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KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION
AND TO THE ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS EMPLOYED.

as in

fate.

as in

far

ö,

not. move. tube. tub.

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u,

fat.
fall
me.
met.
her.

e,

oil.

PRONUNCIATION. In showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound inay be expressed in the principal word. The key by this means is greatly simplified, the reader having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. Vowels.

Accent.— Words consisting of more than one syllable receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour, the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The

accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, bull.

being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary Sc. abune (Fr.u).

it is denoted by the mark'. This mark, called an accent, pine.

pound. pin. y,

Sc. fey (=e+i).

is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the o,

accent, as in the words la'bour, delay, and comprehen'sion. Consonants.

Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two ac

cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word ch, chain.

TH, ch, Sc. loch, Ger. nacht

excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth j, job.

wig

syllable is commonly accented. The accent on the fifth wh,

wohig. zh,

syllable is the primary, true, or tunic accent, while that on sing.

the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight The application of this key to the pronunciation of resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utterforeign words can as a rule only represent approximately ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable, are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are and the seco: dary, or inferior one, by this mark ', as in the pronounced in England.

word excommu'nica"tion.

ou

note.

as in

as in

then.
thin.

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th,
w

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. azure.

n, ng,

CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS.

By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress.

Hy

Cs

Ca

.

. Cu

Elements.
Symbols. Elements.

Symbols. When a symbol has a small figure or number under.
Aluminium,
Al Mercury (Hydrargyrum),

written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indiAntimony (Stibium). Sb Molybdenum,

Mo
Arsenic,
As Nickel,

Ni

cates the number of atoms of the element. Thus—0, Barium, Ba Niobium,

Nb signifies two atoms of oxygen, S, five atoms of sulphur, and Bismuth, Bi Nitrogen,

N

Cho ten atoms of carbon.
Boron,
B Osmium,

Os
Bromine,
Br Oxygen,

o

When two or more elements are united to form a chemiCadmium, cd Palladium,

Pa cal compound, their symbols are written one after the Cæsium,

Phosphorus,

P

other, to indicate the compound. Thus—H,O means water, Calcium,

Platinum,

Pt Carbon,

Potassium (Kaliun). . K

a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen; Cerium, Се Rhodium,

R C,H,O, indicates cane - sugar, a compound of twelve Chlorine, CI Rubidium,

Rb

atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of Chromium, Cr Ruthenium,

Ru
Cobalt,
Со Selenium,

Se

oxygen. Copper (Cupra

Silicon,

Si These two expressions as they stand denote respectively Didymium,

Silver (Argentum), Ag a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the Erbium,

Sodium (Natrium),

Na Fluorine,

Strontium,

Sr

smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the Gallium,

Sulphur,

S free state. To express several molecules a large figure is Glucinium,

Tantalum,

Ta

prefixed, thus : 2 H2O represents two molecules of water, Gold (Aurum),

Tellurium, Hydrogen, .

4(C2H220.1) four molecules of cane-sugar. Thallium,

TI Indium,

Thorium,

Th When a compound is formed of two or more compounds Iodine,

Tin (Stannum),

Sn

the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually Iridium,

Titanium,

Ti
Iron (Ferrum),
Tungsten (Wolfram),

connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized

W Lanthanium,

Uranium,

U magnesic sulphate is MgSO4, 7H,0. The symbols may also Lead (Plumbum),

Vanadium,

V

be used to express the changes which occur during chemical Lithium, L Yttrium,

Y

action, and they are then written in the form of an equaMagnesium, Mg Zinc,

Zn
Manganese,
Mn Zirconium,

Zr

tion, of which one side represents the substances as they

exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indi. Thus, 2 H, +0, 2 H,0 expresses the fact that two molecates one atom of the element it represents. Thus, H cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of stands for one atom of hydrogen, 0 for one atom of oxygen, oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two and Cl for one atom of chlorine. (See Arom, and Atomic molecules of water, each of them containing two at ms of theory under Atomic, in Dictionary.)

hydrogen and one of oxygen.

