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Hurlbut take care of that quarter. The Cairo at the hospital out in front of their line, and troops may reinforce temporarily at Paducah kept them there for an hour, thus silencing our and Columbus, but should be held ready to guns. Mrs. Hammond was one of the five. come up the Tennessee. One object that Forrest Reference is made to testimony furnished on the has is to induce us to make these detach- subject, and to official reports when transmitted ments, and prevent our concentrating in this to the War Department. quarter.
Question. What information have you as to Question. Did you have any conversation the intention of the enemy to perpetrate such with General Shepley in relation to the condition acts as the massacre at Fort Pillow of the garrison at Fort Pillow when he passed Answer. I furnish the correspondence growby that point? If so, state what he said. What ing out of demands to surrender at Union City, force did General Shepley have · with him ? Paducah, and Columbus, showing premeditation Did he assign any reason for not rendering on the part of officers in command of the rebel assistance to that garrison ? If so, what was it ? army.
Answer. General Shepley called on me. He [Take in from reports of Lieutenant Gray, stated that as he approached Fort Pillow, fight-Colonel Hicks, and Colonel Lawrence, with which ing was going on; he saw the flag come down the Committee is furnished. See Appendix.] " by the run," but could not tell whether it was Question. Has there been coöperation and lowered by the garrison, or by having the hal- harmony among commanders since these troubles liards shot away; that soon after another flag began ? went up in another place. He could not distin- Answer. Entire and in every respect, so far guish its character, but feared that it was a sur- as I know. Officers of the army in charge of render, though firing continued. I think he troops temporarily here gave all the aid possible. gave the force on the boat as two batteries and They were under orders which prevented their two or three hundred infantry. When he came going out in pursuit of Forrest, but they gave away, the firing was kept up, but not as heavily me detachments to guard our river posts when as at first. He was not certain how the fight threatened. was terminating. In answer to a question of Question. What have been the relations exmine, he said the batteries on board could not isting generally between you and Captain Pen. have been used, as the bluff was too steep for nock, of the navy, Fleet Captain of the Mississippi ascent, or to admit of firing from the water's squadron ? edge, and the enemy above might have captured Answer. Captain Pennock is commandant of them. This was about the substance of our the naval station at Cairo and Mound City, and conversation.
I understand represents Admiral Porter in his Question. What information have you rela- absence. Our relations have been cordial, and tive to the battle and massacre at Fort Pillow, we have cooperated in all movements. The particularly what transpired after the surren- aid given by his gunboats has been prompt, der ?
ample, and very efficient. His admirable judgAnswer. That place not being in my district, ment and ready resources have always been official reports did not come to me. However, available. under instructions from General Sherman, I de Question. During the operations consequent tailed officers, and collected reports and sworn upon the movements of Forrest, did you or did proofs for transmission to him, also to the Sec- you not receive cordial cooperation and support retary of War. Having furnished the Secretary from Lieutenant Commander Shirk, commanding of War with a duplicate copy for the use of your the Seventh division Mississippi squadron ? Committee if he so desired, I refer to that for Answer. I can only repeat my answer to the the information I have on the subject.
last question. Lieutenant Shirk is an admirQuestion. Do you consider the testimony thus able officer, vigilant, brave, and of exceedingly furnished entirely reliable ?
safe judgment. Answer. “In the mouth of two or three wit
MOUND CITY, Illinois, April 22, 1864. nesses shall every word be established.” Here Surgeon Horace Wardner sworn and examare scores of them, living and dying. There are ined. doubtless errors as to time and place, and scenes By the Chairman : witnessed from different points of observation, Question. Have you been in charge of this but in the main I regard the witnesses honest hospital, Mound City Hospital ? and their accounts true.
| Answer. I have been in charge of this hospi. Question. What did you learn concerning vio- tal continually since the twenty-fifth of April, lations of the flag of truce ?
