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they have offered to buy dogs at any price for By Mr. Odell : food, of those who came in there; and one actu-l Question. You make these statements from the ally said that when a man came in there with a testimony of prisoners received here? dog, and went out without the dog noticing it, Answer. Yes, sir; from testimony that I have they caught him and dressed him and roasted the most perfect confidence in. Men have stated him over the fire, over a gas-light, as best they these things to me in the very last hours of their could, and then ate it; and, as he expressed it, “it lives. was a precious mite to them.” Their testimony By the Chairman: in regard to the cruelty of the guards and others Question. Were they conscious of their condiset over them is to the effect that in one instance tion at the time they made their statements ? two comrades in the army together, who were Answer. Yes, sir; I think they were perfectly taken prisoners together, and remained in the conscious; yet there is one thing which is very prison together, were separated when the prison- remarkable, that is, these men retain their hope ers were exchanged. One was returned here and of life up to the hour of dying. They do not give the other left. The one who was left went to up. There is another thing I would wish to the window and waved his hand in adieu to his state: all the men, without any exception, among comrade, and the guard deliberately shot him the thousands that have come to this hospital, through the temple, and he fell dead. I mention- have never, in a single instance, expressed a reed this fact to others of our prisoners here in the gret (notwithstanding the privations and sufferhospital, and they said that they knew it to ings that they have endured) that they entered be so. Some of them were there at the time the their country's service. They have been the man was shot.
most loyal, devoted, and carnest men. Even Question. Do you keep any record of the on the last days of their lives they have said that deaths here?
all they hoped for was just to live and enter the Answer. I have not kept a record. I have the ranks again and meet their foes. It is a most official notice of the deaths; but inasmuch as glorious record in reference to the devotion of the records are kept at the office, and we have our men to their country. I do not think their had so many other duties crowding upon us-so patriotism has ever been equalled in the history many deaths here—it has been almost impossible of the world. for us to keep any record. I think it is impossi- The Committee then proceeded, by steamer, ble for any description to exaggerate the condi- from Annapolis to Baltimore, and visited the tion of those men. The condition of those here West Hospital, and saw the patients there. Az now is not so bad, as a class, as some we have re- they presented the same reduced and debilitated ceived heretofore.
appearance as those they had already seen at AnBy the Chairman :
napolis, and in conversation gave the same acQuestion. Has the treatment of our prisoners count of their treatment at the hands of the latterly been worse than before, from their testi- rebels, the Committee concluded their examinamony ?
tion by taking merely the testimony of the surAnswer. I think there has been no very ma- geon and chaplain of the hospital. terial change of late. I think it has grown worse from the very first; but for a year past, I
WEST HOSPITAL, BALTIMORE, MD., May 6, 1864, should judge it could not be made any worse. Dr. William G. Knowles, sworn and examined. .
Question. Just the same thing we now see By the Chairman : here?
Question. Will you state whether you are in Answer. Yes, sir. I would give just another the employment of the Government, and if so, fact in regard to the statements made here by in what capacity ? large numbers of our returned prisoners. On Answer. I am, and have been for nearly three Belle Isle, their privies were down from the main years a contract physician in the West Hospital, camp. From six o'clock in the morning until six Baltimore. o'clock in the evening they were permitted to go Question. Have you received any of the reto these sinks or privies, but from six at night turned Union prisoners, from Richmond, in your until six in the morning they were refused the hospital? privilege of going there, and consequently, so Answer. We have received those we have here many suffering with diarrhea, their filth was de- now; no others. posited all through their camp. The wells from Question. How many have you received ? which they drew their water were sunk in the Answer. We have received one hundred and sand around through their camp, and you can five. judge what the effect of that has been. Some of Question. When did you receive them ? these prisoners, soon after they were put on Belle Answer. Two weeks ago last Tuesday. On Isle, not knowing the regulations there, and suf- the nineteenth of April. fering from chronic diarrhea, when making the Question. Will you state the condition those attempt to go down to these privies after six prisoners were in when they were received here? o'clock at night, were shot down in cold blood Answer. They were all very emaciated men, by the guards, without any warning whatever. as you have seen here to-day, only more so than Several such instances have been stated to me they appear to be now. They were very emaciby parties who have arrived here.