[blocks in formation]

ABBREVIATIONS:

Pg.

philos.

lit.

a.or adj. stands for adjective.
galv. stands for galvanism.

p. stands for participle. abbrev. abbreviation, abbreviated. genit.

genitive.

palæon. paleontology.
acc.
accusative.

geog.
geography

part.

participle.
act.
active.

geol.
geology.

pass.

passive.
aile.
adverb.

geom.
geometry.

pathol.

pathology.
agri.
agriculture.

Goth.
Gothic.

pejor.

pejorative.
aly.
algebra.

Gr.
Greek.

Per.

Persic or Pers an.
Amer.
American.

gram.
grammar.

perf.

perfect.
anat.
anatomy.

Jun.
gunnery.

pers.

person.
anc.
ancient.

Heb.
Hebrew.

persp.

perspective.
antiy.
antiquities.

her.
heraldry.

Peruv.

Peruvian.
aor.
aorist, aoristic.

Hind.
Hindostanee, Hindu, or

Portuguese.
Ar.
Arabic.

hist.
history. (Hindi. phar.

pharmacy.
arch.
architecture.

hort.
horticulture.

philol.

philology. archæol. archæology.

Hung.
Hungarian.

philosophy.
ariti.
arithmetic.

hydros.
hydrostatics.

Phen.

Phnician.
Armor.
Armoric.

Icel.
Icelandic.

photog.

photography.
art.
article.

ich.
ichthyology.

phren.

phrenology
A. Sax.
Anglo-Saxon.

imper.
imperative.

phys. geog.

physical geogiaphy. . astrol. astrology.

imperf.
imperfect.

physiol. physiology.
astron.
astronomy:
impers, impersonal.

pl.

plural.
at. wt.
atomic weight.

incept.
inceptive.

PI.D.

Platt Dutch.
aug
augmentative.

ind.
indicative.

pneum.

pneumatics.
Bav.
Bavarian dialect.

Ind.
Indic.

poet.

poetical.
biol.
biology.

indef.
indefinite.

Pol.

Polish.
Bohem.
Bohemian.
Indo-Eur. Indo-European.

pol. econ. political economy. bo'. botany.

inf.
infinitive.

poss.

possessive.
Braz.
Brazilian.

intens.
intensive.

pp.

past participle. Bret. Breton (=Armoric). interj.

interjection.

ppr.

present participle. Bulg. Bulgarian.

Ir.
Irish.

Pr.

Provençal.
Catal.
Catalonian.

Iran.
Iranian.

prep. .

preposition.
caip
carpentry.

It.
Italian.

pres.

present.
caus.
causative.

L.
Latin.

pret.

preterite.
Celt.
Celtic.

lan.
language.

priv.

privative.
Chal.
Chaldee.

Lett.
Lettish.

pron. pronunciation, pronounced. chem. chemistry.

L.G.
Low German.

pron. .

pronoun. chron, chronology.

literal, literally.

pros.

prosody. Class. Classical (=Greek and Lith.

Lithuanian.

prov.

provincial. Latin).

L.L.

late Latin, low do. psychol. psychology
cog.
cognate, cognate with.

mach.
machinery.

quil.

railways.
colloq.
colloquial.

manuf.
manufactures.

R. Cath.Ch.... Roman Catholic Church. com. commerce.

masc.
masculine.

rhet.

rhetoric.
comp.
compare.

math.
mathematics.

Rom.antiq.... Roman antiquities. compar. comparative.

mech.
mechanics.

Rus.

Russian.
conch.
conchology.

med.
medicine.

Sax.

Saxon.
conj.
conjunction.

Med. L.
Medieval Latin.

Sc.

Scotch. contr. contraction, contracted. mensur.

mensuration.

Scand.

Scandinavian.
Corn.
Cornish.

metal.
metallurgy.

Scrip.

Scripture. crystal. crystallography. metaph. metaphysics.

sculp.

sculpture.
Cym.
Cymric.

meteor.
meteorology:

Sem.

Semitic.
D.
Dutch.

Mex.
Mexican.

Serv.

Servian.
Dan.
Danish.

M.H.G.
Middle High German, sing.

singular.
dat.
dative.

milit.
military.

Skr.

Sanskrit. def. definite. mineral. mineralogy.

Slav.

Slavonic, Slavic. deriv. derivation. Mod. Fr. Modern French.

