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shot if he did. Several were shot just for despatch from Richmond to have the body sent that.
there? Question. What is the cause of your sickness? Answer. All the information I got about the
Answer. Nothing but exposure and the kind despatch was from Dr. Walker, who said they of food we had there. I was a tolerably stout were going to take the body to Richmond, and man before I got into their hands; after that I bury it where no one could find it. was starved nearly to death."
Question. Did Colonel Dahlgren make any
speech or read any papers to his command ? Daniel Gentis, sworn and examined.'
Answer. No, sir; not that I ever heard of. By the Chairman :
They questioned me a great deal about that. Question. What State are you from?
The colonel of the Ninth Virginia cavalry quesAnswer. Indiana.
tioned me about it. I told him just all I knew Question. When did you enlist, and in what about it. I told him I had heard no papers read, company and regiment ?
nor any thing else. Answer. I enlisted on the sixth of August, Question. Did you ever hear any of your fel1861, in company I, Second New-York regiment. low-soldiers say they ever heard any such thing
Question. Where were you taken prisoner? at all.
Answer. I was taken prisoner at Stevensville, Answer. No, sir; and when I started I had Virginia ; I was there with Colonel Dahlgren, on no idea where I was going. Kilpatrick's expedition.
| Question. Were you in prison at Richmond ? Question. Were you taken prisoner at the Answer. I was there for four days, but I same time that Colonel Dahlgren was killed ? was at Dr. Walker's pretty nearly a month and
Answer. I was there when he was killed, but a half. I was taken prisoner the next morning.
Question. During the four days you were in Question. What do you know about the man- prison did you see any of our other soldiers in ner of his death, and the treatment his body prison there? received ?
Answer. Yes, sir. Answer. He was shot within a foot and a half Question. How did they fare? or two feet of me. I got wounded that same Answer. We all fared pretty rough on cornnight. The next morning I was taken prisoner, bread and beans. Those who were in my ward and as we came along we saw his body, with his are here now sick in bed clothes all off. He was entirely naked, and he Question. How happened it that you fell into was put into a hole and covered up.
the hands of Dr. Walker particularly ? Question. Buried naked in that way?
Answer. The way it came about was this : In Answer. Yes, sir; no coffin at all. Afterward the morning I asked some officers of the reghis body was taken up and carried to a slue and ular regiment for a doctor to dress my wound. washed off, and then sent off to Richmond. A One of the doctors there said he could not do despatch came from Richmond for his body, and it. I spoke to a lieutenant, and asked him to be it was sent there.
kind enough to get some doctor to dress it, and Question. It has been said they cut off his he got this Dr. Walker. The doctor asked me finger?
to go to his house, and stay there if I would. Answer. Yes, sir; his little finger was cut off, I told him “certainly I would go.". The coland his ring taken off.
onel of the rebel regiment said that the doctor By Mr. Odell :
could take me there, and I staid until Captain Question. How do you know there was a ring Magruder came up there and told Dr. Walker on his finger?
that I had to be sent to Richmond. Answer. I saw the fellow who had it, and Question. Where were you wounded ? who said he took it off. When they took his Answer. In the knee. body to a slue and washed it off, they put on [At this point the Committee concluded to it a shirt and drawers, and then put it in a box examine no more of the patients in the hospital, and sent it to Richmond.
as most of them were too weak to be examined Question. How far was that from Richmond ? without becoming too much exhausted, and be
Answer. It was about forty miles from Rich-cause the testimony of all amounted to about the mond, and about ten miles from West-Point. same thing. They therefore confined the rest of
Question. How were you treated yourself? their investigation to the testimony of the sur
Answer. I fared first-rate. I staid at the geons in charge, and other persons attending house of a Dr. Walker, of Virginia, and Dr. upon the patients.] Walker told me that a private of the Ninth Virginia cavalry took off Colonel Dahlgren's artificial Surgeon B. A. Van Derkieft, sworn and examleg, and that General Ewell, I think it was, or ined. some General in the Southern army who had By the Chairman : but one leg, gave the private two thousand dol- Question. Are you in the service of the United lars for it, (confederate currency.) I saw the States; and if so, in what capacity ? private who took it, and saw him have the leg. Answer. I am a Surgeon of volunteers in the By the Chairman :
United States service; in charge of Hospital Di. Question. How do you know they received a vision Number One, known as the Naval Hospital, Annapolis, and have been here since the ter. We have men here now who say that for first of June, 1863.
