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(Report of 1876, Vol. II, p. 84; 1877, Vol. II, p. 1194), and the monthly means from that time until June, 1882, were corrected (reduced) by that amount. The observations from July, 1882, to June, 1887, were further reduced by 0.187 foot. (Report of 1887, p. 2417.) The observations from July, 1887, to June, 1892 (published in Report of 1892, p. 3130), and the observations for 1892-'93 were reduced by 0.76 only. This was plainly an oversight, and I would respectfully suggest the desirability of making a further correction of – 0.187.
In July, 1893, the zero at Escanaba was tested by leveling from bench marks in the vicinity and was found to be 0.902 foot above the plane of reference. This correction (0.902 foot) was used in reducing the observations of 1893-94. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. H. MCKINSTRY,
First Lieutenant of Engineers. Maj. JAMES F. GREGORY,
Corps of Engineers, U. & A.
WATER LEVEL OF LAKE ONTARIO.
REPORT OF CAPT. DAN C. KINGMAN, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894.
(For letter of transmittal see Appendix P P.) Permanent gauges are established at Oswego Harbor and at Charlotte Harbor (at the inouth of the Genesee River), and each has been read three times per day during the year. They show the lake level to have been lower than usual at similar dates throughout the year.
This gauge was established in 1837 by the United States Engineer at Oswego at plane of extreme low water. The lake level has several times since been at this plane, but never below it. The gauge is cut on the har. bor face of the stone pier at the foot of West Third street, and is indicated by an iron plate cut to feet and tenths and bolted beside it.
The zero of the gauge is referred to the top of an iron bolt in top of masonry of old Government stone pier 0.5 foot from east face of pier, 31 feet north of its intersection by the crib work wharf, foot of the United States reservation at the foot of West Third street, Oswego, marked U.S. B. M. This bench mark is 7.75 feet above zero of gauge.
The zero of gauge, on plane of extreme low water, is 244.21 feet above mean tide at New York. (See p. 609, Prof. Papers 24.)
Readings were taken daily at 7 a. m., 1 p. m., and 6 p. m. with obser. vations of direction and force of wind. The daily means were taken, and a mean of three taken as a monthly mean.
Oswego monthly means below plane of reference for Lake Ontario water levels.
The gauge at Charlotte Harbor was established by the Lake Survey, and is described in the Report of 1876 and in Professional Papers No.24.
The zero was lowered 4.5 feet in 1883 to coincide with the zero of the Oswego gauge, at plane of extreme low water, and since that date all readings have given heights above extreme low-water level.
The zero is referred to a bench mark on the upper side of the water table of the old (now disused) light-house at Charlotte at the southsoutheast angle east of the south window, which bench mark is at 283.23 feet above mean tide at New York, and 39.02 feet above the zero of the gauge, which zero is 244.21 feet above mean tide at New York.
The gauge is cut in feet and tenths in a wrought-iron plate, and is bolted to an oak pile at the northeast angle of the west abutments of the R., W. and O. R. R. drawbridge at Charlotte.
Readings are taken daily at 7 a. m., 1 p. m., and 7 p. mn., with observation of direction and force of wind. The daily means were taken and a mean of these as the monthly mean.
Charlotte monthly means above extreme low-water level.
July August. September October November December
Feet. 1. 29 1.51 1.88 1.95 2.12 2.59
Charlotte monthly means below plane of reference for Lake Ontario water levels.
APPENDIX E E E.
CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ROADS AND BRIDGES IN THE
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.
REPORT OF MAJ. TILLIAN A. JONES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFICER
IN CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR EVDING JUNE 30, 1894.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
St. Paul, Minn., July 10, 1894. GENERAL: I have the honor to submit herewith my report, in duplicate, of operations for the improvement of Yellowstone National Park during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. A. JONES,
Major, Corps of Engineers. Brig. Gen. THOMAS L. CASEY,
Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A.
The project for this work was adopted in 1883, when the control was placed in the hands of officers of the Corps of Engineers, and consists in the construction and maintenance of about 225 miles of road, with the necessary bridges, culverts, etc. The roads embraced in the project commence at Gardiner, at the north boundary line of the Park, Thence to Mammoth Hot Springs; thence to upper Geyser Basin, passing through Norris Geyser and Lower Geyser Basins; thence to the outlet of Yellowstone Lake via Shoshone Lake and the west arm of Yellowstone Lake, crossing the Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains twice; thence to Yanceys via the Falls and Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River; thence to Mammoth Hot Springs, completing the so-called belt road, with a circuit of about 145 miles. In addition, there are projected a road from the west boundary line of the Park, passing through Lower Geyser Basin and continued easterly to intersect the road along the Yellowstone River to the Falls; a road from Norris Geyser Basin to the Falls of the Yellowstone; a road from Yanceys to the east boundary line of the Park, and a number of short branch roads and trails from the above-named roads to objects of interest off the main line of travel; in all, 225 miles of new road, about 20 large and 50 small bridges, with many culverts, etc. Estimated cost, as revised in 1889 by my predecessor, 8144,779.42.
The act of Congress approved March 3, 1891, changed the project of the part of the belt line between Lower Geyser Basin and Yellowstone
Lake by requiring the road to be built “ by the shortest practicable route" from Fountain Geyser to the Thumb of the Yellowstone Lake This change did not materially affect the cost.
The act of Congress approved August 5, 1892, appropriated $45,000, and provided “that $15,000 of this amount, or so much thereof as may be necessary, may be expended, in the discretion of the Secretary of War, for the construction of a road from the Upper Geyser Basin to a point on Snake River where it crosses the southern boundary of the Park."
Construing this act as the wish of Congress to modify the project by adding thereto some 334 miles of projected road, the estimated cost of my predecessor will be considerably increased.
A new estimate of the cost of completing the project was submitted January 25, 1894.
Total amount expended to June 30, 1893, including outstanding liabilities, $379,779.42.
PROGRESS OF THE WORK.
At the commencement of work upon the project about 160 miles of wagon track had been cleared, over which vehicles could, with difficulty, reach the principal objects of interest in the Park.
This project has now been carried forward to the point that good, graded and well-drained, roads have been substantially completed over the following lines: (1) From the north entrance at Gardiner via Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Basin ta
Upper and Lower Geyser basins. (2) From Norris Basin via the Grand Canyon to Yellowstone Lake outlet. (3) From Upper Geyser Basin via the Thumb to Yellowstone Lake outlet.
Total, 127.5 miles. Besides this there have been abandoned the following short stretches for better locations: At Norris At Gibbon Marys Mountain road At Fountain....
In addition to the above-mentioned completed mileage, the following mileage of wagon trail (line opened to admit the passage of vehicles, but not graded and but slightly drained) has been in use and kept in tolerable repair:
Miles Mammoth Hot Springs to east boundary.. Lower Firehole to west boundary
33 Total mileage operated.....
212.5 In order that the whole situation may be presented in compact shape I will prelude a recital of the operations for the season of 1893 with a general statement of conditions and project, taken from my report of operations for the month of November, 1892.
A map is submitted herewith showing: (1) The location of the various points of interest in the Park which are to be reached
by roads under the approved project. (2) The various stages of completion of these roads. (3) The work done during the present season. (4) The work under the project which remains to be done.