Sp.

Spanish.
dial.
dialect, dialectal.

myth.
mythology.

sp. gr.

specific gravity.
dim.
diminutive.

N.
Norse, Norwegian. stat.

statute.
distrib.
distributive.

noun.

subj.

subjunctive.
dram.
drama, dramatic.

nat, hist.
natural history.

superl.

superlative. dyn. dynamics. nat. order, natural order.

suig.

surgery E., Eng. English. nat. phil. natural philosophy. Suurv.

surveying.
eccles.
ecclesiastical.

naut.
nautical.

Sw.

Swedish,
Egypt.
Egyptian.

nacig.
navigation.

sym.

symbol.
elect.
electricity.

neg.
negative.

syn.

synonym
engin.
engineering.

neut.
neuter.

Syr.

Syriac. engi. engraving N.H.G. New High German. Tart.

Tartar.
entom.
entomology.

nom.
nominative.

technol.

technology.
Eth.
Ethiopic.

Norm.
Norman.

teleg.

telegraphy. ethnography,ethnology. North. E. Northern English.

term.

termination.
etymology.

numis.
numismatics.

Teut.

Teutonic,
Ear.
European.

objective.

theol.

ology.
erclam.
exclamation.

obs.
obsolete.

toricol.

toxicology.
fem.
feminine.

obsoles.
obsolescent.

trigon.

trigonometry.
tu.
figuratively.
0. Bulg. Old Bulgarian (Ch.Slavic). Turk.

Turkish.
Fi.
Flemish.

0.E.
Old English (i.e. English typog.

typography.
fort.
fortification.

between A.Saxon and

variety (of species). Fr. French,

Modern English).

r.i.

verb intransitive. freq. frequentative.

0. Fr.
Old French.

verb neuter.
Fris.
Frisian.

0.H.G.
Old High German,

v.t.

verb transitive.
fut.
future.

0. Prus.
Old Prussian.

W.

Welsh.
G.
German.

0.Sax.
Old Saxon.

zool.

zoology.
Gael.
Gaelic.

ornith.
oinithology.

+

obsolete.

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et mm.

var.

2.n.

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n.

Scream (skrēm), v.i. (Comp. Icel. skramsa, be plastered is divided into bays or compart- as to shut out an aisle from the choir, a to scream; probably imitative, like screech, ments. The screeds are 4, 5, or 6 feet apart, private chapel from a transept, the nave shriek, &c. Ì 1. To cry out with a shrill according to circumstances, and are accur- from the choir, the high altar from the east voice; to utter a sudden, sharp outcry, as ately formed in the same plane by the plumb- end of the building, or an altar tomb from in a fright or in extreme pain; to utter a rule and straight-edge. They thus form a public passage of the church. See PARshrill, harsh cry; to shriek.

gauges for the rest of the work, the inter- CLOSE. (6) In medieval halls, a partition I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. spaces being latterly filled out flush with extending across the lower end, forming a

Shak. them. (b) A strip of wood similarly used. lobby within the main entrance doors, and So sweetly screams if it (a mouse) comes near her,

Screed (skrēd), n. (A form of shred; a Scotch having often a gallery above. (c) An archiShe ravishes all hearts to hear her. Swift.

word. See above.] 1. The act of rending tecturally decorated wall, inclosing a court2. To give out a shrill sound; as, the railway or tearing; a rent; a tear. Burns.-2. That yard in front of a building.–5. Naut. the whistle screamed.

which is rent or torn off; as, a screed of cloth. name given to a piece of canvas hung round Scream (skrēm), n. 1. A shriek, or sharp 3. A piece of poetry or prose; a harangue; a a berth for warmth and privacy. shrill cry uttered suddenly, as in terror or

long tirade upon any subject. - A screed o' Screen (skrēn), v.t. [From the noun.] 1. To in pain. Screams of horror rend the af. drink, a drinking bout. Sir W. Scott. shelter or protect from inconvenience, infrighted skies.' Pope.-2. A sharp, harsh Screed (skrēd), v.t. (Sc. See the noun.] 1. To jury, or danger; to cover; to conceal; as, sound. The scream of a madden'd beach rend; to tear. -2. To repeat glibly; to dash our houses and garments screen us from dragg'd down by the wave.' Tennyson. off with spirit. Burns.

