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Barker knows, I suppose, which is more than I do, (for I question whether I have now a copy of the work,) in what year those same Letters * he mentions, on the partition of Poland, came out. In that same year, (1773,) as will appear in the title-page of the book, he returned to England [Letters concerning the Present State of Poland;

with an Appendix, containing the Manifestoes of the Courts of Vienna, Petersburgh, and Berlin, and other Authentic Papers. The Second Edition. London, printed for T. Payne, near the Mews-Gate, 1773. 8vo. pp. 393.

I will give two quotations from the book as specimens :

“ ADVERTISEMENT. The Letters here offered a second time to the public are written on a subject, which deservedly engages the attention of Europe.

“ The author waited long - perhaps too long - under the hope, that an abler pen would have taken up this important cause ; but, as no champion seemed willing to step forth in defence of the injured and oppressed, he ventured on the task : a love of justice, and respect for an amiable character, pity for a suffering people, indignation at the most atrocious acts of cruelty and perfidy urged him to it, and will, he hopes, justify a severity and warmth of expression, in few cases allowable.

“In such a cause the writer persuaded himself, that he should find an advocate in the bosom of every British reader, who would soften the rigor of criticism : nor have his expectations been deceived : the indulgence, with which the public has read the Letters ; the favourable manner, in which they have been recommended to its notice ; and the terms of approbation expressed by those, whose opinion would stamp a value on any work, but which cannot be repeated without running the risk of having the language of gratitude mistaken for that of vanity, all have served to convince the writer, that the humanity and

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with the title of Privy Counsellor to his Polish Majesty, Governor of an Institution founded by the virtuous and unhappy Monarch for the education of 400 cadets, and the office, or rather the private trust, of Governor to his nephew, Prince Stanislaus Poniatowski, in whose company

he generosity of the British nation feel themselves interested in the cause he pleads.

“ Some few additions are made to this second edition. And the editor hopes the errors of the press will be fewer : the impossibility he is under of correcting the proofs must plead his excuse for those, that may still be found.

London, April 19, 1773." In p. 303. Mr. Lind writes thus ::

“ The balance of power has sometimes armed Europe, when it was really in no danger ; but now the northern Powers seem leagued against the southern, no one seems alarnied.

“ You in England are very apt to say, 'We are an island, - and what have we to do with the affairs of the continent ?' True, sir, if you have enough of primitive simplicity and selfdenial to give up your wealth, the conveniencies and luxuries of life, and live contented on the produce of your own farms, then you have nothing to do with them ; but, if you cannot do this, then you must maintain your commerce, to which you owe the value of your lands, your wealth, and your importance in Europe; and therefore, whenever the transactions on the continent affect your commerce so materially, as the present designs do, you are as much concerned in them, as the Powers on the continent themselves.

“Besides, in the present moment, should fair proposals be refused, so great are the efforts to be made, and so extensive the operations, that your naval force alone will be exerted : the efforts by land might, and would be made by France. For


On his arrival, after paying his devoirs and debt to my father, he called upon me at Lincoln's Inn, and we soon became intimate. The reverend divine, with the black garb and clerical wig, was now transformed into the man of fashion, with his velvet, satin-lined coat, embroidered

however uncouth it may sound, your uniting with France alone will probably stem the torrent. And however unnatural that alliance may seem, it is not more so than the northern alliance, nor than your late alliance with Prussia.

“The idea, true in general, but surely subject to restrictions, that the interests of Evgland and France are incompatible, militates strongly against such an union : that union may however, on some occasions, be necessary : it was necessary, when the insatiable ambition and formidable power of Charles V., Philip II. and Ferdinand II. engaged the attention and solicitude of all Europe ; yet neither of these Princes seems to have had the bold adventurous ambition, which distinguishes her Russian Majesty; or the deep spirit of intrigue, which characterizes the King of Prussia. If, under these circumstances, an union with France was thought not only allowable, but necessary, why not allowable, why not necessary now, when the same circumstances recur ?

“I remember a passage of your lord Bolingbroke, with which I shall close this long letter, leaving you to apply it. 'The

precise point,' says he,' at which the scales of power turn, like * that of the solstice in either tropic, is imperceptible to com

mon observation ; and in one case, as in the other, some progress must be made in the new direction, before the change is perceived.— They, who are most concerned to watch the • variations of this balance, misjudge often :— they continue 'to dread a power no longer able to hurt them; or they con• tinue to have no apprehensions of a power, that daily grows

waistcoat, ruffles of rich lace, and hair dressed à la mode. The occasion of his departure from Constantinople and his success in Poland was this. Mr. Murray had a mistress; the reverend divine was supposed to have a greater share in the good graces of the lady, than it was agreeable to her diplomatic protector to witness. The air of Peru became too hot to hold the reverend divine: he quitted it, but not without a set of powerful and useful recommendations to different places, through which he had to pass in his return by land to England.

About this time, a Prince Czartorynski, uncle to the King, became desirous of having some Englishman of good character to read English to him. The recommendations Lind brought with him, procured him a welcome reception from the Prince. The regular part of his employment consisted in reading, as it came in, the St. James's Chronicle. In those days, that newspaper found its way, and for what I know, so it may still, into various and distant parts of Europe. In the

more formidable. These apprehensions cannot be taken or 'given too soon, when such powers as these arise; because,

when such powers as these are besieged, as it were, early, by 'the common policy and watchfulness of their neighbours,

each of them may in his turn of strength sally forth, and gain ' a little ground; but none of them will be able to push their

conquests far, and much less to consummate the entire pro'jects of their ambition.'” E. H. B.]

year 1788, I found a copy at Bucharest, to which place it came at the joint expense of a Greek, whose name I do not remember, and Mr. Webber, a German, whose occupation there consisted in part, or in the whole, in teaching English. In the Greek, I found, to my equal surprise and satisfaction, an intelligent young man, who spoke French perfectly, and read Helvetius. In the Imperial agent of that place, I had the still greater satisfaction of finding a very intelligent man, who had a very good English library and amongst other books, Smith's Wealth of Nations. But this is a digression, and old man's tattle: I correct myself, and return to Lind.

Upon his arrival in London in the character just mentioned, his book passed with rapidity through the press, and brought his reputation immediately into full bloom. He was well received by the then Minister, Lord North. The King of Poland, in the course of a visit of a year or more he had paid to England before his election to the throne, had become acquainted with Lord Mansfield, then in all his glory, and Chief Justice to the King's Bench. Lind brought letters with him from the King to Lord Mansfield, and was well received by the noble and learned Lord. He had not been long in London, when, for the purpose of being near me, he took lodgings, I do

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