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clean condition; the old scale had been softened to such an extent that it was easily removed. The result was so satisfactory that the cleaners were purchased.
In April the steam pipes in the tunnel were lined up, some new saddles placed in position, the boilers overhauleil and painted, the entire machinery of the elevator and electric-light system examined and put in complete order, and the elevator cage repainted. In June, 1894, a portion of the iron between the top and bottom of the shaft was repainted.
The monument was open daily during the year, except Sundays and holidays, and, with the exception of a few days in the autumn and again in the spring while the machinery was being overhauled, the elevator was in operation whenever the monument was open.
There were 118,917 visitors to the top of the monument during the year, of which number 109,579 made the ascent in the elevator and 39,338 by the stairway, making 938,419 persons who have visited the top since the shaft was opened to the public October 9, 1888,
BUILDINGS OCCUPIED AS OFFICES BY THE WAR DEPARTMENT,
EXCEPT STATE, WAR, AND NAVY BUILDING.
Under date of June 30, 1893, this office was charged with the preservation, care, and safety of the following buildings:
Army Medical Museum.
Fistli and sixth stories Union building, G, between Sixth and Seventh streets, occupied as oflives by Record and Pension Bureau.
Ford's Theater building. Annex to Fore's Theater building. Builling in rear Ford's Theater building. Upper stories of West End National Bank, occupied as offices by Signal Department, '.S. Army.
No.610 Seventeenth street, occupied as offices by Record and Pension Bureau.
No. 1725 F street, occupied by War Department printing office.
Annex to Winder building, occupied for storage purposes by Ord nance Department, U.S. Army.
War Department stables.
A careful and critical examination was at once made of all these buildings, and plans prepared, showing the safe ads that could be carried by each floor of each building.
Where the floors were overloatied the weight was at once reduced to the sate load.
The upper floors of the West End National Bank building were strengthened by beams and girders, and made absolutely safe for all loads that will probably be placed upon them.
In No. 610 Seventeenth street the main stairway was strengthened, where necessary, by iron beams set into the walls.
In No.1725 F street the floor of the printing press rooin was strengthened by wooden beams and columns.
In tlie Winder Building annex the floors were properly strengthened by placing some new posts in position.
The work done at Ford's Theater was quite extensive, and will be reported under separate heading,
At the close of the fiscal year all the buildings in charge of this office were in safe condition.
FORD'S THEATER BUILDING.
This building was placed in my charge on June 30, 1893, three weeks after the collapse of a portion of it had taken place.
The building is three stories high, with an unfinished loft above the third story and a cellar under a portion of the first floor; the roof is of slate, supported by timber trusses.
The dimensions of the first floor are 1031 by 671 feet.
The second and third floors are supported by iron columns and beams. Prior to the collapse the first floor, to within 20 feet of the west wall, was supported by brick arches; of the portion so supported, the rear half had a cellar under it, the floor of which was about 7 feet below the springing lines of the arches; the front half had no cellar, the surface of the earth being from 1 foot to 18 inches below the springing lines of the arches.
Previous to June 9, 1893, before the building was placed in charge of this office, certain plans for improvements were ordered, necessitating an extension of the cellar, the prolongation of the central basement arch to the west wall, the construction of a basement entrance from Tenth street, and the underpinning of about 80 linear feet of brick wall, four piers supporting iron columns and the two heavy piers of the west wall. During the progress of this work, under contract, while one of these brick piers was being undermined, it collapsed, bringing down with it two columus from under the second floor, two from under the third floor, and about 40 feet square of each floor, badly wrecking the interior of the building.
By the act of Congress approved September 7, 1893, an appropriation of $6,000 was made for repairing this building, and by letter from the Chief of Engineers, dated September 14, 1893, I was placed in charge of the work. Operations under my direction were commenced on September 20, 1893, at which time the condition of the building was as follows:
The first floor was totally wrecked for an area of about 20 by 14 feet, this being immediately over the new portion of the cellar which had been excavated, over which it had been intended to extend the central basement arch. Of the two piers that had supported the columns on the east side of this opening, the one that failed was entirely demol. ished, the other was still standing, although its line of columns bad been dragged down in the collapse.