cold; an umbrella screens us from rain and Screamer(skrēm'ér), n. 1. One that screams. Screeket (skrēk), v.i. Same as Screak. the sun's rays; to screen a man from punish2. A name given to two species of South Screen (skrēn), n. (O.Fr. escren, escrein, ment. American grallatorial birds, the Palamedea escran, Fr. écran, a screen, perhaps from

Back'd with a ridge of hills, cornuta and Chauna chavaria. They are 0.H.G. skranna, a bench, a table.] 1. An

That screen'd the fruits of th' earth. Milton, remarkable for their harsh and discordant

appliance or article that shelters from the 2. To sift or riddle by passing through a voices, and for the sharp hard spurs with sun, rain, cold, &c., or from sight; a kind screen; as, to screen coal. which the wings are armed. See PALAME- of movable framework or partition, often Screening-machine (skrēn'ing-ma-shen), DEA. 3. Something very great; a whacker; hinged so that it may be opened out more An apparatus, having a rotary motion, a, bouncing fellow or girl. (Slang.)

or less as required, or be folded up to occupy used for screening or sifting coal, stamped Screaming (skrēm'ing), p. and a. 1. Crying less space, used in a room for excluding cold, ores, and the like. or sounding shrilly. -2. Causing a scream; or intercepting the heat of a fire. * Your Screenings (skrēn'ingz), n. pl. The refuse as, a screaming farce, one calculated to leafy screens.' Shak.

matter left after sifting coal, &c. make the audience scream with laughter.

Our fathers knew the value of a screen

Screigh-of-day (skrhēc-ov-da), n. (Comp. D. Scree (skrē), n. (Comp. Icel. skritha, a lana From sultry suns.

Cowper. krieken van den dag, peep of day; krieken, slip on a hill-side.) A small stone or pebble; 2. That which shelters or protects from to peep, to chirp.) The first dawn. [Scotch.) in the pl. debris of rocks; shingle; a talus; danger; that which hides or conceals, or

Screw (skrö), n. (Same word as Dan. skrue, accumulations of loose stones and fragments which prevents inconvenience.

Sw. skruf, Icel. skrúfa, Dschroef, 0.D. at the base of a cliff or precipice. 'Grey

Some ambitious men seem as screens to princes in

schroeve, L.G. schruwe, G. schraube, a screw. cairns and screes of granite.' Kingsley.

matters of danger and envy.

Bacon. Or perhaps from 0. Fr. escroue, the hole in Before I had got half way up the screes, which 3. A kind of riddle or sieve; more especially,

which a screw turns, Mod. Fr. écrou, which gave way and rattled beneath me at every step.

Littré regards as from one or other of the Sonihey.

(a) a sieve used by farmers for sifting earth Screech (skrēch), v.i. (A softened form of or seeds. (6) A kind of wire sieve for sifting

above words, but Diez, rather improbably,

derives from L. scrobs, scrobis, a trench. screak (which see), Icel. skrækja, skrækta, to

The word does not appear very early in Engscreech, skræker, a screech, Sw. skrika, Dan.

lish. Shakspere uses the verb, and no doubt skrige, to screech: an imitative word; comp.

the noun was familiar before this.] 1. A Sc. scraich, Gael. egreach, W. ysgrechiaw, to

cylinder of wood or metal having a spiral screech.) To cry out with a sharp, shrill

ridge (the thread) winding round it in a voice; to scream; to shriek. “The screech

uniform manner, so that the successive turns owl screeching loud.' Shak.

are all exactly the same distance from each These birds of night screeched and clapped

other, and a corresponding spiral groove is their wings for a while. Bolingbroke.

produced. The screw forms one of the six Screech (skrēch), n. 1. A sharp, shrill cry,

mechanical powers, and is simply a modifi. such as is uttered in acute pain or in a sud

cation of the inclined plane, as may be den fright; a harsh scream. • The birds

shown by cutting a piece of paper in the obscene ... with hollow screeches.' Pope.

form of a right-angled triangle, so as to reA screech or shriek is the cry of terror or passion;

present an inclined plane, and applying it perhaps it may be called sharper and harsher than a

to a cylinder with the perpendicular side scream; but, in human beings especially, scarcely to be distinguished from it.

of the triangle, or altitude of the plane, paC. Richardson.

rallel to the axis of the cylinder. If the 2. A sharp, shrill noise; as, the screech of a

triangle be then rolled about the cylinder, railway whistle.

