined that the exploration should be conducted in two divisions, operating respectively from the Mississippi River and Puget Sound; and that a depot of provisions should be established by a third party at the St. Mary's village, at the western base of the Rocky Mountains, to facilitate the winter operations of the exploration, and enable the exploring parties to continue in the field the longest practicable period; and that all the parties should be organized in a military manner for self-protection, and to force their way through whatever difficulties might be encountered.”

The narrative of the expedition and the results of the survey, together with instructions to the members of the party are recorded by Gov. Stevens in volumes I and XII (the latter in two parts). In the first pages are found statements of the Acts of Congress authorizing the surveys and explorations, and the resolutions of Congress authorizing the printing of the reports. Pages 8-80 are devoted to the report of the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, who summarizes the most important facts set forth in the reports of the engineers of the various routes. Pages 31-33 contain tabulations of the different routes as to lengths, ascents and descents, and distances from the eastern termini. Then follows an examination of the various reports by A. A. Humphreys, Captain of Topographical Engineers, and Lieutenant G. K. Warren, together with tabulations of the various routes, chapters 1-V, pp. 39-108. Chapter 1, pp. 39-56, deals with the report of Gov. Stevens on the northern route. Pages 109-111 contain notes by Lieut. G. K. Warren compiled from reports of the topographical engineers on the route via San Antonio to El Paso. The memoranda on railways in different parts of the country, pp. 115-130, were prepared in the office of the Pacific railroad surveys by George B. McClellan, corps of engineers. A list of the principal railroad tunnels of the world is also given with data as to their cost and construction. Pages 130-134 contain a short report upon the cost of transporting troops and supplies to California, Oregon and New Mexico by Major General Thomas S. Jessup, Quartermaster General of the United States Army.

The numerous reports of the exploration for a route near the 47th and 49th parallels fill Parts I and II of the remainder of

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wheat producing region of America and on a direct line of shortest distance between centers of European and Asiatic population. A portion of European trade and nearly all travel to Asia must take a course across the continent and on the northern road, as the shortest route.”

Following the report of Stevens are a number of papers written by the several officers and scientific men accompanying him. The most important of these with their paginations is as follows:

A 1. Report of the topography of the route from the Mississippi River to the Columbia, by Mr. John Lambert, topographer of exploration, Washington, D. C., June 1, 1854.

A 2. Medical reports by Dr. George Suckley and Dr. J. G. Cooper, pp. 177-180.

B 4. Railroad practicability of the Cascades and of the line of the Snoqualmie Pass by Captain G. B. McClellan, pp. 180-183. This report made in 1854 after a winter's exploration, gives a description of the Cascade range and estimates of the depth of the snows which were later proved incorrect. McClellan practically failed in his work on this part of the survey, depending too much on the accounts of Indians instead of actual investigation. In reference to the choice of a terminus on Puget Sound he says, “Seattle as a proper terminus for the road is far superior to other harbors on the eastern shore of the Sound, is nearest the Strait of Fuca, secure from heavy seas, has excellent holding ground of blue clay and a depth of thirty fathoms of water, the deep water coming close to the shore so that only short wharves are necessitated; the banks are suitable for a town.”

B 5. Railroad practicability of the Snoqualmie Pass by Mr. A. W. Tinkham, pp. 184-186. This fearless engineer succeeded in penetrating the pass, reaching Seattle in ten days after McClellan's failure. This incident was the cause of bitter feeling on the part of the latter and was brought out later during the Civil War.

B 6. Report on the practicability of the Columbia River pass by Mr. F. W. Lander, pp. 186-187.

C 7. General report of Captain G. B. McClellan in command of the western division, pp. 188-202.

C 8. Topographical report of Lieut. J. K. Duncan of the western division, pp. 203-219.

C 9. Natural history report by Dr. J. G. Cooper, naturalist of the western division, pp. 219-221.

D 11. Report of Mr. F. W. Lander, assistant engineer, of the

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