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der irrigation in 1902, but nearly four-fifths of this acreage and onehalf of the irrigated farms are in the Yakima Valley.

The year 1900 dawned rosy and red for it ushered in the period of colossal enterprises, and the Federal Government came on the scene as a doer of things, and not as an onlooker. The change was perhaps due to the effective work of the National Irrigation Congress which will be discussed later, or to the apparent failure of the Carey Act, or to the new spirit which believed that government is beneficial and should be active along industrial lines. The surveys made by the Geological Department as a result of an act passed March 20, 1888, authorizing the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director of the Geological Survey, to make examinations of that portion of the United States where agriculture is carried on by means of irrigation, as to the natural advantages of storages for the storage of water for irrigating purposes, with the practicability of constructing reservoirs, under I. C. Russell in 1892, who examined Central and Southern Washington with special regard to its water resources, and under George Otis Smith in 1901, who made a detailed study and discussed a number of available sites for storage reservoirs, did much towards getting this state before the country.

To President Roosevelt may be given the title of “Father of National Reclamation.” He urged it upon all occasions and that part of his Message of December 3, 1901, relating to the subject has become "a classic upon the subject.” His was undoubtedly the first definite step taken by one in authority. This led, June 17, 1902, to the passing of the famous National Reclamation Act. This provided that all moneys received from the sale and disposal of public lands beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, including the fees and commissions in excess of allowances to registers and receivers, and excepting the five per centum of the proceeds of the sales of public lands set aside by law for educational purposes, shall be set aside as a fund known as the “reclamation fund,” to be used in the examination and survey, for the construction and maintenance of irrigation work, for the storage, diversion and development of waters for the reclamation of arid lands. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to make examinations, then withdrew from entry all lands required for constructing the irrigation works. When it is determined that any irrigation project is practicable, he may cause to be let contracts for the construction of the same, payment shall come from the reclamation fund and the limit of area per entry shall be determined according to the amount required to support a family; also of the charges which shall be made per acre upon the said entries. The said charges shall be determined with a view of returning to the fund the amount expended. The entryman must comply with the homestead laws and reclaim at least one-half of the total irrigable area of his entry for agriculture. No right to the use of water for land exceeding 160 acres to any land owner. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to use the fund for the operation and maintenance of all reservoirs and irrigation works constructed under the provisions of this act. When the major portions of the payment have been made, the management and operation shall pass to the owners of the land irrigated thereby. Nothing in this act shall in any way affect or interfere with the laws of the State.

In 1915, the reclamation fund, according to the Smithsonian Institute Report for that year was $100,000,000. The time over which the payments were extended was changed from ten to twenty years. It is believed that the absence of any test or qualification for settlers on the projects or a lack of capital to tide them over may mean failure to themselves and the Government. Unfair benefits are derived by private land owners, though the act was supposed to have provided against this; again it is claimed that private development is hampered by the withdrawal of Government lands. This could be easily remedied and perfect harmony made to exist. The short period in which the settler must pay could be remedied by extending it to thirty or forty years, and not demanding payment on the principal for the first five or eight years, but expecting the settler to pay up his interest only.

With the machinery organized, Washington was fortunate in the almost immediate attention which it received and almost simultaneously two projects were begun, the Okanogan and the Sunnyside. The reconnaissance and preliminary surveys for each began in 1903. The construction was recommended by the Board of Engineers, October 9, 1905, for Okanogan, and October 16, 1905, for Sunnyside; and the construction was authorized by the Secretary, December 2, 1905, for the Okanogan, and December 12, 1905, for the Tieton and Sunnyside ; June 16, 1906, for the Wapato; the first irrigation by the Reclamation Service, season of 1907, by the Sunnyside unit, of 1908, by the Okanogan unit. The Okanogan project was practically completed October, 1910, a year before the Sunnyside unit.

We need not go into the details of building these projects, for what dweller in this great com mmonwealth has not watched them build ? The Okanogan Project includes the storage dam in Salmon Lake and the Conconnully Reservoir, controlled by the dam on the Salmon Creek, two miles below Conconnully, Washington. The Salmon Lake Reservoir is controlled by a short inlet canal from Salmon Creek, and 8 concrete outlet work. Conconully Reservoir is controlled by means of an outlet tunnel discharging into Salmon Creek below the storage dam; it also includes a diversion dam, twelve miles below the reservoir, and a canal system watering lands between Okanogan and Riverside; also a pumping system to supplement the gravity supply by pumping from the Okanogan River to approximately 1,050 acres of land on the sandy portions of the project known as Robinson Flat. The power for the pumping is generated by two power plants constructed at drops Nos. 1 and 2 on the upper main lateral, and transmitted to the pumping station near the town of Omak by five and one-half miles of transmission line. This project when complete could supply water for 10,099 acres. In 1912, a board of engineers recommended that the capacity of Salmon Lake be raised from 2,000 acre-feet to 3,000 acre-feet, by raising the outlet structure and by building a low embankment across the lower end of the lake. The last had not been done by 1917, since the neighboring settlers feared damage to their property by seepage. The distribution system consisted of about forty miles of main canals and sublaterals and did not provide a direct delivery of water to each farm, except where the main canal traversed the land, but the ranchers found it unsatisfactory to construct their own farm ditches, and on a majority vote of the water users in their association, and the approval of the department, the Government constructed the laterals. By 1916, sixteen miles of small earth ditches of ten second-feet, twenty-four miles of iron pipe lines, thirteen hundred and thirty linear feet of steel fume and one thousand feet of minor wooden structures, as headgates, weirs, etc., had been built. What this project has done for that country would be hard to estimate.

