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souri enabled him to thoroughly examine the mountain portion of the railroad route.
Part I, chapters 1-X, are devoted to the narrative of 1853 and give every species of information bearing upon the question of railroad practicability—the passes of the several mountain ranges, the geography and meteorology of the whole intermediate region from St. Paul to the Pacific, the character of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers as avenues of trade and transportation, the snows, and rains of the route, and especially of the mountain passes.
Chapters XI and XII, pp. 196-225, contains the narrative of 1855, and give the itinerary of the expedition from Walla Walla to Fort Benton and return to Olympia.
In chapters XIII and XIV Stevens gives a geographical memoir. The following are a number of significant facts brought out in this part of the report—that the line of the 47th parallel is central to the vast region of the temperate zone, extending from the water line of the Great Lakes to the shores of the western ocean; that north of this is an area which, in similar latitudes in Eastern Europe and in Asia, is habitable, productive and at the moment increasing in population; the region is intersected by the only streams flowing either side of the watershed of the continent of which any considerable use could be made for purposes of navigation.
Chapter XV, pp. 261-306, includes a valuable report on the hydrography of the coast and the navigable rivers of Washington Territory by Dr. J. G. Kohl. The second part of the report gives a most instructive account of the origin of some of the geographical names within the Territory.
Chapters XVI, XVIII, pp. 307-358, cover reports on the meteorology of the route with tables of mean tempratures, between the mouth of the St. Lawrence and Puget Sound; reports on the peculiar features for which provision must be made, tunnels, facilities in fuel, etc.
Accompanying the reports of Part I are seventy fine lithographs of scenes along the route from St. Paul to the Coast, two maps, and one sheet of general profiles.
Parts II and III of Volume XII form a separate volume and include the zoological and botanical reports, the authors and paginations of which are given as follows:
Report No. 1 on botany by Dr. J. G. Cooper, pp. 18-89.
Catalogue of plants collected east of the Rocky Mountains, compiled by Asa Gray, pp. 40-49.
Report No. 3, pp. 55-71, is of special interest to Northwest students, since it deals with the botany of Washington Territory and gives a catalogue of plants collected therein. Dr. Cooper speaks of the remarkable variety of botanical and zoological regions, each distinguished by more or less peculiar forms of life. He describes the great forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees, the plains of the Columbia and the salt and fresh water regions. A botanical index is found on pages 73-76.
Part III of Vol. XII, embodies the information collected by the expedition in the department of natural history and includes Reports Nos. 1-7, on Insects, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Mollusca and Crustacea. Accompanying the reports are many beautiful engravings made by competent artists within the Smitsonian Institution.
The first volume designated as Part I was entirely the work of Stevens, with the exception of the meteorological tables and the paper on the hyrography of Washington Territory. Governor Stevens expected to devote a year to the praparation of the final report but the work was interrupted by the Indian Wars and his duties as congressional delegate from Washington Territory. His biographer, Hazard Stevens, relates how the governor overcame the difficulties, completing the report in a few months, a task which only a man of his remarkable mental powers could have accomplished. “He dictated the whole report. Every morning an expert stenographer came at six; and the governor, walking up and down in the dining room, dictated to him for one or two hours before breakfast. The reporter then took his notes, wrote them out, and had the manuscript ready for the governor's revision at the next sitting.” The report so clearly and graphically written was a convincing answer to the criticisms of Jefferson Davis. Stevens appealed to Davis for aid "on the ground that the valuable data in his final report ought to be published for the benefit of the country.” Davis was magnanimous enough to grant his request. The subsequent development of the country along the northern route has borne out the views recorded by Stevens in his reports. Furthermore, his work was so thorough that there was little necessity for preliminary surveys when, ten years later, the project of a railroad assumed definite form.
In addition to the reports in Vols. I and XII, the students will find further material on the Northwest in Vols. II, III, VI and VIII-XI. A brief outline regarding the nature of the reports with their paginations is as follows:
Vol. II, Part III, pp. 1-45: An introduction to and a synopsis of a report of the Reconnaissance of a railroad route from Puget Sound via the South Pass to the Mississippi River by Fred W. Lander, civil engineer, who undertook the exploration at his own expense. In view of the importance of his reconnaissance and its scientific character the Legislature of Washington Territory instructed its delegate to present the report to Congress and to procure its publication as a public document.
Vol. VI, Part II, chapter VII, pp. 53-60: Report on the general geology of the Columbia Valley. Chapter VIII, pp. 60-85, a
a report on the economical geology of the Puget Sound region, including a catalogue of minerals and fossils.
Vols. VIII, IX and X embody a report upon the zoology of the several Pacific routes. "Specimens collected were transmitted to the Smithsonian Institution and preserved until the return of the parties. The series of special reports prepared by the naturalists of the expedition were necessarily incomplete. It was deemed advisable to furnish a general systematic report upon the collection as a whole, and for the purpose materials were entrusted to competent individuals, necessary drawings being made by a skillful artist within the walls of the Smithsonian Institution.”
In the introduction of Vol. VIII is a general sketch of the lines explored, that on the 47th parallel being designated as No. 1, page xiii,
The general report on zoology is divided into four parts:
Part I, on Mammals, by Spencer F. Baird, fills Vol. VIII, and is accompanied by a number of plates, a systematic index of common names, a list of authorities and an alphabetical list of localities.