five or six months they have been compelled to Question. State what you know in regard to lie on the sand. I have no doubt about the the condition of our exchanged or paroled pris correctness of their statements, for the condition oners who have been brought here, and also of their skins shows the statements to be true. your opportunities to know that condition ? Their joints are calloused, and they have cal
Answer. Since I have been here I think that louses on their backs, and some have even had from five to six thousand paroled prisoners have the bones break through the skin. There is one been treated in this hospital as patients. They instance in particular that I would mention. One have generally come here in a very destitute and man died in the hospital there one hour before feeble condition; many of them so low that they the transfer of prisoners was made, and, as an die the very day they arrive here.
act of humanity, the surgeon in charge of the Question. What is the character of their com- hospital allowed the friends of this man to take plaints generally, and what does that character him on board the vessel in order to have him indicate as to the cause ?.
buried among his friends. This man was brought Answer. Generally they are suffering from here right from the Richinond hospital. He was debility and chronic diarrhoea, the result, I have so much covered with vermin and so dirty that no doubt, of exposure, privations, hardship, and we were not afraid to make the statement that ill-treatment.
the man had not been washed for six months. Question. In what respect would hardship and Now, as a material circumstance to prove that ill-treatment superinduce the complaints most these men have been badly fed, I will state that prevalent among these paroled prisoners ? we must be very careful in feeding them when
Answer. These men, having been very much they arrive here, for a very light diet is too much exposed, and not having had nourishment enough for them at first. to sustain their strength, are consequently pre-l Question. You have accompanied us as we disposed to be attacked by such diseases as have examined some of the patients in the hospidiarrhæa, fever, scurvy, and all catarrhal affec- tal to-day. Do their statements to us, under tions, which, perhaps, in the beginning are very oath, correspond with the statements which they slight, but, on account of want of necessary made when they first arrived here? care, produce, after a while, a very serious dis- Answer. They are quite they same; there is ease. For instance, a man exposed to the cold no difference. Every man makes the same statemay have a little bronchitis, or perhaps a little ment, and we therefore believe it to be true. All inflammation of the lungs, which, under good say the same in regard to rations, treatment, extreatment, would be easily cured—would be con- posure, and privations. Once in a while I have sidered of no importance whatever ; but being found a man who pretended to have been treated continually exposed, and not having the neces- very well, but by examining closely I find that sary food, the complaint is transformed, after a such men are not very good Union men. time, into a very severe disease.
Question. You say that about six thousand Question. Is it your opinion, as a physician, paroled prisoners have come under your superthat the complaints of our returned prisoners vision and treatment ? are superinduced by want of proper food, or Answer. Yes, sir. food of sufficient quantity, and from exposure ? Question. State generally what their condition Answer. Yes, sir.
has been Question. What is the general character of the Answer. Very bad, indeed. I cannot find statements our prisoners have made to you in terms sufficient to express what their condition regard to their treatment ?
was. I cannot state it properly. Answer. They complained of want of food, of Question. You have already stated that, as a bad food, and a want of clothing. Very often, general thing, they have been destitute of cloththough not always, they are robbed, when taken ing ? prisoners, of all the good clothes they have on. Answer. Yes, sir ; dirty, filthy, covered with There is no doubt about that, for men have often vermin, dying. At one time we received three arrived here with nothing but their pants and hundred and sixty patients in one day, and fourshirts on; no coat, overcoat, no cap, no shoes or teen died within twelve hours; and there were stockings, and some of them without having had six bodies of those who had died on board the any opportunities to wash themselves for weeks transport that brought them up here. and months, so that when they arrive here, the Question. What appeared to be the complaint scurf on their skin is one eighth of an inch thick; of which they died ? and we have had several cases of men who have Answer. Very extreme debility, the result of been shot for the slightest offence. There is a starvation and exposure — the same as the very man now here who at one time put his hand out weak man you saw here, [L. H. Parham.] of the privy, which was nothing but a window Question. We have observed some very emaciin the wall, to steady himself and keep himself ated men here, perfect skeletons, nothing but from falling, and he was shot, and we have been skin and bone. In your opinion, as a physician, obliged to amputate his arm since he arrived here. what has reduced these men to that condition ? These men complain that they have had no shel Answer. Nothing but starvation and exposure. Question. Can you tell the proportion of the suffering from hospital gangrene, which is the men who have died to the number that have result of not having their wounds dressed in lately arrived from Richmond ?
