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Question. Did you suffer from cold.
Answer. He said that was the way it was is. Answer. Yes, sir, severely.
sued to him. Question. Was your money taken from you? Question. Did he give any reason for mixing it
Answer. Those of us that had money had it altogether in that way? pretty much all taken away, or scared out of us. Answer. No, sir; and there were a great many
Question. What kind of food had you after you of our own men who treated us as bad as the sereached Richmond ?
cesh, because those there acting as nurses, if there Answer. We got, I should judge, about six was any little delicacy for the sick, would just ounces of light bread, and in the afternoon about gobble it up. two spoonfuls of black beans-worm-eaten beans. Question. Were all of our men suffering for
Question. Was that all you had for the day? I want of food.
Answer. I think we got, once a day, about two Answer. Yes, sir, all of them. In the winter ounces of meat.
time these secesh got so they would haul up loads Question. What was the character of the meat of cabbages, all full of lice, and throw them raw and bread ?
into the room for us to eat. Answer. The character of the meat was pretty tolerably rough. I cannot exactly describe it. Il Charles Gallagher, sworn and examined. never did eat any beef like some of it; and the By Mr. Odell: first dose of medicine I took since I was in the Question. Where are you from? army, was when I was put in the hospital at Dan Answer. From Guernsey County, Ohio. ville. About six or seven weeks ago, before that, Question. To what regiment do you belong? I was always a hearty, healthy man.
Answer. Fortieth Ohio. Question. Have you had any disease or sick Question. How long have you been in the servness except that occasioned by want of proper ice ? food and clothing ?
Answer. Pretty nearly three years. Answer. No, sir ; I think not. [The surgeon Question. Where were you taken prisoner? here remarked : “His disease is the result of Answer. At Chickamauga. starvation, privation, and exposure."]
Question. When ? Question. When were you exchanged ?
Answer. On the twenty-second of last SepAnswer. We left Richmond on the first of May, / tember. I think. I have more of a life-like feeling about Question. State what happened then to you? me now than I had when I left Richmond. | Answer. When they took me prisoner they
Question. Do you think you are in a better took me right on to Richmond, kept me there a condition now?
while, then sent me to Danville and kept me Answer. Yes, sir; I know I am. The authori- there a while. I got sick at Danville and was ties did not think it safe for me to start; but I put in the hospital, and then they sent me back told them if I was going to die, I would rather to Richmond and paroled me and sent me here. die on the Chesapeake than die there.
| Question. How did they treat you while you Question. After you grew so very sick, was were a prisoner ? your food improved any ?
Answer. Pretty bad. They gave us corn-bread, Answer. Very little. The last food I received and not very much of it; and we had to lie right was light diet. When I left the hospital to go down on the floor, without any blankets, until a on board the flag-of-truce boat, I received about long while about Christmas. We had just to lie a gill of what they call soup, though in fact it as thick on the floor as we could get. was just nothing; I should say it was only a Question. How were you treated when you little starch and water; and then I got a little were taken sick ? piece of corn-bread, about that large, (measuring Answer. A little better. We then had a sort on his fingers about two inches square,) and we of bed to lie on. got a piece of meat, once a day, about the same Question. Did you have all the food you want
ed ? Question. Were the other men treated as you Answer. No, sir. were, so far as you know?
Question. What kind of food did you get ? Answer. Yes, sir. I wish to speak of one Answer. Corn-bread, a little piece of meat, thing. After this food was issued out, what was sometimes a little rice-soup, and sometimes a few called the ward-master would go round in the beans. evening with a little mush made of meal, and Question. How often did you get meat ? give some of us a table-spoonful of it. Say there Answer. Along through the winter we got a were sixty or eighty patients, and there would little bit of fresh beef, (perhaps once a day,) and be six or eight, may be ten of those patients then from about March a little pork. would get a little spoonful of this mush; and Question. What was the matter with you when then he would come round a little while after you went to the hospital ? ward and pour a table-spoonful of molasses over Answer. I got a cough which settled on me, it; and just as likely as not, in a few minutes and I had a pain in my breast. after that he would come around with some vine-l Question. Were there any other prisoners at gar and pour a spoonful of vinegar over that. Danville ? Question. Why did he do that?
. Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Did they suffer at all from want? | Answer. I was treated there worse than on Answer. They were pretty hungry
| Belle Isle. We did not get any salt of any acQuestion. Did you complain to the authorities count-only a little piece of bread that would that you did not get food enough?
hardly keep a chicken alive. Answer. No, sir; it would not have made any Question. Did you get any rice ? difference. They said there that we got every Answer. No, sir. ounce that was allowed to us.
Question. Any soup? Question. Did you make your wants known to Answer. Once in a while of mornings I would any one ?
get a little. Answer. Yes, sir; but they would not give us Question. Did the physician come round to see any more. They would come in and give you a you every day ? half a loaf of bread, and tell you that was your Answer. Yes, sir. day's rations; you could take that or nothing. 1 Question. Did he give you any medicine ? By the Chairman :
Answer. He gave me some pills. Question. Did they give you as much as their Question. What was their manner toward you own soldiers for rations ?
after you were taken sick and in the hospital? Answer. No, sir; their own soldiers got a great Were they kind or rough ? deal more.
Answer. They were neither kind nor rough, By Mr. Odell:
but indifferent. The corn-bread I got seemed to Question. What was your treatment aside from burn my very insides. When I would go down your supply of food? Was it kind ?
to the river of mornings to wash myself, as I put Answer. No, sir; they just came in and shoved the water to my face it seemed as though I wantus round; finally, they run us all up from one ed to sup the water, and to sup it, and sup it, and floor to the second floor, and only let one go down sup it all the time. at a time. When he got back they let another Question. Did you make no complaint to the go down.
officers on Belle Isle of your food ?
Answer. No, sir. Isaiah G. Booker, sworn and examined.
Question. Did you ask them for any more? By Mr. Harding :
Answer. No, sir; I knew there was no use. I Question. How old are you?
do not think I spoke to an officer while I was Answer. Twenty-one on the thirteenth of this there. month.
Question. Did you ever tell those who furnishQuestion. Where did you enlist ?
ed you with the food you did get, of the insuffiAnswer. Bath, Maine.
ciency of it ? Question. How long were in the army before Answer. Yes, sir. you were taken prisoner ?
Question. What answer did they give you ? Answer. I enlisted on the fifth of September, Answer. That was all we were allowed, they 1861, and was taken prisoner last July.
said. Question. Where were you taken prisoner? Question. Did you have blankets while you
Answer. On Morris Island, Charleston, South- were on Belle Isle ? Carolina.
Answer. I had no blanket until our GovernQuestion. Where were you then sent ? ment sent us some.
Answer. I was sent to Columbia, South-Caro- Question. How did you sleep before you relina, where we were kept about two months, and ceived those blankets? then we were sent to Richmond, put on Belle Answer. We used to get together just as close Isle, and staid there the remainder of the time. as we could, and sleep spoon-fashion, so that
Question. How were you treated at Columbia ? when one turned over we all had to turn over.
Answer. I was treated a great deal better there Question. Did they furnish you any clothing than I was at Belle Isle. We got meat twice a while you were there? a day, rice once, and Indian bread once. We got Answer. No, sir; the rebs did not furnish us very near as much as we wanted to eat.
a bit. It was very warm weather when I was Question. How were you treated at Richmond ? taken prisoner, and I had nothing on me but my
Answer. I suffered there terribly with hunger. pants, shirt, gloves, shoes, stockings, and cap; I could eat any thing.
and I received no more clothing until our Gov. Question. Can you tell us what kind of food ernment sent us some in December, I think. you got there?
We had to lie right down on the cold ground. Answer. Dry Indian bread, and when I first Question. Did you not have a tent? went there, a very little meat.
Answer. I had none when I first went there, Question. When were you taken sick ?
After a while we had one, but it was a very poor Answer. I was taken sick-I was sick with the affair ; the rain would come right through it. diarrhoea a fortnight before I went to the hospi- Question. Were you exposed to the dew and tal, and I was in the hospital a little over a week rain, and wind and snow? before I was exchanged. I was released on the Answer. Yes, sir, seventh of March, and got here the ninth.
Question. And before you got the tent you lay Question. How were you treated while in the in the open air ? hospital?
| Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. How did the others there with you! Question. Could you eat it ? fare; the same as you did ?