Part II, on Birds, compiled by Spencer F. Baird, fills Vol. IX, and is accompanied by lists of species, authorities and indices in addition to some beautiful colored plates.
Parts III and IV on Reptiles and Fishes, respectively, are found in Vol X. The report accompanying Part III was omitted since it had been extended beyond the limits originally contemplated.
Vol. XI contains a brief account of each of the exploring expeditions from 1800 to 1857, by Lieut. G. K. Warren, with topographical maps, profiles and sketches to illustrate the various reports and surveys. Chapter IV, pp. 63-70, deals with the exploration of Washington Territory. For further information on this portion of the country, the student is referred to the alphabetical index on page 111 and to profile maps Nos. 1, 2 and 8 on the route of the 47th and 49th parallels.
Although the reports on the northern routes, as previously stated, are more exhaustive than those of other routes and fill a larger space in the printed volumes, many detailed reports are given on each of the other surveys.
The most important reports with their paginations are as follows:
Report of Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith upon the route near the 38th and 39th parallels, explored in 1853 by Captain J. W. Gunnison, who with other members of the party was killed by the Indians in Utah. The report is a detailed narrative of the explorations with a minute and general description of the topographical features of the region from the mouth of the Kansas River to Sevier Lake in the Great Basin, of the flora, fauna and Indians. The report which
. includes tables of distances, altitudes and barometric observations, is followed by official letters of Captain Gunnison and explanations of the maps by Lieutenant Beckwith, Vol. II, chapters I-X, pp. 1-88.
A report of a survey of the route near the 41st parallel by Lieutenant Beckwith, 1854, with reference to the character of the country, its resources and its practicability for a railroad, pp. 9-66, of a new pagination.
Reports and letters on the geology of the explorations of 1853 and 1854, including a letter on infusorial fossils by Prof. J. W. Bailey, a report on the botany of the routes surveyed by Captain Gunnison and Lieutenant Beckwith, pp. 120-132.
Report of the survey near the 32d parallel from the Red Pine to the Rio Grande by Brevet Captain John Pope, corps of engineers, 1854, beginning a new pagination, pp. 1-156. This survey was made for the purpose of examining the military features of the route and made manifest the necessity of providing more ample means of accommodation and protection to the immense rush of immigration to the Pacific Ocean. The botanical report is found on pages 157-178; the geographical report in a new pagination, pp. 7-50.
Report of Lieutenant John G. Parke on the explorations of the route near the 32d parallel, pp. 3-26.
Extract from the report of a military reconnaissance made in 1846 and 1847 by Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Emory describing the route from the junction of the latter with the Colorado of the West, pp. 1-20, separate pagination.
Report of Lieutenant A. W. Whipple with explanatory notes and reports by Captain A. A. Humphrey, Vol. III, Parts I-VI, giving the itinerary of the survey, a description of the topographical features of the country and an account of the numbers, modes of subsistence, traditions and superstitions of the Indians. Part IV con
tains the special geological report from the Arkansas River via Santa Fe to California, with a resume and field notes by Jules Marcom.
Reportof a further survey near the 35th parallel by Lieutenant A. W. Whipple, 1853-4, followed by the botanical and zoological reports, is embodied in Vol. IV, Parts V and VI.
Report of Lieutenant R. S. Williamson upon the routes in California to connect with the routes near the 32d and 35th parallels with lithographs and woodcuts, Vol. V, Part I. Reports on geology, botany and zoology are given in Parts II, III and IV, respectively.
Report written by Lieutenant Henry L. Abbott from the surveys made by Lieutenant R. S. Williamson from the Sacramento River to the Columbia to determine the practicability of connecting the two river valleys by rail. Vol. VI, Part I, chapters I-VII; geology of the country bordering the Columbia is found in chapter VII, pp. 53-68.
Report of exploration for a route from San Francisco Bay to Los Angeles, Cal., west of the Coast Range and from Pimas Village no the Gila to the Rio Grande near the 32d parallel by Lieutenant John G. Parks, assisted by Albert H. Campbell, Part 1, Vol. VII.
Report by Thos. Antisell on the geology of the Santa Barbara Mountains, the Cordilleras and the plains of San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Bernardino, Part II, pp. 1-204. The report on botany by John Torrey is given in Part III, pp. 1-116, of a separate pagination.
In studying the railroad reports one is impressed by the number of men taking part in the surveys, who later won a place in the nation's history. It is doubtful whether there were ever railroad parties put in the field which contained so many future great men. Governor Stevens became a major-general in the Civil War and fell in the battle of Chantilly, Sept. 1, 1862, bearing in his hands the colors of the 79th Highlanders.
Captain George B. McClellan became Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Potomac and later Democratic candidate for President. Lieutenant C. Grover was a major-general of volunteers and a colonel in the regular army.
Lieutenant R. Saxton was made brigadier-general of volunteers and military governor of the department of the South from 1862-5. Dr. Suckley was staff surgeon 1862-5. F. W. Lander was a brigadiergeneral and died in 1862 while preparing an attack on the enemy. Captain John Pope held the rank of brigadier-general in the Civil War and was later in command of the Army of the Potomac. Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith was chief of commissariat of the 5th Army