Builder's Screen.

the hypotenuse which represents the length Screech-owl (skrēch'oul). n. An owl that

of the plane will trace upon the surface of utters a harsh, disagreeable cry at night, for- sand, lime, gravel, &c. It consists of a rect- the cylinder a spiral line, which, if we supmerly supposed to be ominous of evil; an angular wooden frame with wires travers- pose it to have thickness, and to protrude owl, as the barn -owl, that screeches, in ing it longitudinally at regular intervals. from the surface of the cylinder, will form opposition to one that hoots.

It is propped up in nearly a vertical posi- the thread of the screw. The energy of the The owl at Freedom's window scream'd,

tion, and the materials to be sifted or power applied to the screw thus formed is The screech-owl, prophet dire. Churchill

screened are thrown against it, when the transmitted by means of a hollow cylinder Screechy (skrēch'i), a. Shrill and harsh ; finer particles pass through and the coarser of equal diameter with the solid or convex like a screech. Cockburn.

remain. A similar apparatus is used for one, and having a spiral channel cut on its Screed (skred), n. (Prov. E. screed, a shred, separating lump coal from the small coal inner surface so as to correspond exactly to A. Sax. screade, a shred. See next entry.) In and dross, and also for sorting crushed ores, the thread raised upon the solid cylinder, plastering, (a) a strip of mortar of about 6 or &c. - 4. In arch. (a) a partition of wood. Hence the one will work within the other, 8 inches wide, by which any surface about to stone, or metal, usually so placed in a church and by turning the convex cylinder, while Fáte, får, fat, fall; mě, met, hér: pine, pin: note, not, möve: tūbe, tub, bull; oil, pound; ü, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. ch, chain; ch, Sc. loch; 8. go; j, job; n, Fr. ton; ng, sing; Th, then; th, thin; w, wig; wh, uhig; zh, azure. --See KET.

[graphic]

ABBREVIATIONS:

poet.

Pr.

a.or adj. stands for adjective. abbrev. abbreviation, abbreviated. ace.

accusative. act.

active. adr.

adverb. agri.

agriculture. aly.

algebra. Amer.

American. anat.

anatomy. anc.

ancient. antiy.

antiquities. aor.

aorist, aoristic. Ar.

Arabic. arch.

architecture. archæol.

archæology. arith.

arithmetic. Armor.

Armoric. art.

article. A. Sax.

Anglo-Saxon. astrol.

astrology. astron.

astronomy: at. wt.

atomic weiglit. aug.

augmentative. Bav.

Bavarian dialect. biol.

biology. Bohem.

Bohemian, bo.

botany. Braz.

Brazilian. Bret.

Breton (=Armoric). Bulg:

Bulgarian. Catal.

Catalonian. caip.

carpentry. caus.

causative. Celt.

Celtic. Chal.

Chaldee. chem.

chemistry. chron.

chronology. Class.

Classical (=Greek and

Latin). cog.

cognate, cognate with. colloq.

colloquial. com.

commerce, comp.

compare. compar.

comparative. conch.

conchology. conj. .

conjunction. contr.

contraction, contracted. Corn.

Cornish. crystal.

crystallography. Cym.

Cymric. D.

Dutch. Dan.

Danish. dat.

dative. def.

definite. deriv.

derivation. dial,

dialect, dialectal. dim.

diminutive. distrib.

distributive. dram.

drama, dramatic. dyn.

dynamics. E., Eng.

English. eccles.

ecclesiastical. Egypt.

Egyptian. elect.

electricity. engin.

engineering engr.

engraving: entom,

entomology. Eth.

Ethiopic. ethnography,ethnology.

etymology. Ear.

European exclam.

exclamation. fem.

feminine. tiy.

figuratively. Fi.

Flemish. fort.

fortification.

French. freq.

frequentative. Fris.

Frisian.

future. G.