Iated and feeble, suffering chiefly from diarrhoea,
many of them having, in connection with that, Question. Will the constitutions of those who bronchial and similar affections. From the testi- survive be permanently injured, or will they enmony given to me by these men I have no doubt tirely recover ? their condition was the result of exposure and Answer. I think the constitutions of the greatI was about to say starvation ; but it was, per- er part of them will be seriously impaired; that haps, hardly starvation, for they had something they will never become strong and healthy again. to eat; but I will say, a deficient supply of food Question. What account have these men given and of a proper kind of food ; and when I say you as to the comparative condition of those
exposure," perhaps that would not be sufficient- left behind ? Did the rebels send the best or the ly definite. All with whom I have conversed poorest of our prisoners ? have stated that those who were on Belle Isle Answer. I could not tell that; I have never inwere kept there even as late as December with quired. But I should presume they must have nothing to protect them but such little clothing sent the worst they had. as was left them by their captors; with no | Question. You have had charge of confederate blankets, no overcoats, no tents, nothing to cover sick and wounded, have you not? them, nothing to protect them; and that their Answer. Yes, sir; a large number of them. sleeping-place was the ground—the sand.
This was the receiving hospital for those from Question. What would you, as a physician of Gettysburgh. experience, aside from the statements of these Question. What was the treatment they rereturned prisoners, say was the cause of their ceived from us? condition ?
Answer. We consider that we treated thein Answer. I should judge it was as they have with the greatest kindness and humanity; prestated. Diarrhea is a very common form of dis- cisely as we treated our own men. That has ease among them, and from all the circumstances, been our rule of conduct. We gave them the I have every reason to believe that it is owing to very best the hospital would afford; and not only exposure and the want of proper nourishment. what properly belonged to the hospital, but deliSome of them tell me that they received nothing cacies and luxuries of every kind were furnished but two small pieces of corn-bread a day. Some them by the hospital, and by outside sympaof them suppose (how true that may be I do not thizers, who were permitted to send delicacies to know) that that bread was made of corn ground them. with the cobs. I have not seen any of it to ex- Question. It has been stated in many of the amine it.
rebel newspapers that our prisoners are treated Question. How many have died of the number the same and fed with the same rations as their you have received here?
soldiers in the field. In your judgment as a phy. Answer. Already twenty-nine have died, and sician, would it be possible for their soldiers to you have seen one who is now dying; and five retain their health and energy if fed as our priswere received here dead, who died on their way oners have been ? from Fortress Monroe to Baltimore.
Answer. No, sir ; it would be impossible ; mulQuestion. How many of them were capable of titudes of them would have died under such treatwalking into the hospital?
ment. Answer. Only one; the others were brought Question. I do not know as I desire to queshere from the boat on stretchers, put on the tion you further. Is there any thing more you dumb-waiter, and lifted right up to their rooms, desire to state ? and put on their beds. And I would state Answer. I do not know that there is; it is all another thing in regard to these men ; when they in a nut-shell. were received here they were filthy, dirty, and By Mr. Odell : lousy in the extreme, and we had considerable Question. Is not the disease as evinced among trouble to get them clean. Every man who could those men clearly defined as resulting from expossibly stand it we took and placed in a warm posure and privations, and want of proper food bath and held him up while he was washed, and and nourishment ? we threw away all their dirty clothing, providing Answer. That is our decided opinion as medithem with that which was clean.
cal men; the opinion of all of us who have had Question. What was the condition of their any thing to do with these men. clothing?
By Mr. Gooch: Answer. Very poor, indeed. I should say the Question. The condition of all these men apclothing was very much worn, although I did not pears to be about the same. Is there really examine it closely, as that was not so much a any difference in their condition except in dematter of investigation with us as was their phy- gree? sical condition. Their heads were filled with Answer. I think that is all. Some men have vermin, so much so that we had to cut off their naturally stronger constitutions than others, and hair and make applications to destroy the vermin. can bear more than others. That is the way I
Question. What portion of those you have re- account for the difference. ceived here do you suppose are finally curable? | By Mr. Odell :
Answer. We shall certainly lose one third of Question. Are the minds of any of them afthem; and we have been inclined to think that, fected permanently? sooner or later, we should lose one half of them. I Answer. We have had two or three whose intellect is very feeble; some of them are almost them was to the effect, that when captured, and like children in that respect.
before they got to Richmond, they would genQuestion. Do you think that grows out of the erally be robbed of their clothing, their good treatment they have received ?
