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ries of Kansas and Nebraska, he found must involve her people in suffering and himself in the midst of the violent agi- shame.” tation to which that part of the country Again he wrote, “Our cause is to had become exposed. His sympathies honor labor and elevate the laborer ; our were at once aroused in favor of the candidate, Abe Lincoln.” In the followprinciples of the free-soilers, and with ing exposition of the degradation of such fervor, that he was induced to take labor by slavery, he shows a thoughtful up the pen, though more used to the consideration of the subject. sword, in their defence. While station- "In countries,” he wrote, “where ed at Camp Riley, in Kansas, in the slavery exists, labor devolves for the summer and autumn of 1860, he wrote | most part upon the slaves, and is therea series of anonymous articles for the fore identified with slavery; and the Manhattan Express, a weekly journal white free laborer being valued by slavepublished at one of the neighboring owners, who control public opinion, only settlements.

as so much physical organism (bone, His private as well as his published muscle, etc.) for producing means, is writings show him to have been an degraded to the level of the slave, so carnest advocate of the Republican far as his influence and moral status go, cause. Of the rebellious designs of the and is even lower in physical comforts, cotton States he seemed to have been for the want of the intelligent care the fully conscious, and at the same time slave-owner bestows upon the slave, and persuaded that they could be thwarted of which he, the free laborer, has beby a prompt exercise of executive au- come incompetent by a mental depravity thority. “There seems to be," he corresponding to his moral degradation. wrote, "little doubt that several of the This is a truth of philosophy and politSouthern States will precipitate them- ical economy, that man rises to a posiselves into disaster and disgrace, if al- tion corresponding to the rights and lowed to do so ; but this can be pre responsibilities devolved upon him ; and vented by the President, if he chooses therefore the only true way to make a to exercise his authority as becomes the man is to invest him with the rights, chief magistrate of our great and power- duties, and responsibilities of a man, ful country. But unfortunately, Mr. and he generally rises in intellectual Buchanan seems to regard himself as and moral greatness to a position corelected to submit tremblingly to any and responding to these circumstances; and every demand of the South, and I fear it is the very want of them that makes he can never rouse himself to take such the free non-slaveholding persons of the action as our emergencies now require, slave States so degraded and imbecile, as due to the country from him. Time that the slaves themselves feel a conmust show : the only thing safe to pre- scious superiority, in which they are dict is, that the conduct of the South | encouraged by their owners, to the extent of thinking it better to be a nigger This was the vessel which had been than a poor white man; and this is done employed by the secessionists to conto pacify the slave and thus secure this vey the arms from Baton Rouge, which artificial system of securing the products Lyon had seized after capturing Camp of labor to the non-laboring classes, and Jackson. He also succeeded, in spite also, by degrading white laborers, pre- of considerable resistance, in seizing vent their industry from competing with five thousand pounds of lead at Ironslave labor, to reduce thereby the value ton, on the Iron Mountain Railroad, of slaves."

while in transit to the Confederates in From Kansas, Captain Lyon was the South. transferred to the command of the ar- Price, the military leader of the senal at St. Louis, where he was when secessionists, was evidently disturbed the present civil war broke out. His | by the recall of his unsuspecting ally, prompt action in surrounding and cap- and the transfer of power to the hands turing Camp Jackson, and his active of the less confiding and more decidmeasures toward checking the secessioned Lyon. Price, however, strove to movement at Liberty and Potosi, have wheedle him as he had done his predebeen already recorded. His subsequent cessor, by fair words. In a proclamation action while commanding the Federal issued to the brigadier-generals comforces in Missouri, as a brigadier-general, manding the various military districts was characterized by a spirit and of Missouri, he expressed the desire promptitude which gave promise of that the State, in accordance with the security to the State and a certainty of Harney league, should exercise the right renown to himself, which have won for of determining its position in the conhim the gratitude of the country, and test, without the aid of any military fixed him forever in its annals as among force on either side. At the same time, the bravest and most devoted of its alluding to the change in the command heroes and patriots.

of the Federal forces, he said, with General Lyon, even while General evident anxiety, though affected confiMay Harney was in command, seeing dence, “The Government has thought

22. how that officer had been deceived proper to remove General Harney from by the secession leaders, who, while the command of the Department of the pretending peace, were preparing for West ; but as the successor of General war, did not intermit his vigilance for a Harney will certainly consider himself moment. He seized, on the very next and his Government in honor bound to day after the signing of the Harney carry out this agreement in good faith, league, the steamer J. C. Swan, at I feel assured that his removal should a point thirty miles below St. Louis, 1 give no cause of uneasiness to our citiand caused her to be brought up and zens for the security of their liberties secured at the arsenal in the city. , and property. I intend on my part to