1863. Answer. I learn from official sources that at Question. Will you state, if you please, what Paducah, Columbus, Union City, and Fort Pil- you know about the persons who escaped from low, the rebels moved troops, placed batteries, Fort Pillow ? And how many have been under formed new lines, advanced, robbed stores and your charge ? private houses, stole horses and other property, Answer. I have received thirty-four whites, while protected by flags of truce. J. W. McCord twenty-seven colored men, and one colored woand Mrs. Hannah Hammond state, in writing, man; and 'seven corpses of those who died on that at Paducah they forced five women nurses I their way here.
Question. Did any of those you have mention- protect his head, and they cut off one or two of ed escape from Fort Pillow ?
his fingers. He was brought here insensible, Answer. There were eight or nine men, I for- and died yesterday. I made a post-mortem get the number, who did escape and come here; examination, and found that the outer table of the others were paroled. I learned the following the skull was incised, the inner table was fracfacts about that: The day after the battle a gun- tured, and a piece driven into the brain. boat was coming up, and commenced shelling Question. This was done while he was sick in the place; the rebels sent a flag of truce for the the hospital ? purpose of giving over into our hands what Answer. Yes, sir, unable to get off his bed. wounded remained alive; a transport then land- Question. Have you any means of knowing ed, and sent out details to look about the how many were murdered in that way? grounds and pick up the wounded there, and Answer. No positive means, except the statebring them on the boat. They had no previous ment of the men. attention.
Question. How many do you suppose from the Question. They were then brought under your information you have received ? charge ?
| Answer. I suppose there were about four Answer. They were brought immediately to hundred massacred-murdered there. this hospital.
Question. What proportion white, and what Question. Who commanded that boat ? proportion colored, as near as you could ascerAnswer. I forget the naval officer's name. tain ?
Question. How long after the capture of the Answer. The impression I have, from what I place did he come along?
can learn, is, that all the negroes were massacred Answer. That was the next day after the cap- except about eighty, and all the white soldiers ture.
were killed except about one hundred, or one Question. Did all who were paroled in this hundred and ten. way come under your charge, or did any of them Question. We have heard rumors that some go to other hospitals ?
of these persons were buried alive ; did you hear Answer. None went to other hospitals that I any thing about that? am aware of.
Answer. I have two in the hospital here who Question. Please state their condition. were buried alive.
Answer. They were the worst butchered men Question. Both colored men ? I have ever seen. I have been in several hard Answer. Yes, sir. battles, but I have never seen men so mangled Question. How did they escape ? as they were ; and nearly all of them concur in Answer. One of them I have not conversed stating that they received all their wounds after with personally; the other I have. He was they had thrown down their arms, surrendered, thrown into a pit, as he states, with a great and asked for quarters. They state that they many others, white and black, several of whom ran out of the Fort, threw down their arms, and were alive; they were all buried up together. ran down the bank to the edge of the river, and He lay on the outer edge, but his head was nearwere pursued to the top of the bank and fired er the surface; he had one well hand, and with on from above.
that hand he was able to work a place through Question. Were there any females there? which he could breathe, and in that way he got
Answer. I have one wounded woman from his head out; he lay there for some twenty-four there.
hours, and was finally taken out by somebody. Question. Were there any children or young The others, next to him, were buried so deep persons there?
that they could not get out, and died. Answer. I have no wounded children or young Question. Did you hear any thing about any persons from there.
of them having been thrown into the flames and Question. Those you have received were most-burned ? Ip combatants, or had been ?
Answer. I do not know any thing about that Answer. Yes, sir; soldiers, white or colored. myself. These men did not say much, and in
Question. Were any of the wounded here in fact I did not myself have time to question them the hospital in the Fort, and wounded while in very closely. the hospital ?
Question. What is the general condition now Answer. I so understand them.
of the wounded men from Fort Pillow under Question. How many in that condition did your charge ? you understand ?