United States uniforms, even to their shoes and Answer. I think the same cause produced that hats taken from them, and if any thing was as the other.
given to them in place of them, they would reBy the Chairman :
ceive only old worn-out confederate clothing, Question. Is not that one of the symptoms at- Sometimes they were sent to Belle Isle with nothtendant upon starvation, that men are likely to ing on but old pants and shirts. They generally become deranged or idiotic ?
had their money taken from them, often with the Answer. Yes, sir; more like derangement than promise of its return, but that promise was never what we call idiocy.
fulfilled. They were placed on Belle Isle, as I By Mr. Gooch:
have said, some with nothing on but pants and Question. Can those men whose arms you shirts, some with blouses, but they were seldom bared and held up to us mere skeletons, noth- allowed to have an overcoat or a blanket. There ing but skin and bone-can those men recover? | they remained for weeks, some of them for six
Answer. They may; we think that some of or eight weeks, without any tents or any kind of them are in an improving condition. But we covering. have to be extremely cautious how we feed them. Question. What time of the year was this? If we give them a little excess of food under these Answer. All along from September down to circumstances, they would be almost certain to December, as a general thing, through the latter be seriously and injuriously affected by it. part of the fall. There they remained for weeks
Question. It is your opinion, you have stated, without any tents, without blankets, and in many that these men have been reduced to this condi- instances without coats, exposed to the rain and tion by want of food ?
snow, and all kinds of inclement weather. And Answer. It is; want of food and exposure are where some of them had tents, they were old the original causes. That has produced diar- worn-out army tents, full of holes and rents, so rhea and other diseases as a natural consequence, that they are very poor shelters indeed from the and they have aided the original cause and re- storms. I have been told by several of them duced them to their present condition. I should that several times, upon getting up in the morn like the country and the Government to know ing, they would find six or eight of their number the facts about these men; I do not think they frozen to death. There are men here now who can realize it until the facts are made known to have had their toes frozen off there. They have them. I think the rebels have determined upon said that they have been compelled to get up the policy of starving their prisoners, just as during the night and walk rapidly back and forth much as the murders at Fort Pillow were a part to keep from dying from the cold. of thcir policy.
Question. What do they say in regard to the
food furnished them ? Rev. J. T. Van Burkalow, sworn and exam- Answer. They represent that as being very ined.
little in quantity, and of the very poorest qualBy the Chairman :
ity, being but a small piece of corn-bread, about Question. What is your connection with this three inches square, made of meal ground very hospital?
coarsely-some of them suppose made of corn and Answer. I am the chaplain of the hospital. cobs all ground up together-and that bread was
Question. How long have you been acting in baked and cut up and sent to them in such a that capacity ?
manner that a great deal of it would be crumbAnswer. I have been connected with the hos-led off and lost. Sometimes they would get a pital in that capacity ever since the twentieth of very small piece of meat, but that meat very October, 1862.
poor, and sometimes for days they would receive Question. What has been your opportunity of no meat at all. And sometimes they would reknowing the condition of our returned prisoners ? ceive a very small quantity of what they call
Answer. I have mingled with them and ad- rice-water - that is, water with a few grains of ministered unto them ever since they have been rice in it. here, night and day. I have written, I suppose, Question. You have heard their statements something like a hundred letters for them to their separately? relatives and friends since they arrived here. Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Have you attended them when they Question. Do they all agree in the same genewere dying?
ral statement as to their treatment ? Answer. Yes, sir.
Answer. Yes, sir; they do. Question. And conversed with them about their Question. How were they clothed when they condition, and the manner in which they have arrived here ? been brought to that condition !
Answer. They were clothed very poorly inAnswer. Yes, sir; I have.
deed, with old worn-out filthy garments, full of Question. Please tell us what you have ascer- vermin. tained from them?
| Question. What was their condition and apAnswer. The general story I have gotten from pearance as to health when they arrived here ?' VOL. VIII.-Doc. 7
Answer. They looked like living skeletons- service ? Have they ever expressed any regret that is about the best description I can give of that they entered our army? them—very weak and emaciated.
Answer. As a general thing, they have not. Question. Have you ever seen men at any time In fact, I have heard but one express a different or place so emaciated as these are—so entirely sentiment. He was a mere youth, not more than destitute of flesh ?
sixteen or seventeen years of age now. His feet Answer. I think I have a few times, but very were badly frozen. He remarked that he had rarely; I have known men to become very ema- regretted, even long before he got to Richmond, ciated by being for weeks affected with chronic that he entered the service. But I have heard diarrhea, or something of that kind. But the a number of them declare that if they were so chronic diarrhoea, and liver diseases, and lung fortunate as to recover their health and strength, affections, which those men now have, I under- they should be glad to return to the service, and stand to have been superinduced by the treat- still fight for their country, ment to which they have been subjected; their Question. They then bear their misfortunes cruel and merciless treatment and exposure to bravely and patriotically? inclement weather without any shelter or suffi- Answer. Yes, sir, they do. cient clothing or food, reducing them literally to Question. And without complaining of their a state of starvation.
