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State of Washington. All proposals for construction of irrigation works shall be filed with him. These laws (Irrigation Laws, 1916, p. 116) are easy of access and so need not be given.

The second legislative assembly created the State Board of Horticulture which has aided the fruit growers, who in turn created a demand for better irrigation facilities.

In February, 1904, Governor Henry McBride appointed an Irrigation Committee for the purpose of investigating the subject of irrigation, and recommending such changes in the laws “as may be deemed for the best interest of the State.” This Board stated that since the waters of the State belonged to it, its right should be asserted; and that the State should for the present permit private individuals and corporations to use its waters to aid in the development of its resources; and that the right to use water should be appurtenant to, and, under ordinary circumstances, inseparable from the lands. These were incorporated into legislation and the water code began to have laws of real benefit to the people.

In the session of 1917, the office of State Hydraulic Engineer was created, and on June 15, 1917, Marvin Chase, the present incumbent, began his work. His duty is to supervise all public waters within the State, their appropriation, diversion and use, and officers connected therewith. He shall inspect all dams, canals, ditches, irrigation systems and hydraulic power plants insofar as may be necessary to assume safety to life and property. All persons claiming a right to divert any waters shall petition the State Hydraulic Engineer, and he shall investigate and file findings with the Superior Court which shall proceed as in civil action.

During the last few years the State has shown a stronger tendency toward an aggressive irrigation policy. This was well expressed by Governor Lister in an address before the Third Annal Washington Irrigation Institute (Proceedings, p. 105) “If we could have a system whereby we had a fund of say $2,000,000 for irrigation projects and no interest charge whatever for the first five or ten years—if we could keep that money constantly at work, and when the payments were made covering one project, again use the money for some other project, I think we would begin then to bring about a really steady development of irrigation projects, and it would be better if it were done in that manner than to have some one great big project requiring ten, twenty or thirty million dollars that we were trying to work out and the ultimate completion of which would require many, many years."

Governor Lister had in mind the Palouse country which embraces 100,000 acres of land, 80,000 of which are arable. This land is largely owned by the Northern Pacific which has offered to sell it to the State for $5.00 per acre, and which, according to Governor Lister, (Proceedings of the Third Annual Report of the Washington Irrigation Institute, 1916, p. 105) “The officers in charge say the State is willing to sell at the minimum price of $10.00.” The Palouse River is the only practicable source. Measurements of its flow have been made since 1897, which have shown the flow insufficient, and thus a series of reservoirs would be necessary. Rock Lake, Potlatch, Washtucna and Coulee would be possible, but the Potlatch Reservoir lies within Idaho and there are complications; for action on the part of the legislature of Idaho would be necessary and protests would be brought by the settlers of the basin who would object to having their farms destroyed or endangered. This project has been too great for individual enterprise and Congress has been unable to handle it with its limited funds. Then, too, the Commission appointed in 1918 as provided in Act (Laws of Washington, 1913, p. 298) to make a survey of the Palouse country, reported unfavorably as to the feasibility of getting storage water. Whether feasible or not, the fact remains that there are hundreds of acres that are needed and the State must find a means of reclaiming this land.

The Horse Heaven country offers itself as another problem which the State should help solve. And now (Seattle Star, August 9, 1918,) comes the cry for “Lands with Social Centers for Veterans after the war.” This movement, led by George Dilling and Dr. Ellwood Mead, would have the 275,000,000 acres of waste land in the United States made homes for those who must begin life anew. We may yet have the opportunity to take an active part in making this State, which was once "a wilderness so unpromising that it evoked derision in the Halls of Congress," into the land of fortune and opportunity.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ORIGINAL SOURCES

Federal Statutes

(1)

(2)

(3)

Act of July 26, 1866. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 14, Sec. 9, p. 253.
Act of July 9, 1870. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 17, Sec. 17, p. 218.
Act of March 3, 1877. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 19, Sec. 1, p. 377.
Act of August 30, 1890. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 26, Sec. 1, p. 391.
Act of Oct. 2, 1888. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 25, Sec. 1, p. 526.
Act of August 18, 1894. United States Stautes at Large.

Vol. 28, Sec. 4, p. 422.

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Act of June 17, 1902. United States Statutes at Large.

Vol. 32, Part I, p. 388.
Act of June 11, 1896. 6 Federal Statute Annotated, 1905, p. 398.

(8)

Federal Reports (1) United States Census Report for 1890. Extent of Irrigation in

the various Counties. (2) Bulletin 16, Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the

Census. (3) Experiment Station Official Bulletin, 1903. (4) Experiment Station Report, 1910. Irrigation under the Carey

Act, p. 461-468. (5) Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture and Im

migration for January 1, 1896. (6) Bureau of Statistics, 1901. Agriculture and Immigration. (7) Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1915. Reclamation

Act, June, 1902. (8) Fifteenth Annual Report of the Reclamation Service, 1916. (9) Indian affairs, Laws and Treaties. Charles J. Kappler, compiler.

Government Printing Office, Washington. (10) Charles Wilkes. United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842,

Vol. 4. Lea Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1845. (11) Russell, Israel C. Bulletin of the United States Geological Sur

vey, Nos. 107, 117. Possibilities Artesian Wells in Wash

ington. (12) Report of the Superintendent of the Indian Reservation. House

Document No. 1299. (13) Senate Executive Document, Vol. 5, 2nd Sess. 63rd Congress.