Answer. No, sir. Answer. Many of them had money, with which The witness here was evidently so weak and they bought things of the guard ; but I had no exhausted that the Committee suspended his money.
examination.] Question. Were there others there who had no
Mortimer F. Brown, sworn and examined. money?
By the Chairman :
Question. Where are you from, and to what
company and regiment do you belong? Answer. Yes, sir.
1 Answer. I am from Steubenville, Ohio; I was Question. After you went into the hospital, did
"in the Second Ohio; Colonel McCook was our you receive the same treatment as their own sick
Colonel when I was taken prisoner. received who were in the hospital with you, or
Question. Where were you taken prisoner ? did they have any of their sick in there?
Answer. At Chickamauga. Answer. I think none of their sick were in there.
Question. Where were you then carried ? I suffered a great deal with hunger when I was
1 Answer. From Chickamauga to Richmond. on Belle Isle. When I first went there I had no
Question. How did you fare while in Richpassage of the bowels for eighteen days, and when I did have one it was just as dry as meal.
| Answer. We lived very scantily, and hardly Question. Did you have any medicine at that).
any thing to eat. Some of the boys, in order to time? Answer. No, sir; I took no medicine until I
get enough to live on, had to trade away what
clothing they could to the guard for bread, etc. went to the hospital. About the middle of last
Question. What did they allow you to eat ? February (somewhere about there) I took a very severe cold.
Answer. When we first went to Richmond It seemed to settle all over me. I
our rations were bacon and wheat-bread. We was as stiff in all my joints as I could be.
did very well at first, but they went on cutting Question. Did your strength decrease much
it down. before you were taken sick in February? Answer. Yes, sir; I stood it very well until
untill Question. How was it finally?
Answer. We received corn-bread once or twice about the first of February. After that I com
"Ia day-I think it was twice. After we went to menced to go down pretty fast. I know that one
Danville we fared a great deal better in regard to day I undertook to wash my shirt, and got it
rations. about half washed, when I was so weak I had
Question. Did you have enough to eat, such as to give it up.
it was? Question. Do you think you had any other dis
Answer. I did, at Danville. ease or sickness than what was caused by expo
Question. How was it at Richmond ? sure and starvation at that time ?
Answer. Well, some had plenty to eat, but, as Answer. No, sir. When I was taken prisoner,
far as I was concerned, I was hungry most all I weighed about one hundred and seventy pounds, I think. I had always been a very hearty, stout
the time. From the time we left Richmond until
we drew our meat at Danville-say ten days-man-could eat any thing, and stand almost any
we had with us to eat only what they called thing.
Graham bread-nothing but bread and water for Isaac H. Lewis, sworn and examined.
those ten days. After we got to Danville it was
better. They issued us pork and beef sometimes. By Mr. Julian :
There, there would be times when we would be Question. To what company and regiment do
without meat for a couple of days. you belong?
Question. What was their bearing and treatAnswer. Company K, First Vermont cavalry. Question. When were you taken prisoner ?
• ment toward you, aside from your food ?
Answer. We were treated tolerably kindly Answer. I was taken prisoner on the twenty
until we commenced our tunnelling operations; second of March, on Kilpatrick's raid.
then they treated us very harshly; then they Question. Where were you then carried ? Answer. They carried me to Richmond, and
took the prisoners that had occupied three floors
and put them all on two floors, and would only put me in a tobacco-house there.
allow from three to six to go to the rear at one Question. How did they treat you there? Answer. Well, they did not treat me as well
Question. What is the matter with you now? as they might. Question. Whať did they give you to eat ?
Answer. Nothing at all but scurvy. I am getAnswer. They gave me corn-bread.
ting along very well now since I got here. The Question. How much and how often ?
treatment at Danville was a palace alongside of Answer. Not but very little. They gave me
that at Richmond. A little twice a day.
Franklin Dinsmore, sworn and examined. Question. Did they give you any meat ?
By the Chairman: Answer. Once in a while, a little.
Question. Where did you enlist ? Question. What kind of meat ?
Answer. At Camp Nelson, Kentucky. Answer. Beef.
Question. To what State do you belong?
Answer. Eastern Tennessee.