The next great project carried on is that known as the Yakima Project. It divides itself into the following units: the Sunnyside, the Tieton, the Wapato and the Kittitas units.

The Sunnyside Canal System was acquired by purchase from the Washington Irrigation Company in December, 1905. The system consisted of a moveable diversion dam and wooden head works structure; a main canal about fifty-six miles long; two main laterals with a total length of about twenty-five miles; about fifty miles of smaller laterals; a wasteway on mile seventeen on the main canal known as the Zillah wasteway; together with other property. This the Government improved, enlarged and extended until today it consists of about sixty miles of main and fifty miles of branch canals with increased capacity. The old system could irrigate 65,000 acres, the present, 110,828


The Government improved the Zillah wasteway and added the Sulphur Creek wasteway. The Snipes Mountain Canal was enlarged from ninety second-feet capacity to a hundred and ninety second-feet, main canal at mile fifty and twenty-three hundredths serves about main canal at mile fifty and twenty-three hundredths serrves about 10,000 acres lying on the opposite side of the Yakima River from the main project. It crosses the river by means of forty-eight inch diameter wood stave pipes placed beneath the river bed, operating under a maximum head of one hundred and seventy feet. The Prosser Canal, diverting from the main canal at mile fifty-five, serves 3,000 acres on the south side of the Yakima River, which it crosses in wood stave pipes on the steel bridge. October 6, 1914, the Sunnyside was agreed upon to be extended eastward to Benton City. This Benton Canal serves 4,600 acres and was completed by June, 1915. Other minor extensions were made from the Snipes Canal and Lookout District on the main canal.

Water is stored for the units taking water from the Yakima River, at Bumping Lake, which is at the head waters of Bumping River, a tributary of Naches River, which is itself a tributary of the Yakima. This was completed in 1915. It covers 1,300 acres and has a storage capacity of 34,000 acre-feet.' The first attempt at this dam had been made by the Northern Pacific, Yakima and Kittitas Irrigation Company in 1894.

A second reservoir is formed by the Kachess Dam, located the Kachess River, about seventeen hundred feet below the most southerly portion of Lake Kachess. It is an earthen dam fourteen hundred feet long; maximum height sixty feet. Surveys for the water storage at Lake Kachess were made by the Northern Pacific, Yakima and Kittitas Irrigation Company, but construction was not undertaken by that company.

In May, 1903, the Cascade Canal Company commenced the construction of a crib dam at the mouth of the lake. This work was completed on June 1, 1904. By agreement, the Reclamation Service assumed control of this dam April 1, 1907.

The third reservoir adding to the flow of the Yakima River is formed by the Keechelus Dam, located at the foot of the lake, six thousand five hundred feet long, with a maximum height of sixty-eight feet. Earlier surveys of this were made, but no construction completed until taken up by the Reclamation Service in 1906.

The fourth is at Lake Cle Elum, at the outlet of the lake; a dam with a maximum height of twelve hundred feet, a crest length of seven hundred feet and a volume of four hundred and twenty-five thousand cubic yards. An outlet tunnel approximately two and one


half miles long is built from the lake to the Yakima River, thereby obtaining 117,500 acre-feet of substorage.

During the year 1905 the feasibility of the Tieton unit was investigated and approved by the Secretary, March 27, 1906. . This system is designed to furnish water for 34,500 acres. This unit consists of a regulating reservoir, a diversion dam and headworks, main canal and distribution system. The regulating reservoir created by the Clear Creek Dam is on the North Fork of the Tieton River. The purpose of the reservoir is to equalize the diurnal flow of the Tieton River during the months of July and August. Construction was begun on the dam April, 1914, and completed by November of the same year. The diversion dam is located on the Tieton River, approximately fifteen miles above its junction with the Naches River, about eight miles below the McAllister Dam site. It is a concrete weir three feet high and one hundred and ten feet long. At the end of the dam on the right side of the river is located the headworks structure of the main canal. This structure is built of reinforced concrete and contains three 4x5 foot gate openings, each controlled by a cast iron sluice gate operated by hand. The left end of the dam terminates in low retaining walls. The main canal of the Tieton unit runs along the south side of the Tieton Canyon for twelve miles, at which point it is five hundred feet above the river and passes through the rim of the canyon by way of a tunnel to the project lands below. The distribution system consists of three separate units, covering approximately 12,000 acres each, namely, the Naches Branch, which waters the lands between the Naches River and the North Fork of Cowiche Creek; the Cowiche-Yakima branch, which waters the lands in the Cowiche ;and the Wide Hollow branch, which waters the lands between the Cowiche Mountains and Ahtanum Creek. This would indicate the great length of laterals and sub-laterals, a total of three hundred and twenty miles. The Tieton Reservoir is to be located on the Tieton River at McAllister Meadows at an altitude of two thousand eight hundred feet. The dam is to be one hundred and ninety-five feet in height and one thousand feet long, and to contain nine hundred and ninety-one thonsand cubic yards. The capacity of the reservoir is to be 185,000 acrefeet. Work was begun on this in 1917, but because of the war work was suspended in the Spring of 1918.

The Kittitas unit consists of those mains and laterals diverted from the Yakima River in the vicinity of Ellensburg. The 62,000 acres lying on both sides of the river are made productive through this unit.

The Wapato unit consists of those mains and laterals which carry

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