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Table No. 5.Geographical positions of the stations of the tertiary triangulation of the

river between Little Rapids and Point Iroquois.

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A 21

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Metere. 84 17 35.50 112 59 21.71 A 21

1, 396. 66 3. 1450899 172 34 32. 71 A 14

1, 270. 38 3. 1039336 84 17 43. 19 116 03 03. 35 A8

2, 680.28 3. 4281802 57 30 30. 15

1, 329. 70 3. 1237525 84 18 35.78 115 39 58.09 A 19

2, 172. 43 3. 3369465 145 46 04. 79 A 8

2, 287. 41 3. 3595438 84 19 36. 12 58 23 27.61 A9

2, 416. 23 3. 3831380 35 13 43.21 A 19

1, 163. 43 3. 0657101 100 31 25.91 A 6.

2, 429.31 3. 3854822 84 20 07.59 215 13 20.4 A8

1, 163. 43

3. 0657401 84 21 12. 61 280 33 20.4 A 21

3, 402. 74 3.5318283 169 02 11.6 9 6

1, 741. 77 3. 2409908 120 20 28.1

3, 208.01 3. 5062357 84 21 28. 15 87 53 41.3

2, 439.01 3. 3872129 46 07 43.8 A7

1, 408. 3. 1488748 84 22 15. 78 121 56 42.1 A 2

1, 675. 61 3. 2241724 84 22 46.52 157 19 29.7 A 2

1,987. 78 3. 2983673 214 40 31.3 97

1, 152. 40 3. 0616017 81.52 54.5

2, 432. 30 3 3860172 84 22 15. 66 179 49 15.2

791. 91 2.8986754 76 41 16.7

676. 38 2. 8301900 84 23 22. 46 59 36 22.9 U 2

824. 04 2.9159487 84 23 55.80 313 48 06.5 A 3

2.017. 12 3. 3111432 27 50 52.2 AR

1,991, 66

3. 2992161 84 24 39. 41 119 13 58.0

2, 445.56 3. 3883788 84 26 19.49 259 29 57.0 O 2

3, 116. 17 3. 4936214 319 21 36.9 AP

2, 117. 96 3. 3259184 1 49 08.0 AO

2, 621. 20 3. 4185010 84 26 23. 39 235 18 00.8 AP

1,779, 02

3. 2501807 90 08 35.7 AC

1, 508. 14 3. 1785417 56 27 48.6 AN

1, 249, 27 3. 0966572 84 28 01.33 260 07 24.0 ΔΕ

2. 204. 47 3. 3433037 345 26 56.2

2, 312.72 3. 3641230 84 27 34. 10 211 18 07.5 A E

3, 062. 25 3, 4860 410 326 02 14.3

836.55 2. 9224934 84 27 12. 19 63 24 03.1 A 12

1, 601.07 3. 2044094 11 21 47.5 A 17

3, 510. 62 3. 5453839 84 28 19. 28 214 20 28.4 AC

1, 708.83 3. 2326998 314 47 41.5 A 17

2, 823.61 3. 4508042 84 27 44.59 108 06 03.1 A 15

2, 629. 13 3. 4198116 84 29 41. 66 153 12 19

A 10.

2, 773.23 3. 4429865 222 38 45.7 A 12.

2.594, 96 3. 4141302 73 23 44.9 Round Island 1, 491. 16 3. 1735244

light-house. 84 30 40.26 280 39 27.5

A 12..

3, 061. 08 3. 4858747 84 30 48. 69 183 30 47.3

A 10

2, 907.08 3. 4634572 336 35 51.8 287 15 28.9 A 11

1, 181. 62 3. 0724796 A 13

1, 089. 27 3. 0371353 84 29 59.89 36 52 39.7

951.55 2. 9784335 84 30 26.63 212 25 27

A 15

1,789.83 3. 2528113 84 31 17.26 234 16 00.4

A 15

2, 513.43 3. 4002671 191 19 10.4

4,021. 14 3. 6043491 84 35 16.83 244 37 33.7

A 10 282 36 56. 2

6,531. 14 3. 8149888

5, 241. 67 3. 7194700 120 59 50. 2 A Iroquois

6,087.83 3 7844628 84 33 00.89 231 56 40 134 46 52. 6

2, 810.32 3. 4487558 I.

4, 088.04 3.6115152 84 35 54.40 199 20 59.3

AI.

2, 421.01 279 06 03. 2

3. 3839965 À L

3, 752. 86 3. 5743620 84 31 47.65 353 12 03.4 AM

5, 485. 15 3. 7391882 46 05 28.8 AI.

6, 197. 43 3. 7922114 84 33 26. 15 316 22 31.2

AB

3,044.65 3.4835378 19 58 01.0 AI..