time, and having too many crowded in the same Answer. If time is allowed me, I can send the apartment. We have had men here whose statement to the Committee.
wounds have been so long neglected that they Question. Do so, if you please.
have had maggots in them by the hundred. Answer. I will do so. I will say that some of these men who have stated they were well treat-1 Acting Assistant Surgeon J. H. Longenecker. ed, I have found out to have been very bad to sworn and examined. the Union men.
| By Mr. Gooch : Question. Are those men you have just men- ! Question. What is your position in the United tioned as having been well treated an exception States service ? to the general rule ?
Answer. Acting Assistant Surgeon. Answer. Yes, sir; a very striking exception. 1 Question. How long have you been stationed
Question. Have you ever been in charge of con- here ? federate prisoners ?
Answer. Since the twenty-seventh of July, Answer. Yes, sir.
1863. Question. State the course of treatment of our Question. Will you state what has been the authorities toward them.
condition of our paroled prisoners, received here Answer. We have never made the slightest from the rebels, during the time you have been difference between our own men and confederate stationed here? prisoners when their sick and wounded have Answer. As a general thing, they have been been in our hands.
very much debilitated, emaciated, and suffering. Question. You have treated both the same? from disease, such as diarrhea, scurvy, lung dis
Answer. Yes, sir, When any one of their eases, etc. men, wounded or sick, has been a patient in our 1 Question. In your opinion, as a physician, by hands, we have treated him the same as we do what have these diseases been produced ? our own men.
| Answer. By exposure and want of proper By Mr. Julian :
food, I think. Question. Have their sick and wounded been Question. Are you able to form any opinion, kept separate from ours, or have they been kept from the condition of these men, as to the quantogether?
tity and quality of food which they have reAnswer. In Washington they were kept sepa- ceived ? rate, but at Antietam, where an hospital was es- Answer. From their appearance and condition, tablished, in order to have the patients treated | I judge the quality must have been very bad, and where they were injured, the Union and confed- the quantity very small, not sufficient to preserve erate patients were treated together and alike. the health. At Hagerstown almost every body is secesh. Question. We have seen and examined several Well, the most I can say is, that some of the se- patients here this morning, who are but mere cesh ladies there came to me and stated that they skeletons. They have stated to us, as you are were very glad to see that we treated their men aware, that their suffering arose wholly from the same as ours.
the want of proper food and clothing. In your Question. It is sometimes said, by the rebel opinion, as a medical man, are these statements newspapers, at least, that they have given the true ? same rations to our prisoners that they give to Answer. I believe that these statements are their own soldiers. Now, I want to ask you, as correct. We have had some men who look very a medical man, if it is possible, with the amount well. How they managed to preserve their of food that our prisoners have had, for men to health I am not able to say; but, as a general retain their health and vigor, and perform active thing, the men we receive here are very much service in the field ?
debilitated, apparently from exposure, and want Answer. I do not believe that the rebels could of sufficient food to keep up life and health. fight as well, or make such marches as they have Question. Are you acquainted with the case of done, upon such small rations as our prisoners | Howard Leedom ? have received.
Answer. Yes, sir; I am. Question. Can the health of men be preserved Question. Will you state about that case ? upon such rations as they have given our pris- Answer. I did not see the patient until recentoners ?
ly, when he was placed in my charge. I found Answer. No, sir; it cannot, not only on ac- him with all his toes gone from one foot in consecount of quantity, but quality. I have seen quence of exposure. He has suffered from pneusome specimens of their rations brought here by monia also, produced by exposure, and there our paroled prisoners, and I know what they are have been very many cases of pneumonia here,
Question. As a general rule, what is the effect produced by the same cause, many of whom of treating men in that way?
have died; and we have held post-mortem examAnswer. Just what we hear every day — men inations upon many of them, and found ulcers dying from starvation and debility. Many of upon their intestines, some of them being ulcer. these men — mostly all the wounded men — are ated the whole length of their bowels.