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adhere both in its spirit and to the Federal Government should enjoy the letter. The rumor in circulation, that unrestricted right to move and station it is the intention of the officers now in its troops throughout the State whencommand of this Department to disarm ever and wherever, in the opinion of those of our citizens who do not agree its officers, it might be necessary, either in opinion with the administration at for the protection of loyal subjects of Washington, and put arms in the hands the Federal Government or for repelling of those who, in some localities of this invasion. State, are supposed to sympathize with General Lyon in this memorandum the views of the Federal Government, specified in detail his answer to June are, I trust, unfounded. The purpose | the Governor's wily proposition. of such a movement could not be mis-“General Lyon,” he wrote, “sets forth understood, and it would not only be a as his conviction that if the Government violation of the agreement referred to, withdrew its forces entirely, secret and and an equally plain violation of our subtle measures would be resorted to to constitutional right, but a gross indignity provide arms and effect organizations to the citizens of the State, which would which, upon any pretext, could put forth be resisted to the last extremity.” a formidable opposition to the General

Notwithstanding this affected confi Government, and, even without arming, dence, that General Lyon would thus combinations would doubtless form in carry out a league so dangerous to the certain localities to oppress and drive loyalty of the State, and for the form- out loyal citizens, to whom the Governing of which General Harney had been ment is bound to give protection, but recalled, the secessionists became alarmed which it would be helpless to do, as also for their safety. Hurrying from the to repress such combinations, if its faithful St. Louis, they gathered together forces could not be sent into the State. in Jefferson City, the capital of the State, A large aggressive force might be where, under the sanction of the dis- formed and advanced from the exterior loyal Governor, they were pursuing into the State, to assist it in carrying their machinations for wresting Missouri | out the secession programme, and the from the Union. Governor Jackson Government could not, under the limithimself now strove, by a personal inter-ation proposed, take posts on these view with General Lyon, to make with borders to meet and repel such force. him an agreement such as had paralyzed The Government could not shrink from the Federal authority under Harney's its duties nor abdicate its corresponding league. He proposed to disband the rights; and, in addition to the above, militia, or State guard as it was termed, it is the duty of its civil officers to exprovided Lyon would consent to disarmecute civil process, and in case of rethe Union volunteers. This the latter sistance to receive the support of miliresolutely refused, insisting that the tary force. The proposition of the Gov


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ernor would at once overturn the Gov- war and resisting the Federal authority. ernment privileges and prerogatives, At the same time the Governor issued which he (General Lyon) has neither the an insurrectionary proclamation.* wish nor authority to do. In his opin

O " TO THE PEOPLE OF MISSOURI : A series of unprovoked ion, if the Governor and the State au

and unparalleled outrages have been inflicted upon the thorities would earnestly set about to peace and dignity of this Commonwealth, and upon the

rights and liberties of its people, by wicked and unprinmaintain the peace of the State, and de

cipled men, professing to act under the authority of the clare their purposes to resist outrages United States Government; the solemn enactments of

your Legislature have been nullified; your volunteer upon loyal citizens of the Government,

soldiers have been taken prisoners ; your commerce with and repress insurrections against it, and, your sister States has been suspended ; your trade with in case of violent combinations needing

your own fellow-citizens has been and is subjected to the

harassing control of an armed soldiery ; peaceful citizens co-operation of the United States troops,

have been imprisoned without warrant of law ; unoffendthey should call upon or accept such

ing and defenceless men, women, and children have been

ruthlessly shot down and murdered ; and other unbearassistance, and in case of threatened in

able indignities have been heaped upon your State and vasion the Government troops took yourselves.

“To all these outrages and indignities you have submitsuitable posts to meet it, the purposes

le me Polo ted with a patriotic forbearance which has only encouraged of the Government would be subserved, the perpetrators of these grievous wrongs to attempt still and no infringement of the State's

bolder and more daring usurpations.

“It has been my earnest endeavor, under all these emrights or dignity committed. He would barrassing circumstances, to maintain the peace of the take good care, in such faithful co-oper

State, and to avert, if possible, from our borders, the deso

lating effects of a civil war. With that object in view, I ation of the State authorities to this

authorized Major-General Price, several weeks ago, to end, that no individual should be injured arrange with General Harney, commanding the Federal

forces in this State, the terms of an agreement by which in person or property, and that the ut

the peace of the State might be preserved. They came, most delicacy should be observed toward on the 21st of May, to an understanding, which was made

public. The State authorities have faithfully labored to all peaceable persons concerned in these

carry out the terms of that agreement. relations. C'pon this basis, in General “The Federal Government, on the other hand, not only Lyon's opinion, could the rights of both

manifested its strong disapprobation of it, by the instant

dismissal of the distinguished officer who, on his part, enthe General and State governments be

tered into it, but it at once began, and has unintermitsecured and peace maintained.”

tingly carried out a system of hostile operations, in utter

contempt of that agreement, and the reckless disregard of The Governor finding that the reso

its own plighted faith. These acts have latterly porlute Lyon was not to be shaken from his tended revolution and civil war so unmistakably, that I firm determination to uphold the Fed

resolved to make one further effort to avert these dangers

from you. I therefore solicited an interview with Brigaeral authority and sustain the loyal citi dier-General Lyon, commanding the Federal army in zens of Missouri, lost all further hope