Question. Did they have any more to give Question. How long have you been in the you? army?
Answer. They had plenty. They were just Answer. I enlisted on the eleventh or twelfth doing it for their own gratification. They said of last July; I do not remember which day. Seward had put old Beast Butler in there, and
Question. To what regiment do you belong? | they did not care how they treated us.
Question. Did you complain about not having Question. Who was your Colonel ?
enough? Answer. Colonel Strickland.
Answer. Certainly we complained, but they Answer. Where were you taken prisoner? said we had plenty. They cursed us, and said
Answer. At Zollicoffer, near the East-Tennes- we had a sight more than their men had who see and Virginia line.
were prisoners in our lines. Question. Where were you then carried? Question. Do you feel any better now since
Answer. Right straight on to Richmond. Iyou have been here? was taken on the line of the railroad. We were Answer. A great deal better; like a new man burning bridges there to keep the enemy out now. I am gaining flesh now.
Question. How did you fare after you got to By Mr. Odell : Richmond ?
Question. What was your occupation before Answer. They just starved us.
I you went into the army ? Question. What did they give you to eat ? Answer. I was a farmer.
Answer. For forty-eight hours after we got By Mr. Julian : there they gave us only just what we could Question. Do you know how they treated their breathe; then they gave us a little piece of white own sick ? bread, and just three bites of beef. A man could Answer. No, sir. take it all decently at three bites. That is the | By Mr. Odell: way we lived until we went to Danville, and then Question. Were other Tennesseeans taken we had meat enough to make half a dozen bites, prisoners the same time you were ? with bugs in it.
Answer. Yes, sir; there were twenty-four of Question. What brought on your sickness ? us taken prisoners. The small-pox was very se
Answer. Starvation. I was so starved there vere among us. Our own men said that they that when I was down I could not get up with were just trying to kill the Tennesseeans and out catching hold of something to pull myself Kentuckians. Out of the twenty-four, there up by.
were ten of us left when they started for Georgia. Question. What did you live in ? "
No man can tell precisely how we were treated, Answer. In a brick building, without any fire, and say just how it was. or any thing to cover us with. Question. Had you no blankets?
L. H. Parhan, sworn and examined. Answer. No, sir; we had not. They even By Mr. Gooch: took our coats from us, and part of us had to lie Question. From what State are you? there on the floor in our shirt-sleeves,
Answer. West-Tennessee. Question. In the winter ?
Question. To what regiment do you belong? Answer. Yes, sir.
Answer. The Third West-Tennessee cavalry. Question. Did any of the men freeze ?
Question. Where were you taken prisoner ? Answer. Yes, sir; many a man just fell dead Answer. In Henry County, West-Tennessee. walking around, or trying to keep himself warm, Question. From there where were you caror, as he was lying on the floor, died during the ried ? night; and if you looked out of a window, a sen- Answer. From there they marched us on foot, tinel would shoot you. They shot some five or some three hundred and fifty odd miles, to Desix of our boys who were looking out. Some of catur. our boys would work for the guards to get more Question. What were you given to eat ? to eat, just to keep them from starving. There Answer. Sometimes for twenty-four or thirty would be pieces of cobs in our bread, left there hours we would have a little piece of beef and by the grinding-machine, half as long as my some corn-bread. finger, and the bread itself looked just as if you Question. Were you a well man when you had taken a parcel of dough and let it bake in were taken prisoner? the sun. It was all full of cracks where it had Answer. Yes, sir ; a stout man for a little dried, and the inside was all raw.
man. I was very stout. Question. Were you hungry all the time? Question. Were you brought to your present
Answer. Hungry! I could eat any thing in condition by want of food ? the world that came before us. Some of the Answer. Yes, sir ; and sleeping in the cold. boys would get boxes from the North, with meat They took my money and clothes and every thing of different kinds in them, and, after they had else away from me, even my pocket-comb and picked the meat off, they would throw the bones knife, and my finger-ring that my sister gave me. away into the spit-boxes, and we would pick the They were taken away when I was captured. bones out of the spit-boxes, and gnaw them over [The witness, who was so weak that he could again.
| not raise his head, appeared to be so much exhausted by talking that the Committee refrained about twenty sticks of wood, and in order to from further examination. As they were moving cut that up we would have to pay a man for away from his bed, he spoke up and said: “I the use of an axe by giving him a piece of the am better now than when I came here. I have stick for splitting up the rest. We lay right some strength now. I hope I shall get better, on the ground in the snow. Twenty of us tofor I want to see my old father and mother once gether would lay with our feet so close to the more."]
fire that the soles of our boots would be all drawn,
and we would get up in the morning all shiverJames Sweeney, sworn and examined. ing, and I could not eat what little food I did By Mr. Gooch:
get. Question. Where did you reside when you en Question. What is the cause of your sickness? listed ?