Question. Have you made many post-mortem mined) that the best of care and medical treatexaminations here?
ment, and all the sanitary and hygeian measures Answer. We have made quite a number of that we can introduce appear to be useless. Their them. We make them whenever we have an whole assimilative functions appear to be imopportunity ; whenever bodies are not called for paired. Medicines and food appear, in many or are not likely to be taken away
cases, to have no effect upon them. We have Question. Are you enabled, from these post-made post-mortem examinations repeatedly of mortem examinations, to determine whether or cases here, and on all occasions we find the sysnot these prisoners have had sufficient quantities tem very much reduced, and in many cases the of proper food ?
muscles almost entirely gone – reduced to nothAnswer. Not from that. Those examinations ing literally but skin and bone; the blood vitimerely indicate the condition in which the pris- ated and depraved, and an anæmic condition oners are returned to us.
of the entire system apparent. The fact that Question. From all the indications given by the in many cases of post-mortems we had discov. appearance of these men, are you satisfied that ered no organic disease, justifies us in the contheir statements, that they have not had suffi- clusion that the fatal result is owing principally, cient food, both in quantity and quality, are if not entirely, to a deprivation of food and other true ?
articles necessary to support life, and to improAnswer. These statements have been repeated per exposure. On all occasions when arriving to me very often, and from their condition I be-here, these men have been found in the most lieve their statement to be true.
filthy condition, it being almost impossible, in Question. How many paroled prisoners were many cases, to clean them by repeated washings. brought here by the last boat ?
The functions of the skin are entirely impaired, Answer. Three hundred and sixty-five, I think. and in many cases they are incrusted with dirt,
Question. In your opinion, how many of these owing, as they say, to being compelled to lie on men will recover ?
the sand at Belle Island ; and the normal funcAnswer. Judging from their present condition, tion of the skin has not been recovered until I think that at least one hundred of them will the cuticle has been entirely thrown off. Their die.
bodies are covered with vermin, so that it has Question. What, in your opinion, will be the been found necessary to throw away all the primary cause of the death of these men ? clothing which they had on when they arrived
Answer. Exposure and want of proper food here, and provide them entirely with new clothwhile prisoners.
ing. Their hair has been filled with vermin, so
that we have been obliged to cut their hair all Assistant Surgeon William S. Ely, sworn and off, and make applications to kill the vermin in examined.
their heads. Many of them state that they have By Mr. Harding :
had no opportunity to wash their bodies for six Question. What is your position in the serv- or eight months, and have not done so. ice ?
Question. What have been their statements to Answer. Assistant Surgeon of the United you in their conversation with you? States volunteers and executive officer of hos- Answer. Their reply almost invariably has pital Division Number One, or Naval Academy been, that their condition is the result solely of hospital.
ill-treatment and starvation; that their rations Question. Please state the sanitary condition have consisted of corn-bread and cobs ground and appearance, etc., of the paroled prisoners re- with corn, of a few beans at times, and now and ceived here, together with their declarations as then a little piece of poor meat. Occasionally to the cause of their sickness, and your opinion as one is heard to say, that in his opinion the rebels to the truth of their statements ?
are unable to treat them in any better manner; Answer. I have been on duty in this hospital that they have been treated as well as possible; since October third, 1863. Since that time I and I have found several who stated that their have been present on the arrival of the steamer physicians were kind to them and did all they New-York on five or six different occasions, when could, but complained of want of medicines. bringing altogether some three or four thousand Question. Is it your conclusion, as a physician, paroled prisoners. I have assisted in unloading that the statements of these paroled prisoners, in these prisoners from the boat, and assigning them regard to the treatment they have received, are to quarters in the hospital. I have found them correct, and that such treatment would produce generally very much reduced physically, and de- such conditions of health as you witness among pressed mentally, the direct result, as I think, them upon their arrival here? of the ill-treatment which they have received Answer. Yes, sir; and that in many cases from the hands of their enemies—whether inten- their statements fall short of the truth, as evinced tional or not I cannot say. I have frequently by the results shown in their physical appear. seen on the boat bodies of those who have died / ance; and these men are in such a condition that while being brought here, and I have frequently even if they recover, we consider them almost known them to die while being conveyed from entirely unfitted for further active field servicethe boat to the hospital ward. Their condition almost as much so, we frequently say, as if they is such (their whole constitution heing under-had been shot on the field.