Answer. They are in as good condition as Answer. I learned from those who came here they can be ; probably about one third of them that nearly all who were in the hospital were must die. killed. I received a young negro boy, probably Question. Is your hospital divided into wards, sixteen years old, who was in the hospital there and can we go through and take the testimony sick with fever, and unable to get away. The of these men, ward by ward ? rebels entered the hospital, and with a sabre Answer. It is divided into wards. The men hacked his head, no doubt with the intention of from Fort Pillow are scattered through the hossplitting it open. The boy put up his hand to pital, and isolated to prevent erysipelas. If I
should crowd too many badly wounded men in did that again he would arrest him, and he went one ward, I would be likely to get the erysipelas off then. among them, and lose a great many of them. Question. Did they burn any buildings ? By Mr. Gooch:
Answer. Yes, sir. Question. Are the wounds of these men such Question. Was any body burned in the buildas men usually receive in battle?
ings? Answer. The gunshot wounds are; the sabre Answer. I did not see any body burned; I saw cuts are the first I have ever seen in the war yet. them burn the buildings; I was not able to walk They seem to have been shot with the intention about; I staid in a building that night with of hitting the body. There are more body some three or four white men. wounds than in an ordinary battle.
Question. Do you know any thing about their Question. Just as if they were close enough going into the hospital and killing those who to select the part of the body to be hit ?
were there sick in bed ? Answer. Yes, sir. Some of them were shot Answer. We had some three or four of our with pistols by the rebels standing from one foot men there, and some of our men came in and to ten feet of them.
said they had killed two women and two children. The Committee then proceeded to the various wards, and took the testimony of such of the Duncan Harding, (colored,) private, company wounded as were able to bear the examination. A, Sixth United States heavy artillery, sworn
The testimony of the colored men is written and examined. out exactly as given, except that it is rendered By Mr. Gooch: in a grammatical form, instead of the broken Question. Were you in Fort Pillow at the time language some of them used.
it was captured ?
| Answer. Yes, sir; I was a gunner Number Two Mound CITY HOSPITAL, Illinois, April 22, 1864. Elias Falls, (colored,) private, company A, Question. What did you see there? Sixth United States heavy artillery, or First Ala- Answer. I did not see much until next mornbama artillery, sworn and examined.
ing. I was shot in the arm that evening; they By Mr. Gooch :
picked me up and marched me up the hill, and Question. Were you at Fort Pillow when the while they were marching me up the hill they battle took place there, and it was captured by shot me again through the thigh." the rebels ?
Question. Did you see any body else shot after Answer. I was there; I was a cook, and was they had surrendered ? waiting on the captain and major.
Answer. The next morning I saw them shoot Question. What did you see done there ? down one corporal in our company. What did the rebels do after they came into the Question. What was his name? Fort?
Answer. Robert Winston. Answer. They killed all the men after they Question. Did they kill him ? surrendered, until orders were given to stop; Answer. Yes, sir. they killed all they came to, white and black, Question. What were you doing at the time? after they had surrendered.
Answer. I was lying down. Question. The one the same as the other ? Question. What was the corporal doing?
Answer. Yes, sir, till he gave orders to stop Answer. When the gunboats commenced firfiring
ing he was started off with them, but he would Question. Till who gave orders ?
not go fast enough, and they shot him dead. Answer. They told me his name was Forrest. Question. When you were shot the last time,
Question. Did you see any body killed or shot had you any arms in your hands ? there?
Answer. No, sir. Answer. Yes, sir ; I was shot after the sur Question. Had the corporal any arms in his render, as I was marched up the hill by the hands? rebels.
Answer. No, sir; nothing. Question. Where were you wounded ?
By the Chairman : Answer. In the knee.
Question. What do you know about any buildQu'estion. Was that the day of the fight? ings being burned ? Answer. The same day.
Answer. I saw them burn the buildings; and Question. Did you see any men shot the next that morning as I was going to the boat I saw day?
one colored man who was burned in the building, Answer. I did not.
Question. When was that building burned ? Question. What did you see done after the Answer. The next morning. place was taken?