6,919. 40 3. 8400687 66 03 16.0 A Iroquois

8, 293. 89 3. 9187583 146 45 19.8

A South Gros Cap. 4, 118. 27 3. 61-17152 84 25 14.82 217 46 12.4 0 2

2, 751.12 3. 4395093

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F.--REPORT OF MR. II. VON SCHON, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., June 30, 1894. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the fiscal year, from July 1, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisting of two parts, viz:

Part I. Report on the topographical survey along American shore of St. Marys River from July, 1893, to December, 1893.

Part II. Report on mapping, charting, sketching, and office operations from December, 1893, to June 30, 1894.

PART I.

SUBJECT OF SURVEY. The subject of the survey, as defined in your letter of instructions to me dated June 13 and July 15, 1893, was the southern shore of the St. Marys River, beginning at Little Rapids, including the western side of the new channel, thence westerly to a point beyond Point Iroquois, afterwards determined to be Salt Point.

The survey was to extend from the shore line of the river back to the crest of the first range of hills parallel thereto, and to include all islands on the American shore.

All light-houses, range lights, buildings; all topographical features relating to the conditions of the ground and improvements; all land survey, section and town lines, and contours for every 20 feet elevation were to be located and plotted on a scale of 1 to 5,000, afterwards changed to 1 to 10,000.

CHARACTER OF TERRITORY. The character of this territory presents all the varieties to be found in this latitude. Almost the entire shore line on this reach is low and sandy or marshy, a rank growth of timber and brush reaching to the water's edge for more than half of the Shore distance surveyed. Occasionally for short distances the shore line rises to a sandy bluff not exceeding 20 feet in height, and for the last 3 miles east of Salt Point outcroppings of a mineral formation are visible on shore, becoming very determined for about 1 mile, rising abruptly out of the water to a height of about 15 feet.

The range of hills coming from the south enters this territory about 1 mile south of Little Rapids at an elevation of about 125 feet above the river level, then gradually approaches the west end of Sault Ste. Marie within one-third of a mile of the river shore at an elevation of about 115 feet, then bears south for a distance of about 24 miles and again approaches and touches the shore line at the Clay Banks at a height of about 85 feet. Thence it bears west to a point south of Point Iroquois, and thence north rapidly rising and culminating in the Iroquois formation at á maximum altitude of about 440 feet above the river level at Little Rapids. From here the hills gradually recede in a southwesterly direction to a considerable distance from shore, gradually decreasing in elevation.

The drainage of this hill range from Little Rapids to the Clay Banks issues in three small creeks, and thence to its north ward course to Iroquois is absorbed by the Waiska River, a water course of considerable volume. The Iroquois range proper drains into two small lakes at its foot which lie about 30 feet above the river and are without any visible outflow. The reach from Iroquois to Salt Point is broken by one creek only.

The country between shore and hills is low and mostly thickly covered with all classes of timber and brush, tamarack, maple, and elm predominating. Occasionally large areas of timber are burnt over, and some depressions of considerable extent are swampy and marshy.

No land was found under cultivation after passing Sault Ste. Marie until the Waiska River is reached, where Superior, a settlement of about 100 people, is located, and some farming is done. On a peninsula 14 miles north of this is the village of Bay Mills, with about 400 inhabitants, and 1 mile farther north on the beach is the Indian settlement“Mission” with about 75 people. From this point west the character of the country changes, the timber is frequently sprinkled with oak, and considerable of the land is under cultivation. With the exception of the sandstone near Salt Point, no mineral formation of any description was discovered.

The means of transportation through this territory westerly are a dirt road (Waiska Bay road) leading from a point about 5 miles south of Sault Ste. Marie due west to Superior, whence it follows the shore to Mission; thence it leads upon the Iroquois plateau, and due west for about 5 miles to Dollar Settlement, where it terminates. The Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad touches this' territory at Superior, and thence pursues a northeasterly course to Sault Ste. Marie. The Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Raifroad enters in the eastern part, leading first north and then northeasterly to Sault Ste. Marie.

The whole territory is located in Chippewa County, Mich., comprising Ts. N. 47, 1 E.; N. 47, 1 W.; N. 47, 2 W.; N. 47, 3 W.; N. 47, 4 W., and the northern half of N. 46, 2 w.

The principal meridian of Michigan passes through the western part of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

METHODS. The organization of the topographical party under my charge consisted of 1 recorder, at $70 per month; 4 rodmen, at $50 per month, each; 1 cook, at $50 per month.

The instruments used were the Buff & Berger transit No. 245, from July 12 to August 14, exclusively. On August 8 the Buff & Berger plane table No. 1, and on August 14'the stadia rods for the same were received, and this instrument was then used when and wherever it was practicable to do so; but much of the weather being stormy, and most of the territory being covered with a rank growth of brush, and large areas being swampy, made it often advisable to use the lightest and simplest field outfit to make reasonable progress possible, and in these cases a Fauth transit was used.

