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which ended in arbitration will be discussed under the name of San Juan.

GRINDSTONE, in Pierce County. When the trails to the Tahoma Mining District near North Mowich Glacier, Mount Rainier, were being constructed, 1900, a grindstone was placed at a camp in the woods. All the men went there to grind, and the stone being left there the place became known as Grindstone. (Thomas E. Farrell, in Names MSS., Letter 118.)

Grotto, in the northeastern portion of King County. The place was named from its beauty, many of the deep gorges resembling great caves at a distance. (W. H. Bruchart, in Names MSS., Letter 432.)

GROUSE CREEK, in the southwestern part of Asotin County. “The grouse were very thick in the early days when I came here, and there are quite a lot of them yet.” (Henry Hansen, of Hanson's Ferry, in Names MSS., Letter 236.)

GUEMES ISLAND AND CHANNEL, in the northwestern part of Skagit County. The Spanish explorer Eliza, 1791, named it “Isla de Gueme” in honor of the Viceroy of Mexico, under whose orders he had sailed to the Northwest. The Viceroy's full name was Señor Don Juan Vicente de Guemes Pacheco y Padilla Orcasitees y Aguayo, Conde de Revilla Gigedo. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XII, Part I, page 302.) Parts of the long name are in use for geographical names. Vancouver did not attempt to name the island in 1792, but in that year the Spaniards, Galiano and Valdez, repeated Eliza's name as "Isla de Guemes." The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, undertook to change the name to "Lawrence Island” in honor of the famous American naval hero, James Lawrence. To intensify the honor, Wilkes gave the name “Hornet Harbor” to what is now known as Guemes Channel after the vessel Lawrence commanded when he captured the English vessel Penguin in the War of 1812, and to the north of the island he charted “Penguin Harbor,” which name has disappeared, being considered a part of the present Bellingham Channel. In 1847, Captain Kellett restored the name Guemes Island on the British Admiralty Chart 1911. That name has been retained on the United States Government charts, which have also added the names of Guemes Channel and Bellingham Channel.

GUERRIERE Bay, see West Sound, San Juan County.

GUETES LAKE, west of Keechelus Lake, Kittitas County Lieutenant A. W. Tinkham gave it by the Indian name of "Wee-ly-let-sarz Lakein 1854. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XI, Part II, Chart 3.)

(To be continued)

DOCUMENTS

WASHINGTON'S FIRST CONSTITUTION, 1878

Those who have read the proceedings of the convention at Walla Walla, which framed the constitution, will recall that the questions of prohibition and woman suffrage were submitted as separate articles to be voted upon at the same general election at which the constitution itself was to be adopted or rejected.

At that same election there was rather a bitter contest between Thomas H. Brents (Republican) and N. T. Caton (Democrat) for Delegate to Congress. There was great interest in the question of prospective statehood but in the election itself greatest interest centered in the delegateship.

The election took place on November 4, 1878, and about that time the Daily Intelligencer of Seattle published a table showing the population of Washington Territory by counties as follows:

Chehalis

720 Clallam

420 Clarke

4,288 Columbia

5,820 Cowlitz

1,893 *Island

616 Jefferson

1,677 Kitsap

1,548 King

5,943 Klickitat

1,999 Lewis

1,806 Mason

520 Pierce

2,801 * Estimated from census of 1877.

Pacific
San Juan
*Skamania

Snohomish
* Stevens
Thurston
Wahkiakum
Walla Walla
Whatcom
Whitman
Yakima

1,411

700

274 1,042 1,360 2,971

698 5,791 2,155 3,709 1,711

Total

51,833

Looking back through forty years, it seems that the population was rather slender to sustain the ambitions for statehood. The proposed area was great enough. In addition to Washington Territory, the three northern counties, or "panhandle” of Idaho, were to have been included. Those people in Idaho were even more interested than were those of Washington. The Democratic Press of Port Townsend, said on December 26, 1878: “The total vote of Idaho Territory at the recent election was 5,939, against 4,958 in 1876—a gain of 971, the principal portion of which is in the northern counties which are nearly unanimously petitioning to be set off to Washington Territory.” The Seattle Intelligencer of November 25, 1878, copied from the Teller of Lewiston, Idaho: "There were a few who seemed wholly indifferent upon the question, but at this time we cannot learn of 25 votes cast against the Constitution in the three counties. Shoshone county

For

91
105
386
426
115
164
332
1,284

198
229
230

42

8 330 513 207

1 30 30 35 101 78 49 93 339 47 20 20

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cast but one vote against it. Mt. Idaho, the largest precinct in Idaho county, cast but two votes against it. Lewiston, the largest precinct in Nez Perce county, cast but four votes against it. The northern precincts of this county did nearly as well."