Missouri. It was granted, and, on the 10th instant, wair

ing all questions of personal and official dignity, I went of promoting secession by diplomacy,

to St. Louis, accompanied by Major-General Price. and appealed to arms. He hurried “We had an interview on the 11th instant with Gen

eral Lyon and Colonel F. P. Blair, Jr., at which I submitwith his confederates to Jefferson City,

ted to them this proposition : That I would disband the the capital, destroying on the route the State Guard and break up its organization ; that I would telegraph wires and railroad bridges,

disarm all the companies which had been armed by the

State ; that I would pledge myself not to attempt to orwith the evident purpose of commencing ganize the militia under the military bill; that no arins

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General Lyon responded to this mani- Missouri, by issuing a counter-proclafesto of hostility of the Governor of mation.*


or munitions of war should be brought into the State ; State of Missouri, do, in view of the foregoing facts, and that I would protect all citizens equally in all their rights, | by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution regardless of their political opinions ; that I would repress and laws of this Commonwealth, issue this my proclainaall insurrectionary movements within the State; that I tion, calling the militia of the State, to the number of would repel all attempts to invade it, from whatever quar- fifty thousand, into the active service of the State, for the ter and by whomsoever made ; and that I would thus purpose of repelling said invasion, and for the protectica maintain a strict neutrality in the present unhappy con- 1 of the lives, liberty, and property of the citizens of this test, and preserve the peace of the State. And I further State. And I earnestly exhort all good citizens of Missouri proposed that I would, if necessary, invoke the assistance to rally under the flag of their State for the protection of of the United States troops to carry out these pledges. their endangered homes and firesides, and for the defence All this I proposed to do upon condition that the Federal of their most sacred rights and dearest liberties. Government would undertake to disarm the Horne Guards, “In issuing this proclamation, I hold it to be my solemn which it has illegally organized and armed throughout duty to remind you that Missouri is still one of the United the State, and pledge itself not to occupy with its troops States; that the Executive department of the State Govany localities in the State not occupied by them at this

ernment does not arrogate to itself the power to disturb time.

that relation ; that that power has been wisely vested in ** Nothing but the most earnest desire to avert the hor- a convention, which will, at the proper time, express your rors of civil war from our beloved State could have sovereign will; and that, meanwhile, it is your duty to tempted me to propose these humiliating terms. They obey all the constitutional requirements of the Federal Govwere rejected by the Federal officers.

ernment. But it is equally my duty to advise you that " They demanded not only the disorganization and dis your first allegiance is due to your own State, and that arming of the State militia, and the nullification of the you are under no obligation whatever to obey the uncmmilitary bill, but they refused to disarm their own Home stitutional edicts of the military despotism which has enGuards, and insisted that the Federal Government should throned itself at Washington, nor to submit to the inenjoy an unrestricted right to move and station its troops famous and degrading sway of its wicked minions in this throughout the State whenever and wherever it might, State. No brave and true-hearted Missourian will obey in the opinion of its officers, be necessary, either for the the one or submit to the other. Rise, then, and drive out protection of the " loyal subjects” of the Federal Govern ignominiously the invaders who have dared to desecrate ment or for the repelling of invasion, and they plainly an- the soil which your labors have made fruitful, and which nounced that it was the intention of the Administration is consecrated by your homes. to take military occupation, under these pretexts, of the “Given under my hand, as Governor, and under the whole State, and to reduce it, as avowed by General Lyon great scal of the State of Missouri, at Jefferson City, this himself, to the exact condition of Maryland.' The ac 12th day of June, 1861. ceptance by me of these degrading terms would not only

“By the Governor. CLAIBORNE F. Jackson. have sullied the honor of Missouri, but would have aroused “B. F. Massey, Secretary of State." the indignation of every brave citizen, and precipitated O " TO THE CITIZENS OF MISSOURI : Prior to the proclathe very conflict which it has been iny aim to prevent. mation issued by Governor Jackson, of date of June 12, We refused to accede to them, and the conference was it is well known to you that the Governor and Legislature broke

sympathized with the rebellion movements now in pro“Fellow-citizens, all our efforts toward conciliation have | gress in the country, and had adopted every means in failed. We can hope nothing from the justice or modera their power to effect a separation of this State from the tion of the agents of the Federal Government in this General Government. For this purpose, parties of avowed State. They are energetically hastening the execution of | secessionists have been organized into military companies their bloody and revolutionary schemes for the inaugura throughout the State, with the full knowledge and aption of civil war in your midst ; for the military occupit proval of the Governor. The establishment of encamption of your State by armed bands of lawless invaders for ments in the State at an unusual period of the year, and the overthrow of your State government; and for the sub authorized for an indefinite period, could have had no version of those liberties which that government has | other object than the concentration of a large military always sought to protect ; and they intend to exert their force, to be subjected to the provisions of the military law whole power to subjugate you, if possible, to the military then in contemplation, and subsequently passed-a bill so despotism which has usurped the powers of the Federal offensive to all peaceable inhabitants, and so palpably unGovernment.

constitutional, that it could be accepted by those only who “Now, therefore, I, C. F. Jackson, Governor of the were to conform to its extraordinary provisions for the

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