The underpinning of walls and piers in the extension of the cellar had been done in a very slovenly manner: the materials were of good quality, but the workmanship very inferior.
The collapse of the brick pier la bronght down four cast-iron columus, twelve 12-inch iron girders, and thirty-three 9-inch iron beams from the second and third floors, making an opening in each of these floors about 40 feet square.
The inner face of the west wall, where the floor beams had been torn out, was shattered and cracked, while the upper section of the brick wall around the stairway had been almost torn from the lower section by the strain in falling of a pair of heavy beams resting in the wall; the line of columns on the north side of the openings through the floors was in a dangerous condition, apparently ready to fall at any moment, while portions of brick arches were hanging without other support than the mortar which held the bricks together.
The project adopted was to restore the building to the condition in which it was at the time of the collapse, to complete the extension of the cellar, the construction of the central arch, the underpinning of cellar walls and piers, and to arrange for a large cellar window on the west side for light and ventilation.
The preliminary operations consisted in tearing down dangerous brickwork, sboring places where necessary, and cleaning away débris; the underpinning of walls completed previous to June 9, wherever defective, was torn out and rebuilt; the two piers on the east side of the cellar excavation were rebuilt upon concrete foundations, brick walls placed on each side of cellar extension, arthes properly turned, large cellar window constructed, loosened portions of west wall torn out and carefully patched, and wall around stairway from third story up torn down and rebuilt.
Upon the completion of basement and side walls brickwork the iron columns and beams were reset, additional steel beams having been purchased to replace those bent and twisted by the collapse; all arches were turned and covered with concrete, Georgia pine floors laid in the new portion of cellar and on first and second floors, and the tiling relaid on third floor.
Windows and doors were reset, gas and steam pipes placed in position and tested, walls plastered, the rebuilt portion painted, and a portion of the cellar dug out for a storage room for refuse. Operations were practically completed December 31, 1893, and the building, which was restored to the condition existing previous to its collapse, with some additional improvements, was ready for occupation, and in my opinion was in as safe condition as it had been since its original construction.
For complete details of this work between September 20 and December 31, I invite attention to the interesting and elaborate report of Second Lieut. John S. Sewell, Corps of Engineers, my assistant, who has exhibited in the discharge of his duty connected with the repair of this building the utmost energy, skill, industry, and ability.
In accordance with the terms of the act approved September 7, 1893, a board of engineers was convened in November, 1893, to examine Ford's Theater building and to report whether its condition was such that it could be safely occupied by clerks.
This board, under date of December 30, 1893, recommended that the floors should be strengthened with iron columns and girders, the east wall taken down and rebuilt, the lighting and ventilation of building improved, and fire escapes constructed; the estimated cost of the proposed work was placed at $11,958.
By the act of Congress approved March 12, 1894, an appropriation of $11,958 was made for the improvements recommended by the Board of Engineers, and under date of March 24, 1894, by (lirection of the Clief of Engineers, the work was placed in my charge.
Operations were commenced on March 31, the work to be done being as follows:
1. To strengthen the second and third floors by additional lines of girders and columus placed running north and south along middle lines of existing panels; the columus under the third floor to be supported by colums under the second floor, resting on brick piers in the basement; the girders under both floors were to be 10 inch I beams (doubled); the columis under the third floor were to be off-inchi metal and 6 inches in diameter, and those under the second floor of l-inch metal, 7 inches in diameter; the brick piers were to be 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches, resting on concrete bases 4 by 4 feet by 1 foot 6 inches.
The result of this work will be to strengthen the building so that in addition to their dead weights the second and third floors will sustain a live load 1224 pounds and 71 pounds respectively.
2. To tear down and rebuild the east wall, containing about 140,000 brick, the new wall to be 24 inches thick up to level of third floor and 18 inches thick from thence to the top of wall.
3. To improve the lighting facilities by enlarging the windows of the bnilding, except those in the west front, first story, and to add two new windows in the south wall of third story.