Question. The morning after the capture ? Answer. After peace was made, some of the Answer. Yes, sir. secesh soldiers came around cursing the boys Question. How did you get away? that were wounded. They shot one of them. Answer. I started off with the rebels; we about the hand, aimed to shoot him in the head, were all lying in a hollow to keep from the shells; as he lay on the ground, and hit him in the as their backs were turned to me, I crawled up hand; and an officer told the secesh soldier if he in some brush and logs, and they all left; when night come I came back to the river-bank, and a right by the side of me after they had laid their gunboat came along.
guns down. They shot a black man clear over Question. Were any officers about when you into the river. Then they hallooed to me to were shot last ?
come up the hill, and I came up. They said: Answer. Yes, sir.
“Give me your money, you damned nigger." I Question. Did you know any of them? told them I did not have any. “Give me your Answer. No, sir.
money, or I will blow your brains out." Then Question. Did they say any thing against it ? they told me to lie down, and I laid down, and
Answer. No, sir; only: "Kill the God damned they stripped every thing off me. nigger.”
• Question. This was the day of the fight?
Answer. Yes, sir. Nathan Hunter, (colored,) private, company D, Question. Go on. Did they shoot you? Sixth United States heavy artillery, sworn and Answer. Yes, sir. After they stripped me and examined.
took my money away from me they dragged me By Mr. Gooch:
up the hill a little piece, and laid me down flat Question. Were you in Fort Pillow when it on my stomach ; I laid there till night, and they was captured ?
took me down to an old house, and said they Answer. Yes, sir.
would kill me the next morning. I got up and Question. What did you see done there ? commenced crawling down the hill; I could not
Answer. They went down the hill, and shot walk. all of us they saw; they shot me for dead, and I Question. When were you shot? lay there until the next morning when the gun- Answer. About three o'clock. boat came along. They thought I was dead and Question. Before they stripped you ? pulled my boots off. That is all I know.
Answer. Yes, sir. They shot me before they Question. Were you shot when they first took said “come up." the Fort ?
Question. After you had surrendered ? Answer. I was not shot until we were done Answer. Yes, sir; they shot pretty nearly all fighting.
of them after they surrendered. Question. Had you any arms in your hands Question. Did you see any thing of the burnwhen you were shot ?
ing of the men ? Answer. No, sir.
Answer. No, sir. Question. How long did you lie where you Question. Did you see them bury any body ? were shot?
Answer. Yes, sir. Answer. I lay there from three o'clock until Question. Did they bury any body who was after night, and then I went up in the guard- not dead ? house and staid there until the next morning Answer. I saw one of them working his hand when the gunboat came along.
after he was buried; he was a black man. They Question. Did you see any others shot ? had about a hundred in there, black and white.
Answer. Yes, sir; they shot down a whole The major was buried on the bank, right side of parcel along with me. Their bodies were lying me. They took his clothes all off but his drawthere along the river-bank the next morning. ers; I was lying right there looking at them. They kicked some of them into the river after They had my captain's coat, too; they did not they were shot dead.
kill my captain ; a lieutenant told him to give Question. Did you see that ?
| him his coat, and then they told him to go down Answer. Yes, sir; I thought they were going and pick up those old rags and put them on. to throw me in too; I slipped away in the Question. Did you see any body shot the day night.
after the battle ? By the Chairman :
Answer. No, sir. Question. Did you see any man burned ?
Question. How did you get away ? Answer. No, sir; I was down under the hill! Answer. A few men came up from Memphis, next the river.
and got a piece of plank and put me on it, and Question. They thought you were dead when took me down to the boat. they pulled your boots off ?
| Question. Were any rebel officers around Answer. Yes, sir; they pulled iny boots off, when the rebels were killing our men ? and rolled me over, and said they had killed Answer. Yes, sir; lots of them. me.
Question. Did they try to keep their men from
killing our men ? Sergeant Benjamin Robinson, (colored,) com- Answer. I never heard them say so. I know pany D, Sixth United States heavy artillery, General Forrest rode his horse over me three or sworn and examined.
four times. I did not know him until I heard By Mr. Gooch:
his men call his name. He said to some negro Question. Were you at Fort Pillow in the fight men there that he knew them; that they had there?
been in his nigger-yard in Memphis. He said he Answer. Yes, sir.
was not worth five dollars when he started, and Question. What did you see there?
| had got rich trading in negroes. Answer. I saw them shoot two white men., Question. Where were you from?