German. Gael.

Gaelic.

galv. stands for galvanism. genit.

genitive. geog

geography geol.

geology. geom.

geometry. Goth.

Gothic. Gr.

Greek. gram.

grammar. gun,

gunnery. Heb.

Hebrew. her.

heraldry. Hind.

Hindostanee, Hindu, or hist,

history. (Hindi. hort.

horticulture. Hung.

Hungarian. hydros.

hydrostatics. Icel.

Icelandic. ich.

ichthyology. imper.

imperative. imperf. imperfect. impers,

impersonal. incept.

inceptive. ind.

indicative. Ind.

Indic. indef.

indefinite. Indo-Eur. Indo-European. inf.

infinitive. intens.

intensive. interj.

interjection. Ir.

Irish. Iran.

Iranian. It.

Italian. L.

Latin. lan.

language. Lett.

Lettish. L.G.

Low German. lit.

literal, literally. Lith.

Lithuanian. L.L.

late Latin, low do. mach.

machinery. manuf.

manufactures. masc.

masculine. math.

mathematics. mech.

mechanics. med.

medicine. Med. L.

Medieval Latin.

mensuration. metal.

metallurgy. metaph. metaphysics. meteor.

meteorology. Mex.

Mexican. M.H.G.

Middle High German. milit.

military. mineral. mineralogy. Mod, Fr. Modern French, myth.

mythology. N.

Norse, Norwegian. N. nat, hist.

natural history. nat. order, natural order. nat. phil. natural philosophy. naut.

nautical. navig.

navigation. neg.

negative. neut.

neuter. N.H.G.

New High German. nom.

nominative. Norm.

Norman. North. E. Northern English. nimis.

numismatics. obj.

objective. obs.

obsolete. obsoles.

obsolescent. 0. Bulg. Old Bulgarian (Ch.Slavic). 0.E.

Old English (i.e. English

between A. Saxon and

Modern English). 0. Fr.

Old French. 0.H.G.

Old High German, 0. Prus.

Old Prussian. 0.Sax.

Old Saxon. ornith.

oinithology.
(vi)

p. stands for participle. palæon. palæontology. part.

participle. pass.

passive, pathol.

pathology. pejor.

pejorative. Per.

Persic or Persian. perf.

perfect. pers,

person, persp.

perspective. Peruv.

Peruvian. Pg.

Portuguese. phar.

pharmacy. philol.

philology. philos.

philosophy. Phen.

Phnician. photog.

photography. phren.

phrenology. phys. geog.

physical geography. . physiol. physiology. pl.

plural. PI.D.

Platt Dutch. pneum.

pneumatics.

poetical. Pol.

Polish. pol. econ. political economy. poss.

possessive. pp.

past participle. Ppr.

present participle.

Provençal. prep.

preposition. pres.

present. pret.

preterite. priv.

privative. pron. pronunciation, pronounced. pron.

pronoun. pros.

prosody. prov:

provincial. psychol. psychology mail.

railways. R. Cath.Ch.... Roman Catholic Church, rhet.

rhetoric. Rom.antiq.... Roman antiquities. Rus.

Russian. Sax.

Saxon. Sc.

Scotch. Scand.

Scandinavian. Scrip.

Scripture. sculp.

sculpture. Sem.

Semitic. Serv.

Servian. sing.

singular. Skr.

Sanskrit. Slav.

Slavonic, Slavic.

Spanish. sp. gr.

specific gravity. stat.

statute, subj.

subjunctive. superl.

superlative. Suny.

surgery surv.

surveying

Swedish. sym.

symbol. syn.

synonym Syr.

Syriac. Tart.

Tartar. technol.

technology. trleg.

telegraphy. term.

termination. Teut.

Teutonic. theol.

theology. toricol,

toxicology. trigon.

trigonometry. Turk.

Turkish. typog.

typography.

variety (of species). w.i.

verb intransitive. 2'.n.

verb neuter. v.t.

verb transitive. W.

Welsh. cool.

zoology. +

obsolete.

mensur.

Sp.

noun.

Sw.

et im.

var.

Fr.

fut.

[blocks in formation]

n.