The methods employed with the transit were of the usual practice in "traversing;” the plane table was used in much the same manner, as no sheets with coordinated points located had been prepared for the reach under survey. A section of shore line between reference points was first located, and from it traverse lines to the range of hills were run. These latter had to be invariably chopped through the timber or brush, while much of the shore had to be similarly cleared before the instrumental work could be done. A working programme being decided upon by the chief, lines to be cleared were chopped out by the rodmen under the direction of recorder, the chief running shore line or roads at the same time with transit and two rodmen, or employing himself at plotting. When practicable the plane table was used for detailed surveys, reqniring then the entire party. The horizontal distances were obtained by stadia readings always, and the elevations by the vertical angle. Azimnth observations on Polaris were made during the progress of the survey.

The records of the survey were kept in field books, as customary in transit work, and when the plane table was used a field sheet was constructed on the table as the work progressed, notations in field book also being made of distances and vertical angle readings.

NARRATIVE.

The topograpbical party was organized on July 1, 1893, took the field on July 12, in camp at Little Rapids, moving on July 21 to shore near Ashmun Creek; on August 10, to Point Louisa, Canada; on September 18, to Birch Point; on September 29, to Waiska Bay; on October 16, to Mission Hill; on November 16, to Dollar Settlement; and on November 25, returning to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where it was disbanded.

The survey was begun at A East Base, tying, in its progress, on 5 primary and 12 tertiary triangulation stations, and closing on the secondary station at Salt Point.

The levels were referred to B. M. “A”, at Little Rapids, and checked on P. B. M. "4" of the precise level line located on west side of Waiska River.

RESULTS.

The field work of the season covered about 51.4 square miles of territory, resulting in the location of about 484 miles of shore line, 284 miles of hill range, 19 miles of railroads, 63% miles of roads, and all the details of conditions of ground and improvements within this territory.

The office records of this work are in 6 field books and in 7 field sheets, all of them on file at the engineer office at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

The cost of the survey was forInstruments purchased.

$305.00 Camp outfit purchased

286. 63 Salaries paid to members of party.

2, 237. 21 Subsistence of members of party.

479. 68 Repairing camp outfit...

6. 25 Transportation of members of party.

48.56 Total cost ..

3, 363. 33 The cost per square mile of survey is found by charging the survey with all amounts paid forSalaries, subsistence, transportation, and repairs of camp outfit

$2,771. 70 10 per cent of the cost of instruments.

30. 50 50 per cent of the cost of camp outfit..

143.32 Total cost of 51.4 square miles of topographical survey..

2, 945.52 Cost per square mile, $57.30.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

For future topographical surveys in this region I would respectfully recommend the following organization of topographical party:

One assistant engineer in charge.

Two recorders, to be men capable of running the plane table and to be fair draftsmen.

Five rodmen, to be young men of sound physique, who are preparing for the profession or have had previous experience as rodmen.

One head axman, to be capable to take charge of laborers and to understand the use of reconnoitering instruments, and act as head rodman on a transit survey.

Two axmen, and at times such additional number of axmen as the work may require; these men to be woodsmen, preferably of the region the survey is operated'in.

This party to be equipped with the following instrumental outfit:

Instruments.--One transit, 1 Y-level, 2 plane tables, and such additional instruments as are f und of service in reconnoitering.

The methods to be employed I would recommend to be as follows: Plane table field sheets of the reach to be surveyed during the season should be fully prepared before the party takes the field, with all bench marks, tertiary, secondary, and primary triangulation stations plotted thereon.

The assistant to plan the work for the two plane-table parties and for the advance chopping of necessary traverse lines, and to locate by additional triangulation and leveling such additional reference points and bench marks as it may be found desirable to establish in order to have no such points originated by plane table alone.

The recorders to secure all needed topographical information by plane-table surveys from these fixed and plotted points, always orienting the plane table by intersection or resection upon points plotted, on the sheet. Each plane-table party to consist of the recorder in charge, ? rodmen, and 1 axman, who is to carry the plane table.

The head axman is to take charge of the chopping needed to clear lines for survey on shore, hill range, roads, and traverse, with such additional axmen as could be employed at intervals for short periods; at other times he would be available with the fifth rodman to form a transit or level crew for the assistant in charge. He is also to take charge of the camp property and tools, and of camp policing and moving of camp.

The salary of such a party on the scale recommended for the coming season, together with salary of 4 additional axmen employed for ten days during each month, and the subsistence on the ratio of last season's cost, would amonnt to a total about 20 per cent less than the total cost of the two topographical parties last season, while in my estimation such an organization would be capable of accomplishing as much and probably more field work than the two parties did together during the past season.