Answer. I came from South-Carolina.
around and came down to the river-bank, and Question. Have you been a slave ?
got on the gunboat. Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. How did you lose your eye?
Answer. They knocked me down with a carDaniel Tyler, (colored,) private, company B, bine, and then they jabbed it out. Sixth United States heavy artillery, sworn and Question. Was that before you were shot ? examined.
Answer. Yes, sir. By Mr. Gooch:
Question. After you had surrendered ? Question. Where were you raised ?
Answer. Yes, sir; I was going up the hill; a man Answer. In Mississippi.
came down and met me; he had his gun in his Question. Have you been a slave ?
hand, and whirled it around and knocked me Answer. Yes, sir.
down, and then took the end of his carbine and Question. Were you in Fort Pillow at the time jabbed it in my eye, and shot me. it was captured by the rebels ?
| Question. Were any of their officers about Answer. Yes, sir.
there then ? Question. When were you wounded ?
Answer. I did not see any officers. Answer. I was wounded after we all surren Question. Were any white men buried with dered ; not before.
you ? Question. At what time?
Answer. Yes, sir. Answer. They shot me when we came up the Question. Were any huried alive? hill from down by the river.
Answer. I heard that one white man was Question. Why did you go up the hill ?
buried alive; I did not see him. Answer. They called me up.
Question. Who said that ? Question. Did you see who shot you?
Answer. A young man; he said they ought Answer. Yes, sir ; I did not know him. not to have done it. He staid in there all night; Question. One of the rebels ?
I do not know as he ever got out.
John Haskins, (colored,) private, company B, Answer. I was right at him ; I had my hand Sixth United States heavy artillery, sworn and on the end of his gun.
examined. Question. What did he say to you?
By Mr. Gooch: Answer. He said: “Whose gun are you hold Question. Were you at Fort Pillow when it ing ?" I said: “Nobody's." He said, “God was captured ? damn you, I will shoot you," and then he shot! Answer. Yes, sir. me. I let go, and then another one shot me. Question. What did you see done there?
Question. Were many shot at the same time? Answer. After we had surrendered they shot
Answer. Yes, sir, lots of them; lying all round me in the left arm. I ran down the river and like hogs.
jumped into the water; the water ran over my Question. Did you see any one burned ? back ; six or seven more men came around there, Answer. No, sir.
and the secesh shot them right on the bank. At Question. Did you see any body buried alive? night I got into a coal-boat and cut it loose, and Answer. Nobody but me.
went down the river. Question. Were you buried alive?
Question. Did you see any body else killed Answer. Yes, sir; they thought they had after they had surrendered ? killed me. I lay there till about sundown, when Answer. A great many; I could not tell how they threw us in a hollow, and commenced throw-many. ing dirt on us.
Question. Did they say why they killed our Question. Did you say any thing?
men after they had surrendered ? Answer. No, sir; I did not want to speak to Answer. No, sir. them. I knew if I said any thing they would kill Question. How many did you see killed after me. They covered me up in a hole; they cov- they surrendered ? ered me up, all but one side of my head. Il Answer. Six or eight right around me, who heard them say they ought not to bury a man could not get into the water as I did; I heard who was alive. I commenced working the dirt them shooting above, too. away, and one of the secesh made a young one Question. Did they strip and rob those they dig me out. They dug me out, and I was carried killed ? not far off to a fire.
| Answer. Yes, sir ; they ran their hands in my Question. How long did you stay there? pockets-they thought I was dead-they did all
Answer. I staid there that night and until the in the same way. next morning, and then I slipped off. I heard Question. What time were you shot? them say the niggers had to go away from there Answer. After four o'clock. before the gunboat came, and that they would Question. How long after you had surrendered ? kill the niggers. The gunboat commenced shell Answer. Just about the time we ran down the ing up there, and they commenced moving off. hill. I heard them up there shooting. They wanted Question. Did you have any arms in your me to go with them, but I would not go. I turned hands when you were shot?