Scream (skrēm), v.i. (Comp. Icel. skramsa, be plastered is divided into bays or compart- as to shut out an aisle from the choir, a to scream; probably imitative, like screech, ments. The screeds are 4, 5, or 6 feet apart, private chapel from a transept, the nave shriek, &c.] 1. To cry out with a shrill according to circumstances, and are accur- from the choir, the high altar from the east voice; to utter a sudden, sharp outcry, as ately formed in the same plane by the plumb- end of the building, or an altar tomb from in a fright or in extreme pain; to utter a rule and straight-edge. They thus form a public passage of the church. See PARshrill, harsh cry; to shriek.

gauges for the rest of the work, the inter- CLOSE. *) In medieval halls, a partition I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. spaces being latterly filled out flush with extending across the lower end, forming a

Shak. them. (b) A strip of wood similarly used. lobby within the main entrance doors, and So sweetly screams if it (a mouse) comes near her,

having often a gallery above. (c) An archiShe ravishes all hearts to hear her.

Screed (skrēd), n. (A form of shred; a Scotch
Swift.

word. See above.] 1. The act of rending tecturally decorated wall, inclosing a court2. To give out a shrill sound; as, the railway or tearing; a rent; a tear. Burns.—2. That yard in front of a building.–5. Naut. the whistle screamed.

which is rent or torn off; as, a screed of cloth. name given to a piece of canvas hung round Scream (skrēm), n. 1. A shriek, or sharp 3. A piece of poetry or prose; a harangue; a a berth for warmth and privacy. shrill cry uttered suddenly, as in terror or long tirade upon any subject. - A screed o' Screen (skrén), v.t. [From the noun.] 1. To in pain. -Screams of horror rend the af. drink, a drinking bout. Sir W. Scott. shelter or protect from inconvenience, infrighted skies.' Pope. -2. A sharp, harsh Screed (skrēd), v. i. (Sc. See the noun.] 1. To jury, or danger; to cover; to conceal; as, sound. “The scream of a madden'd beach

rend; to tear.–2. To repeat glibly; to dash our houses and garinents screen us from dragg'd down by the wave.' Tennyson. off with spirit. Burns.

cold; an umbrella screens us from rain and Screamer (skrēm'èr), n. 1. One that screams.

Screeket (skrēk), v.i. Same as Screak. the sun's rays; to screen a man from punish2. A name given to two species of South Screen (skren), n. (O.Fr. escren, escrein, ment. American grallatorial birds, the Palamedea escran, Fr. écran, a screen, perhaps from

Back'd with a ridge of hills, cornuta and Chauna chavaria. They are 0.H.G. skranna, a bench, a table.] 1. An

That screen'd the fruits of th' earth. Milton. remarkable for their harsh and discordant

appliance or article that shelters from the 2. To sift or riddle by passing through a voices, and for the sharp hard spurs with sun, rain, cold, &c., or from sight; a kind screen; as, to screen coal. which the wings are armed. See PALAME- of movable framework or partition, often Screening-machine (skrēn'ing-ma-shēn), DEA.-3. Something very great; a whacker; hinged so that it may be opened out more An apparatus, having a rotary motion, a bouncing fellow or girl. [Slang. )

or less as required, or be folded up to occupy used for screening or sifting coal, stamped Screaming (skrēm'ing), p. and a. 1. Crying less space, used in a room for excluding cold, ores, and the like. or sounding shrilly. -2. Causing a scream; or intercepting the heat of a fire. Your Screenings (skrēn'ingz), n. pl. The refuse as, a screaming farce, one calculated to leafy screens.' Shak.

matter left after sifting coal, &c. make the audience scream with laughter.

Our fathers knew the value of a screen

Screigh-of-day (skrhēc-ov-dá), n. (Comp. D. Scree (skrē), n. (Comp. Icel. skritha, a lana From sultry suns.

Cowper. Icrieken van den dag, peep of day; krieken, slip on a hill-side.) A small stone or pebble; 2. That which shelters or protects from to peep, to chirp.] The first dawn. [Scotch.) in the pl. debris of rocks; shingle; a talus;

danger; that which hides or conceals, or Screw (skrö), n. (Same word as Dan. skrue, accumulations of loose stones and fragments which prevents inconvenience.