A not inconsiderable saving in time and expense could be secured, in my opinion, by arranging to have the cook and mess outfits of the entire party located on a flatbottomed scow, which could be easily moved at any time without necessitating the packing and unpacking of all the utensils on the occasion of each move. More frequent moves of camp could be had and thereby walking to and from work reduced and more time utilized in actual field work. With this arrangement it would be perfectly practicable to have the head axman, with assistance of additional axmen, move the entire camp and relocate same while the field parties were doing their customary field work.

PART II.

MAPPING, CHARTING, SKETCHING, ETC. After completing the platting and inking of the last transit field work and converting field sheet No. 2 (Big Point to Solomons Point) from St. Marys River level data, to New York tide level data, my office work during period from December, 1893, to June 30, 1894, consisted, as outlined in your letter of instructions dated January 16, 1894, of,

First. Special drafting work required by you from time to time. Under this head I constructed

(1) A general map of primary triangulation scheme of St. Marys River from line Gargantua-Mamainse to the Mackinac base, scale 1:380160;

(2) A similar plan of primary and secondary triangulation of same reach, scale 1:380160;

(3) A sketch of conventional signs for topography and hydrography;

(4) An outline sketch of chart No. 3, St. Marys River survey, with scheme of sounding lines for ice survey, scale 1: 40000;

(5) A similar outline sketch of chart No. 2, St. Marys River survey, scale 1: 40000; (6) A general outline sketch of chart No. 1, St. Marys River survey, scale 1: 40000; (7) A general outline sketch of a chart of Whitefish Bay, scale 1:

80000. Second. The duplication of allfield work done by the topographical parties, which necessitated the tracing of sheets Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Canadian shore survey.

Third. The preparation of an accurate field plat of Sanlt Ste. Marie, Mich., on a 1:5000 scale, which absorbed about two months of time devoted to the securing of all available reliable data relating to streets, subdivisions, buildings, etc., from public records, previous surveys, existing maps, and from personal reconnoissance.

Fourth. The preparation of a scheme for the polyconic projection of the reach covered by chart No. 3, on a 1:40000 scale, and of its subdivision into suitable uniform sheets showing both shores of river with hydrography on 1:10000 scale.

The general seheme and two of the sheets were completed. The first one, covering the reach from Big Point to Little Rapids and including Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., anil Canada, with all the details previonsly-secured, occupied about two months of my time; the second sheet, covering the reach from Old Vessel Point, Canada, to Point aux Pins, was also completed.

Fifth. The preparation of a similar general and subdivision scheme for reach covered by chart No. 2, of which the general plan only was completed. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. vox SCHON,

Assistant Engineer. First Lieut. CHARLES S. RICHÉ,

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

G.-REPORT OF MR. DAVID MOLITOR, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,

Detroit, Mich., May 14, 1894. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following final report relating to operations of the survey party under my charge, July 10 to December 1, 1893, while resurveying the Canadian shore of St. Marys River, between the Shingwauk Home and North Gros Cap.

NARRATIVE. In accordance with the order of Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, dated Detroit, July 10, 1893, I reported for duty at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., on July 12, 1893.

The remainder of the month of July was devoted to the preparation of camp outfit, office work, etc.

From August 1 to 3 I carried a line of levels from B. M. "A" on the north wall of the '81 lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., across the international bridge and east along the Canadian shore to a point opposite Topsail Islands.

On August 4 I was ordered to cut lines of sight for triangulation work, from A Azimuth to A Soo, A Larke, and A Mirron. This was done by day's labor, and was completed on August 11.

The plane tables with which the topographical work was to be done arrived on August 7, and I proceeded at once to graduate the stadia rods for the two parties. The party in charge of Assistant Engineer H. von Schon being in the field, it was deemed Lore practicable for me to do this work,

My party was accordingly organized, and went into camp on the Canadian shore, opposite Topsail Islands, on August 14, 1893. The party consisted of the following members:

John Conrick, recorder, in the service from July 12 to December 9, 1893; Clifton R. Norton, rodman, in the service from August 1 to September 13, 1893; Richard Johnson, rodman, in the service from August 7 to December 1, 1893; Fred'E. Leefe, rodman, in the service from August 10 to September 30, 1893; W. J. Steere, rodman, in the service from August 10 to December 1, 1893; Peter Biron, cook, in the service from August 10 to October 1, 1893.

Subsequent changes caused the following to be employed :

Peter Biron, rodman, in the service from October 1 to November 24, 1893; C. E. Thompson, rodman, in the service from September 19 to December 1, 1893; Mrs. Peter Biron, cook, in the service from October 1 to November 22, 1893.

The first camp, near Topsail Islands, was occupied until September 1, and an area of about 5 square miles, including the greater portion of the town of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, was covered. As may be inferred, this work contained considerable detail, which, together with a newly organized party, made the progress rather slow at first.

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