Commission created to investigate the feasibility of procuring

impounded waters for the Yakima Indian Reservation. (14) Letters from Nathaniel J. Wyeth in the Report of the Commis

sion of the House of Representatives on the Oregon Territory,

presented February 6, 1838. (15) Official Proceedings of the National Irrigation Congress held in

Chicago, Illinois, 1911, December 5-9. Donnelly and Sons,

Chicago, 1912. (16) Geological and Water Resources of a portion of South-Central

Washington. Water Supply Paper 316. Government Printing

Office, Washington, 1913.

Washington Laws (1) Act of January 20, 1864, on Riparian Rights. Laws of Wash

ington, 1863-64, p. 113. (2) Act regarding Irrigation and Water Rights in Yakima County.

Laws of 1873, p. 520. (3) An act appropriating $1,000 for the purpose of sinking an Arte

sian Well in Yakima County, Washington. Laws of Washing

ton, 1887-88, p. 5. (4) Act accepting the Grant of Arid Lands and authorizing the dis

posal thereof. Laws of Washington, 1895, p. 452. (5)

Act to authorize the Government to make Surveys of the Palouse

Country. Laws of Washington, 1913, p. 298. (6) Irrigation Laws. State of Washington, 1916. Olympia, 1916. (7) The Water Code and its Administration. Bulletin No. 1. Office

of State Hydraulic Engineers, Olympia, 1918. State Supreme Court Decisions (1) Thorpe vs. Tenem Ditch Company. Washington Reports, Vol 1,

566.
(2) George Barber vs. Henry Isaacs. Washington Reports, Vol. 10,

p. 124.
(3) Benton v8. Johncox. Washington Reports, Vol. 17, p. 277.

State Official and Unofficial Reports (1) Governor Watson C. Squire to the Secretary of the Interior 1885

and 1886. (2) Governor Watson C. Squire's Message, Washington House Jour

nal, 1885 and 1886. (3) Governor Eugene Semple's Report to the Secretary of the In

terior, 1887. (4) Secretary of State's Report for 1890. Olympia, 1891. (5) D. E. Lesh, Ex-Commissioner of County, 1892, in State Horti

culture Report. (6) State Auditor's Biennial Report, 1892-93. Money paid for Arte

sian Well in Yakima County. (7) Hawlett, L. S. Commissioner of Public Land, Report, 1896. (8) Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Arid Lands, November

1, 1896. (9) Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Arid Lands, 1898. (10) Bureau of Statistics and Immigration of the State of Washing

ton. Department of State. Public Printer, Olympia, 1910. (11) Proceedings of the Third Annual Report of the Washington

Irrigation Institute. (12) Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Washington

Irrigation Institute at Yakima, December 4-5, 1917.

SECONDARY SOURCES

Books

BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE. History of Washington, Idaho and

Montana. 1845-1889. The History Company, San Francisco,

1890. DURHAM, N. W. History of the City of Spokane and Spokane County.

Clarke, Spokane, 1912.
HAWTHORNE, JULIAN. History of Washington. Two Volumes.

American Historical Publishing Company, New York, 1893.
Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima and Kittitas Coun-

ties. Interstate Publishing Company, Seattle, 1904. KINNEY, CLESSON S. Irrigation and Water Rights. Vol. III, Chap.

65, Sec. 1235-1286, and Chapter. 70, Sec. 1386-1432. Bender

Moss, San Francisco, 1912. LYMAN, WILLIAM DENISON. The Columbia River. Putnam's Sons,

New York, 1909. LYMAN, WILLIAM DENISON. Illustrated History of Walla Walla.

Lever. MEANY, EDMOND S. History of the State of Washington. Macmillan,

New York, 1909. PARSONS, COLONEL WILLIAM. An illustrated History of Umatilla

County. Lever, 1902. SHERIDAN, P. H. Personal Memoirs. Vol 1. SPLAWN, A. G. Kamaikin, the Last Hero of the Yakimas. Kilhan

Stationery and Printing Company, Portland, 1917. SNOWDEN, CLINTON. History of Washington. Vols. II and III. Cen

tury History Company, New York, 1909.

Magazines and Personal Letters

OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Quarterly, 12:290, September, 1911,

Charles Wilkes' Report on the Territory of Oregon, 1838-1842. OKANOGAN. A Pamphlet gotten out by

the Commercial Club. Okanogan Independent Print, 1910. THE COAST IRRIGATION IN KITTITAS COUNTY. B. F. Reed, May,

1908.

THE YAKIMA HERALD. Celebration of the Opening of the Sunny

side Canal. March 26, 1892. BROWN, JUDGE WILLIAM C. Personal Letters on the Okanogan

Country. CHASE, MARVIN. State Hydraulic Engineer. Information on Recent

Enterprises. GRITESCH, ANTON. Information on Douglas County. Waterville,

Washington. LYMAN, W. D. Information on Irrigation in Walla Walla County.

Whitman College. MCBRIDE, WILSON, County Engineer. Information on Irrigation in Columbia County .

ROSE M. BOENING.

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