Soon after the election it seems to have become generally known that the Constitution had been adopted and that the separate articles had been rejected. The Seattle Intelligencer and the Port Townsend Democratic Press published the vote on the Constitution only for neighboring counties. Each published editorials on the adoption of the Constitution and a favorable comment by the San Francisco Bulletin. Each gave the official vote by counties for Delegate to Congress. The following record of the official vote on the Constitution is obtained from the Portland Oregonian of December 2, 1878:

Against Name of County

Constitution Constitution Chehalis Clallam Clarke Columbia Cowlitz Island Jefferson King Kitsap Klickitat Lewis Mason Pacific Pierce Skamania Snohomish San Juan Stevens Thurston Wahkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Whitman Yakima Total

6,462

3,231 Majority for

3,231 On November 16, 1878, the Seattle Intelligencer closed an editorial on “Our Constitution" as follows: "Whether we are admitted this year,

next year, or at some future time, we believe this Constitution will keep, and that the people of the Territory will not incur the expense of forming another.”

One of the most prominent members of the Walla Walla convention was Col. C. H. Larrabee who spent the winter of 1878-1879 in Washington City. He wrote a letter to the Seattle Intelligencer which was copied in the Port Townsend Democratic Press of January 9, 1879, saying that Washington Territory could not hope for statehood until 1881 or 1882. It was hard to explain, he said, the unprecedented majority for the Republican candidate for Delegate to Congress.

158 230

17 308 167

O O OO
Neseo

459
62
89
432
746
210

118

28 847

89 116 90

On October 6, 1879, Governor Elisha P. Ferry closed his message to the Territorial Legislature by referring to the proposed railroads, to agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, climate. “And,” said he, "if to those natural advantages we present a system of just laws, wisely and impartially administered, finance honestly and economically conducted, a common school and university system, adequate for the education of the rising generation, we will retain those who are now here or may hereafter come, and will soon be fully prepared to enter upon the honors, duties and responsibilities of statehood.”

John T. CONDON.

CONSTITUTION

PREAMBLE

We the People, grateful to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessings, form a more independent and perfect government, establish justice, insure tranquility, provide for the common defense and promote the general welfare, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the State of Washington.

ARTICLE I

BOUNDARIES

The BOUNDARIES of the State of Washington shall be as follows:

Commencing one marine league west from the mouth of the middle of the north ship-channel of the Columbia River; thence along the northern boundary of the State of Oregon, up said river, to where the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude intersects the same near the mouth of the Walla Walla River; thence, east along said parallel to where it intersects the middle of the main channel of Snake River, thence, southerly, along said channel of Snake River, to where it intersects the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude; thence, east along said parallel, to where it intersects the meridian thirty-seven degrees and thirty minutes west;' thence, north along said meridian, to where it intersects the crest of the Bitter Root range of mountains; thence, northwesterly, along the crest of said mountains, to where it intersects the thirty-ninth meridian west;- thence, north, along said meridian to the boundary line of the British Possessions; thence, westerly along the line of the British Possessions to a point one marine league west from the mouth of the middle channel of the Straits of Juan de Fuca; thence southerly, a distance of one marine league west from the east shore of the Pacific Ocean, to the place of beginning—including all islands and parts of islands within said boundaries, within the jurisdiction of the United States.

1 "West of Washington" being 114° and 30' west of Greenwich. * "West of Washington" being 116° west of Greenwich.

ARTICLE II

EMINENT DOMAIN

Section 1. The State shall have concurrent jurisdiction on all rivers bordering on the State, so far as such rivers shall form a common boundary to the State and any other State or Territory, now or hereafter to be formed and bounded by the same.

Sec. 2. The title to all lands or other property, which has accrued to the Territory of Washington, by gift, grant, purchase, forfeiture or othewise, shall vest in the State.

Sec. 3. The People of the State, in their Rights of Sovereignty, are declared to possess the ultimate property in and to all lands within the jurisdiction of the State; and all lands, the title to which shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall revert or escheat to the State.3

ARTICLE III

DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS

Section 1. The Government of the state shall be divided into three separate and distinct departments, to wit: the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, holding any position in, or exercising any authority under, one of these departments, shall hold any office in, or exercise any authority whatever, under either of the others, except such as may be expressly provided for in this constitution.

ARTICLE IV

SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS

Section 1. Every male person, over the age of twenty-one years, belonging to either of the following classes, who shall have resided in the State for six months next preceding any election, shall be deemed a qualified elector at such election.

1st-Citizens of the United States.
2nd-Persons of foreign birth, who shall have declared their in-

tentions to become citizens, conformably to the laws of the
United States on the subject of naturalization, six months

before offering to vote.” 3rd—Persons of mixed white and Indian blood, who have adopted

the customs and habits of civilization.

* This statement not found in our present Constitution but the principle of law involved is in force in this State at this time.

• The idea of a complete and distinct separation of governmental powers seems to be expressed in Art. III much more strongly than found a place in the present Constitution.

5 Under this provision persons were entitled to vote and to hold many State offices, who were not citizens of the United States.

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