Sw. skruf, Icel. skrúfa, D schroef, 0.D. at the base of a cliff or precipice. Grey

Some ambitious men seem as screens to princes in

schroeve, L. G. schruwe, G. schraube, a screw. cairns and screes of granite.' Kingsley.

matters of danger and envy.

Bacon . Or perhaps from 0. Fr. escroue, the hole in Before I had got half way up the screes, which

which a screw turns, Mod. Fr. écrou, which gave way and rattled beneath ine at every step. 3. A kind of riddle or sieve; more especially,

Littré regards as from one or other of the Southey. (a) a sieve used by farmers for sifting earth

above words, but Diez, rather improbably, Screech (skrēch), v.i. (A softened form of or seeds. (b) A kind of wire sieve for sifting

derives from L. scrobs, scrobis, a trench. screak (which see), Icel. skrækja, skrækta, to

The word does not appear very early in Engscreech, skrækr, a screech, Sw. skrika, Dan.

lish. Shakspere uses the verb, and no doubt skrige, to screech: an imitative word; comp.

the noun was familiar before this.] 1. A Sc. scraich, Ga sgreach, W. ysgrechiaw, to

cylinder of wood or metal having a spiral screech.) To cry out with a sharp, shrill

ridge (the thread) winding round it in a voice; to scream; to shriek. The screech

uniform manner, so that the successive turns owl screeching loud.' Shak.

are all exactly the same distance from each These birds of night . . . screeched and clapped

other, and a corresponding spiral groove is their wings for a while. Bolingbroke.

produced. The screw forms one of the six Screech (skrēch), n. 1. A sharp, shrill cry,

mechanical powers, and is simply a modifisuch as is uttered in acute pain or in a sud

cation of the inclined plane, as may be den fright; a harsh scream. The birds

shown by cutting a piece of paper in the obscene ... with hollow screeches.' Pope.

form of a right-angled triangle, so as to reA screech or shriek is the cry of terror or passion;

present an inclined plane, and applying it perhaps it may be called sharper and harsher than a

to a cylinder with the perpendicular side scream; but, in human beings especially, scarcely to be distinguished from it.

of the triangle, or altitude of the plane, paC. Richardson.

rallel to the axis of the cylinder. If the 2. A sharp, shrill noise; as, the screech of a

triangle be then rolled about the cylinder, railway whistle.

Builder's Screen.

the hypotenuse which represents the length Screech-owl (skrēch'oul), n. An owl that

of the

plane will trace upon the surface of utters a harsh, disagreeable cry at night, for- sand, lime, gravel, &c. It consists of a rect- the cylinder a spiral line, which, if we supmerly supposed to be ominous of evil; an angular wooden frame with wires travers- pose it to have thickness, and to protrude owl, as the barn - owl, that screeches, in ing it longitudinally at regular intervals. from the surface of the cylinder, will form opposition to one that hoots.

It is propped up in nearly a vertical posi- the thread of the screw. The energy of the The owl at Freedom's window scream'd,

tion, and the materials to be sifted or power applied to the screw thus formed is The screech-owl, prophet dire. Churchill.

screened are thrown against it, when the transmitted by means of a hollow cylinder Screechy (skrēch'i). a. Shrill and harsh ; finer particles pass through and the coarser of equal diameter with the solid or convex like a screech, Cockburn.

remain. A similar apparatus is used for one, and having a spiral channel cut on its Screed (skrēd), n. (Prov. E. screed, a shred, separating lump coal from the small coal inner surface so as to correspond exactly to A. Sax. screade, a shred. See next entry.) In and dross, and also for sorting crushed ores, the thread raised upon the solid cylinder. plastering, (a) a strip of mortar of about 6 or &c. – 4. In arch. (a) a partition of wood. Hence the one will work within the other, 8 inches wide, by which any surface about to stone, or metal, usually so placed in a church and by turning the convex cylinder, while Fåte, får, fat, fall; mė, met, hér: pine. pin: note, not, möve: tūbe, tub, bull; oil. pound; ü, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. ch, chain; ch, Sc. loch; g, go; j, job; n, Fr. ton; ng, sing; TH, then; th, thin; w, wig; wh, whig; zh, azure.-See KET.

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