Miss Abbie J. Howe, sworn and examined. have told me that when one of them was sitting Br Mr. Gooch:
down, and was told to get up, and was not movQuestion. From what State are you, and what ing quickly in consequence of his sickness, he position do you occupy in this hospital ?
was wounded by the rebels in charge. They Answer. I am from Massachusetts, and am have often told me that they have been kicked here acting as nurse.
and knocked about when unable to move quickQuestion. How long have you been here? ly. I could give a great many instances of ill
Answer. Since the fifteenth of September, treatment and hardships which have been stated 1863.
to me, but it would take a great deal of time to Question. Have you had charge of the sick tell them. and paroled prisoners who have come here during that time?
Rev. H. C. Henries, sworn and examined. Answer. Yes, sir; some of them.
By Mr. Odell : Question. How many of them have you had Question. What is your position here? charge of, should you think?
Answer. Chaplain of the hospital. Answer. I should think I have had charge of Question. How long have you been here? at least two hundred and fifty who have come Answer. I have been on duty since December under my own charge.
seventh, 1861. Question. Can you describe to us the general Question. You are familiar with the facts con. condition of those men ?
nected with the condition of paroled prisoners Answer. Almost all of them have had this arriving here from the South ? dreadful cough. I do not think I ever heard the Answer. Yes, sir. like before; and they have had chronic diarrhæa, Question. Will you state generally what was very persistent indeed. Many of them have a their condition ? great craving for things which they ought not to Answer. I think it would be impossible for me have. One patient who came in here had the to give any adequate description, for I think all scurvy, and he said, “I can eat any thing that a language fails to fully express their real condition dog can eat. Oh! do give me something to eat;" | as they land here. Their appearance is haggard and in their delirium they are crying for “bread, in the extreme; ragged, destitute even of shoes, bread," and “mother, mother. One of them and very frequently without pants or blouses, or called out for more James River water to drink." any covering except their drawers and shirts, and
Question. What has been their general com- perhaps a half a blanket, or something like that; plaint in regard to their treatment while prison- sometimes without hats, and in the most filthy ers?
condition that it is possible to conceive of either Answer. Their chief complaint has been want beast or man being reduced to in any circumof food and great exposure. Many of them who stances ; unable to give either their names, their had clothes sént them by friends or our Govern- residence, regiments, or any facts, in consequence ment, were obliged to sell every thing until they of their mental depression, so that I believe the were left as destitute as at first, in order to get surgeons have found it quite impossible somemore food. I have seen some of their rations, times to ascertain their relation to the army. and I would myself rather eat what I have seen Their statements agree almost universally in regiven to cattle, than to eat such food as their gard to their treatment at the hands of the rebels. specimens brought here. One man had the ty. There have been a very few exceptions, indeed, phoid fever, but was in such haste to get away of those who have stated that perhaps their fare from the hospital in Richmond in order to get was as good as, under the circumstances, the home, that he would not remain there. He had rebels were able to give them ; but the almost the ravenous appetite which men with typhus universal testimony of these men has been, that fever have; and other men told me that they they were purposely deprived of the comforts gave him their rations which they could not eat and medical care which could have been afforded themselves. This produced a terrible diarrhæa, them, in order to render them useless to the army and he lived but a few days after he arrived in the future. That has been the impression here.
which a great many of them have labored under. Question. What has been the physical condi- They have given their testimony in regard to tion of these, emaciated or otherwise ?
their condition on Belle Isle. There were three Answer. Just skin and bone. I have never in one room here not long since, who told me imagined any thing before like it.
that some eight of their comrades died during Question. Have their statements, in relation to one or two days, and their bodies were thrown their exposure and deprivation of food, corre-out on the banks that inclosed the ground and sponded entirely with each other?
left there for eight days unburied, and they were * Answer. Yes, sir, entirely so, except those refused the privilege of burying their comrades, who were able, by work, to get extra rations; until the hogs and the dogs had well-nigh eaten and those extra rations were not any thing like up their bodies. Yesterday, one man told me what our men have here, but it gave them as that he was so starved, and his hunger had bemuch and as good as their guards had; and they come so intolerable, that his eyes appeared to have not only been treated in this way, but they swim in his head, and at times to be almost lost have been ill-used in almost every way. They to all consciousness. Others have stated that