Government ? Question. Could any of them walk when they Answer. Yes, sir, without complaining of their arrived here?
fate, except so far as to blame their merciless enAnswer. I think there was but one who could emies. make out to walk; the rest we had to carry into the hospitals on stretchers. By Mr. Odell:
Doc. 3. Question. Did these men make these state
these state. | ATTACK ON THE DEFENCES OF MOBILE. ments in their dying condition ? Answer. Yes, sir.
REPORT OF REAR-ADMIRAL FARRAGUT. By the Chairman :
Flag-SHIP HARTFORD, MOBILE BAY, Aug. 5, 1864. Question. Were the persons who made these Sir: I have the honor to report to the Departstatements conscious of approaching dissolution ? ment that this morning I entered Mobile Bay,
Answer. Yes, sir; I know of no particular passing between Forts Morgan and Gaines, and cases where they spoke of these things when encountering the rebel ram Tennessee and gunthey were right on the borders of death; but boats of the enemy, namely, Selma, Morgan, and they made them before, when they were aware Gaines. of their condition.
| The attacking fleet was under way by fortyQuestion. So that you have no reason to doubt five minutes past five A. m., in the following orthat they told the exact truth, or intended to der: The Brooklyn, with the Octorara on her do so?
port side; Hartford, with the Metacomet; RichAnswer. None whatever. There has been such mond, with the Port Royal ; Lackawanna, with a unanimity of testimony on that point, that I the Seminole ; Monongahela, with the Tecumseh ; cannot entertain the shadow of a doubt.
Ossipee, with the Itasca, and the Oneida with the Question. And their statements were corrobo-Galena. rated by their appearance ?
On the starboard of the fleet was the proper Answer. Yes, sir.
position of the monitors or iron-clads. The wind Question. You have had under your charge was light from the south-west, and the sky cloudy, and attention confederate sick and wounded, have with very little sun. Fort Morgan opened upon you not ?
us at ten minutes past seven o'clock, and soon Answer. Yes, sir.
after this the action became lively. As we Question. How have they been treated ? steamed up the main ship channel, there was
Answer. In my judgment they have been some difficulty ahead, and the Hartford passed treated just as well as any of our own men ever on ahead of the Brooklyn. At forty minutes past were treated. In fact, they have got better treat- seven the monitor Tecumseh was struck by a torment than our men did formerly, for the reason pedo and sunk, going down very rapidly, and that, in addition to what we have given them- carrying down with her all the officers and crew, and we have tried to treat them just as we would with the exception of the pilot and eight or ten have them treat our men-in addition to that, we men, who were saved by a boat that I sent from have allowed the rebel sympathizers of Baltimore the Metacomet, which was alongside of me. to bring them, every day, delicacies in abund- The Hartford had passed the forts before eight ance.
o'clock, and finding myself raked by the rebel Question. Were these rebel sympathizers boun- gunboats, I ordered the Metacomet to cast off tiful to them in that line?
and go in pursuit of them, one of which — the Answer. Yes, sir, very.
Selma-she succeeded in capturing. Question. What has been the feeling evinced All the vessels had passed the forts by halfby our returned prisoners, after having received past eight, but the rebel ram Tennessee was still such treatment, in regard to having entered the apparently uninjured in our rear.
Signal was at once made to all the fleet to turn I will send a detailed despatch by the first opagain and attack the ram, not only with guns, portunity. but with orders to run her down at full speed. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, The Monongahela was the first that struck her,
D. G. FARRAGUT, and though she may have injured her badly, yet
Admiral Commanding W. G. B. Squadron. she did not succeed in disabling her. The Lack
To Hon. GIDEON WELLES, awanna also struck her, but ineffectually. The
Secretary of the Navy. flag-ship gave her a severe shock with her bow, List of killed and wounded on board U. S. S. and as she passed poured her whole port broadside Hartford in the action with the rebel Fort Morinto her of solid nine-inch shot and thirteen gan and fleet, August fifth, 1864: pounds of powder, at a distance of not more than Killed--David Morrow, quarter-gunner; Wm. twelve feet. The iron-clads were closing upon Osgood, ordinary seaman; Thos. Baine, ordinary her, and the Hartford and the rest of the feet seaman; Benjamin Harper, seaman; Wm. Clark, were bearing down upon her, when, at ten A.M., boy ; Charles Schaffer, seaman; Frank Stillwell, she surrendered. The rest of the rebel fleet- nurse; George Walker, landsman; John C. Scott namely, the Morgan and Gaines-succeeded in ordinary seaman; Thomas Wilde, ordinary seagetting back under the protection of Fort Morgan. man; Wm. Smith, boy; Wm. Andrews, captain This terminated the action of the day.