4. To improve the system of ventilation by arrangements for admitting fresh air and carrying off vitiated air.
5. To construct two fire escapes on the rear of the building.
Operations were rapidly pushed forward and by the close of the fiscal year the work of strengthening the second and third floors had been completed, the east wall had been torn down to the ground, the old wortbless foundation torn out and replaced with a bed of concrete 4.} feet wide by 2 feet thick, and the entire wall rebuilt, the lighting facil. ities improved by enlarging the eight front windows on second and third floors and adding two new windows to the third floor, the method of improved heating and ventilating nearly finished, and the fire escapes constructed in position.
The entire work laid out was nearly completed and the building in such condition as to be available for use by the War Department, if required.
THE PUBLIC GROUNDS IN
The area covered by the parks and park spaces in the District of Columbia, under charge of this office, is about 405 acres, within which there are 13.4 miles of gravel and asphalt walks, covering an area of 16.9 acres, and 7.6 miles of gravel and asphalt roads, covering an area of 33.03 acres.
There are in all 301 reservations, varying in size from a few hundred square feet to 82 acres. These reservations are classified as follows:
Of these, 66 are inclosed with post-and-chain or other low iron fences. In my annual report for the last fiscal year I gave a sketch of the general plan proposed for the completion of the park improvements.
Each year an effort is made to add to the list of improved reservations, but owing to lack of necessary funds the progress is very slow. It is not generally realized how much beauty the smaller spaces are capable of exhibiting, should they be brought to their highest condition of improvement. It is, in a measure, true that the outlay in this development is considerable, but the subsequent maintenance of these spots of beauty in their highly improved condition is comparatively light and not much more than the expense now incurred in mowing their grass surface.
With this report I submit a map and description of the various reservations, and plans and estimates for the improvement of the following:
1. Reservation No. 19 (immediately north of navy-yard).-At the request of a committee of citizens of the District of Columbia, a plan of improvement for this reservation at an estimated cost of $12,000 has been prepared. The reservation covers an area of about 3} acres. It is located in a section of the city which has not yet been highly improved, and is bounded on the north by the tracks of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company; a siile track extends through it to the navy-yard; the adjoining streets are unpaved; no sidewalks have been laid, and the streets bounding the reservation are not curbed on the reservation side. In the western section a narrow stream meanders through a small ravine and finds its outlet in an improvised opening in a street sewer. It will require about 3,000 cubic yards of earth to fill this ravine and bring the reservation to proper grade.
It is proposed to lay sidewalks on the east, west, and south boundaries; to construct gravel walks, lay out lawn plots, and sow with grass seed; to introduce water, construct necessary drains, drain lodges and gutters; to plant with suitable trees, shrubs, and towers, and to place eight park lamps in position.
2. Reserration No. 20, Howard University Park. This reservation covers an area of nearly 12 acres; it is located south of the Howard University, between Fourth and Sixth streets. Its improvement has been urged from time to time by prominent citizens, and a plan for its ornamentation is submitted, at an estimated cost of $25,000.
The reservation is covered with a native forest growth of large oak trees. The major portion of the ground is a little below the grade of the surrounding streets, but is not wet except at the southeast corner of the park, where apparently there are springs. The ground generally slopes toward the south and east, and admits of easy surface drainage.
The reservation is admirably located for a public park, for pleasure grounds, games, picnics, etc., and for other assemblages of our people, being witiin a few squares of the terminal stations of four of our city and suburban street railroad lines, by which any part of Washington and its chief outlying suburban villages can be reached from the park in a comparatively short period of time.
It is believed that if the improvements projected were made, this park would soon become a popular place of resort and relieve the city parks proper, which should receive a higher grade of improvement.
With this object in view, it is designed to preserve as fully as may be practicable the present native forest growth of oaks, whicii furnish an abundant shade, and to form additional plantings of other varieties of ornamental trees and shrubs, bouding the park on all sides, so that there may be many shaded walks and drives in the summer and autumn, opening out into sunny glades in the more central portions of the grounds. It is proposed to construct gravel walks and roads only; to make but few changes in the present surface grades, terracing the northwest section where the greatest difference of level exists between the street and park gralles; to introduce water for drinking fountains, closets, and irrigation, and to construct such drains to street sewers as are necessary to properly drain the lower portions of the grounds, and to request the District government, which claims control of all streets from building line to building line, to construct sidewalks around the reservation.