Answer. Just the food we got there, and this Answer. Haverhill, Massachusetts.
exposure. Eating this corn-bread continually Question. To what company and regiment do gave me the diarrhea. We would get thirsty, you belong?
and drink that river-water. We had little bits Answer. Company E, Seventeenth Massachu of beef sometimes ; generally it was tough, more setts.
like a piece of india-rubber you would rub penQuestion. When were you taken prisoner ? cil-marks out with. What little food we did get Answer. First of February.
was so bad we could not eat it. At first, for Question. Where?
five or six days, we could eat it pretty well, but Answer. Six miles from Newbern, North-Car- afterward I could not eat it. olina.
| Question. Have you been brought to your Question. Where were you then carried ? present condition by your treatment there? Answer. To Richmond.
Answer. Yes, sir; by the want of proper food, Question. How were you treated after you and exposure to the cold ? were taken prisoner ?
Answer. We had no breakfast that day. We John C. Burcham, sworn and examined. started out early in the morning-the One Hun- By Mr. Julian. dred and Thirty-second New-York was with us— Question. Where did you enlist, and in what without any thing to eat. We had nothing to regiment ? eat all that day, and they made us sleep out all Answer. I enlisted in Indianapolis, in the that night without any thing to eat. It rained Seventy-fifth Indiana regiment, Colonel Robinthat night; then they marched us the next day son. thirty miles, to Kingston, without any thing to Question. When were you taken prisoner, and cat, except it was, about twelve o'clock, one of where? the regular captains, who had some crackers in Answer. I was taken prisoner at Chickamauga, his haversack, gave us about one each, and some on the twentieth of September. of the boys managed to get an ear of corn from Question. Where were you carried then ? the wagons, but the rest of them were pushed Answer. The next day they took us to Atlanback by the guns of the guard ; then we were ta, and then on to Richmond. kept in the streets of Kingston until about nine Question. What prison were you put in ? o'clock, when we had a little pork and three bar- Answer. I was on Belle Isle five or six days rels of crackers for about two hundred of us. I and nights, and then they put me in a prison got three or four crackers. Then they put us in over in town. freight cars that they had carried hogs in, all Question. How did they treat you there? filthy and dirty, and we were nearly frozen by Answer. Rough, rough, rough. the time we got to Goldsborough ; and near Question. What did they give you to eat? Weldon they camped us in a field all day long, Answer. A small bit of bread and a little like a spectacle for the people to look at, and piece of meat; black beans full of worms. Somewhen we got to Richmond they put us in a com- times meat pretty good; sometimes the meat mon for a while, and then we were taken to was so rotten that you could smell it as soon as prison. About eleven o'clock that day they you got it in the house. We were used rough, brought us some corn-bread. They gave me I can tell you. about three quarters of a small loaf, and a dip- Question. Did they leave you your property ? per of hard black beans with worms in them. Answer. They took every thing we had before We were kept there all night. If we went ever we got to Richmond; my hat, blankets, near the window, bullets were fired at us. Two knife. We did not do very well until we got or three hundred men lay on the floor. I was some blankets from our Government; afterward kept between three and four weeks on Belle Isle. we did better. Before that we slept right on the Question. How was it for food there?
floor, with nothing over us except a little old Answer. That night they gave us a piece of blanket one of us had. corn-bread about an inch thick, two or three Question. What was their manner toward you? inches long. Some nights we would have a couple Answer. I call it pretty rough. If a man did of spoonfuls, may be, of raw rice or raw beans; not walk just right up to the mark, they were other nights they would not give us that. A down on him, and not a man of us dared to put squad of one hundred men of us would have his head out of the window, for he would be