after-guard; Frederick Munsell, captain afterAdmiral Buchanan sent me his sword, being guard; Lewis McLane, landsman; Peter Duncan, himself badly wounded with a compound fracture landsman; Smith, fireman ; Thomas Baines, of the leg, which it is supposed will have to be fireman; Thomas Stanton, fireman; Cannel, amputated.
fireman. Total, nineteen. Having had many of my own men wounded, Wounded--Lieutenant Adams, slightly ; Acting and the surgeon of the Tennessee being very de- Third Assistant-Engineer McEwan, amputation sirous to have Admiral Buchanan removed to the arm; Acting Master's Mate R. P. Herrick, slighthospital, I sent a flag of truce to the command-ly; Acting Ensign W. H. Heginbotham, severely, ing officer of Fort Morgan, Brigadier-General (since dead ;) Wilder Venner, landsman, leg; Richard L. Page, to say that if he would allow Adolphus Pulle, seaman, severe flesh wounds, the wounded of the fleet, as well as their own, legs; Hiram Elder, seaman, right leg; R. Dumto be taken to Pensacola, where they can be phery, coal-heaver, both arms; Wm. Thompson, better cared for than here, I would send out one ordinary seaman, one leg; E. Johnson, boy, conof our vessels, provided she would be permitted tusion, side; Walter Lloyd, boy, leg; M. Forbes, to return, bringing back nothing she did not take captain mizzen-top, contusion, side; Wm. Stanout.
ley, seaman, contusion and on leg; C. StevenGeneral Page consented, and the Metacomet son, boy, contusion; F. Campbell, seaman, conwas despatched.
tusion ; Wm. Doyle, boy, contusion, side ; AuThe list of casualties on our part, as far as as- guste Simmons, landsman ; Peter Pitts, boy ; Micertained, is as follows:
chael Fayal, landsman; David Ortin; Wm. Trask, Flag-ship Hartford-Nineteen killed, twenty-left leg; Charles Dennis, both arms; Thomas three wounded.
O'Connell, right hand off. Total, twenty-three. Brooklyn-Nine killed, twenty-two wounded.
CONGRATULATORY LETTER TO REAR-ADMIRAL FARLackawanna--Four killed, two wounded.
RAGUT, Oneida—Seven killed, twenty-three wounded.
NAVY DEPARTMENT, L Monongahela-Six wounded.
WASHINGTON, August 15, 1864./ Metacomet-One killed, two wounded.
Sir: Your despatch of the fifth instant, stating Ossipee--One killed, seven wounded.
that you had, on the morning of that day, enterGalena-One wounded.
ed Mobile Bay, passing between Forts Morgan Richmond-Two wounded.
and Gaines, and encountering and overcoming In all, forty-one killed and eighty-eight wounded. the rebel fleet, I had the satisfaction to receive
On the rebel ram Tennessee were captured this day. Some preliminary account of your twenty officers and about one hundred and seven- operations had previously reached us through ty men. The following is a list of the officers : rebel channels. Admiral F. Buchanan; Commander Joseph D. Again it is my pleasure and my duty to conJohnson; Lieutenants Wm. D. Bradford, A. P. gratulate you and your brave associates on an Wharton, E. J. McDennert; Masters J. R. De achievement unequalled in our service by any Moley, H. W. Perron; Fleet-Surgeon R. C. other commander, and only surpassed by that Bowles ; Engineers G. D. Leneng, J. O'Connell, unparalleled naval triumph of the squadron John Hays, 0. Benson, W. B. Patterson ; Pay- under your cominand in the spring of 1862, master's Clerk, J. H. Conen ; Master's Mates when, proceeding up the Mississippi, you passed W. A. Forrest, Beebe, and R. M. Carter; Boat Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and, overcoming swain, John McCudie; Gunner, H. S. Smith. all obstructions, captured New Orleans, and re
On the Selma were taken ninety officers and stored unobstructed navigation to the commer. men. Of the officers I have only heard the cial emporium of the great central valley of the names of two, namely, Commander Peter U. Mur- Union. phy, and Lieutenant J. H. Comstock. The latter! The Bay of Mobile was not only fortified and was killed.
| guarded by forts and batteries on shore, and by